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A Systematic and Comprehensive Treatise on the Science and 

Art of Embalming; Giving the Latest, Simplest and Most 

Successful Methods, Including Descriptive and 

Morbid Anatomy, Physiology, Bacteriology, 

Sanitation, Disinfection, etc. 





Lecturers and Demonstrators in the Champion College of Embalming 

profusely illustrated by 
Full Page Engravings, Half-tones and Colored Plates 




Copyright, 1897 



All Rights Reserved. 


THE Embalmers and Funeral Directors of this country 
have made frequent complaints that they were una- 
ble to find, in books on embalming heretofore pub- 
lished, such information as they desire on numerous topics 
of professional inquiry, especially those which have been 
the subject of recent investigation or introduction. 

To meet this confessed demand for a work of more 
modern character along this line, the preparation of the 
Champion Text Book on Embalming was undertaken. 

The purpose of the authors has been to supply, within 
the compass of a single volume of moderate size, the infor- 
mation necessary to a full understanding of the subjects 
belonging properly to the science and art of embalming. 

This work is intended both as a text book for the 
student and a complete reference book for the embalmer. 
To meet these ends, we have endeavored to furnish that 
information which our teaching and long experience in 
the practice of embalming have suggested to us to be the 
most needful to the student and practitioner. We have 
treated of anatomy and physiology to the extent necessary 
to give a good understanding of the structure and func- 
tions of the body, thus laying a sure foundation for the 
successful study and practice of embalming. After trac- 
ing the history of this art from ancient times down 
through the intervening ages, the most modern, simplest 
and best methods have been clearly set forth. Morbid 
anatomy and the treatment of special diseases, including 
those which give the embalmer the most trouble, are 
much more fully considered than in any similar work, 
thus adding largely to the value of the Text Book. The 

I (v) 


best and latest information concerning sanitation, disin- 
fection, infection and bacteriology, is also set forth in a 
terse and practical form; while much useful information is 
given on other subjects. 

The very comprehensive Glossary at the conclusion of 
the work cannot but prove helpful to both student and 
practitioner; while, within the compass of the General 
Index, has been included every term and subject on which 
information is likely to be sought. 

We have appropriated to our use many important 
facts found in the works constituting the physician's 
library, that have a direct bearing upon the subjects of 
which we treat; but, nevertheless, we have relied chiefly 
upon our own observations and experiences, especially in 
the operations and methods of treatment given. 

We have made it a rule to write pointedly and briefly, 
without unnecessary verbiage, or circumlocution, on all 
subjects treated; and, where it could be done without 
sacrificing clearness or accuracy, have practiced careful 
abridgement of the text. As far as possible technical 
terms have been eliminated. Where it has been neces- 
sary to introduce them, they have been placed in the 
Glossary, with a clear, concise definition. 

Our illustrations are of a preeminent character, much 
superior to any hitherto published in a similar work, and 
will add greatly to an elucidation of the text and a proper 
understanding of the methods taught. 

We are especially indebted to the works of the follow- 
ing authors in the preparation of this book: 

Anatomy: — Gray; Potter. 

Physiology: — Flint ; Steele ; Baldwin ; Huxley. 

Morbid 'Anatomy and Pathology .-—Flint ; Osler ; Stille ; Bristowk ; 
Aitken ; Quain ; Green ; Peper's System. 

Bacteriology and Sanitation: — Sternberg; Abbott; Sykes. 

Springfield, Ohio, Jan. 1, 1897. 



Portraits of Eliab Myers, M. D., and Prof. F. A. Sullivan Frontispieces. 

Preface v 

Table of Contents vii 

List of Illustrations xix 

Part First, 
the human body 1 

Bones of the Skeleton 2 

Analysis of the Human Skeleton 3 

Chapter I. — Osteology 5 

General Description of the Bones 5 

The Bones of the Skeleton 5 

In the Head and Trunk 5 

Classification of Bones , 6 

The Composition of the Bones 6 

The Structure of Bones 7 

Fresh or Living Bones 7 

The Lacunae 7 

Development of Bone 7 

The Joints 8 

Injury and Repair of Bones 8 

The Breaking of a Bone 8 

Bones of the Head 9 

The Bones of the Skull and Face 9 

The Skull Bones 9 

The Cranial Cavity . , 9 

Bones of the Trunk 9 

The Trunk 9 

The Spinal Column 9 

The Ribs 10 

The Innominata 10 

The Extremities 10 

Bones of the Upper Extremity 10 

The Shoulder 10 

The Scapula 10 

The Shoulder Joint 10 

The Elbow 11 

The Carpus 11 

The Hand 11 

Bones of the Lower Extremity 11 

The Femur 11 

The Knee Joint 11 




Chapter I. — Osteology — Continued. 

Bones of the Lower Extremity — Continued. 

The Fibia 11 

The Foot 11 

Sesamoid Bones 12 

Wormian Bones 12 

Articulations 12 

The Structures 12 

The Ligaments 13 

Chapter II. — The Muscles 14 

Number of Muscles 15 

Contractility 15 

The Tendons 15 

Fasciae 16 

Arrangement of Muscles 16 

Modification of Muscles 16 

Kinds of Muscles . 17 

Attachment of Muscles 17 

The Sterno-cleido-mastoid 17 

The Biceps 18 

The Sartorius 18 

The Diaphragm 18 

Wonders of the Muscles 18 

Muscular Sense 19 

Development of the Muscles 19 

Chapter III. — The Absorbents 20 

The Skin 20 

Structure of the Skin 20 

Rete Mucosum 21 

"Skin Slip" 21 

Uses of the Skin 21 

The Hair 22 

The Nails 23 

The Lymphatic System 24 

The Lymphatics 24 

The Lacteals 24 

The Lymphatic Glands 24 

The Thoracic Duct 25 

The Lymphatic Duct 25 

The Lymph 25 


Chapter IV. — The Nervous System 26 

Nervous Tissue 26 

The Nerves 27 

Nerve Current 27 

Nerve Sensations 27 

The Sympathetic System 28 

The Cerebro-spinal System 28 

The Brain 29 

Ganglions 29 

The Cerebrum 29 

The Cerebellum 30 

The Medulla Oblongata 31 

The Spinal Cord 31 

The Cranial Nerves 32 



Chapter V. — The Digestive Organs 33 

The Organs of Digestion 33 

The Alimentary Canal 33 

The Mouth 33 

The Salivary Glands 34 

The Tongue 35 

The Teeth 35 

The Jaws 36 

The Pharynx 36 

The Esophagus 36 

The Stomach 37 

The Fundus 37 

The Small Intestine 38 

The Duodenum 39 

The Jejunum 39 

The Ileum 39 

The Large Intestine 39 

The Caecum 39 

The Appendix Vermiformis 40 

The Colon 40 

The Rectum 40 

The Liver 40 

The Hepatic Duct 41 

The Gall Bladder 41 

The Pancreas 41 

The Pancreatic Duct 42 

The Spleen, Thyroid, Thymus and Suprarenal Capsules 42 

The Suprarenal Capsules 42 

The Abdominal Cavity 42 

The Abdomen 42 

Regions of the Abdomen 43 

The Contents 43 

The Peritoneum 44 

Peritoneal Sacs 44 

The Omenta 45 

The Mesos or Mesenteries 45 

The Pelvic Cavity 45 

Chapter VI. — The Organs of Respiration 46 

Mouth and Nose 46 

The Pharynx 47 

The Larynx 47 

The Trachea or Windpipe 47 

The Bronchi 48 

The Lungs 48 

Structure of the Lungs ,48 

The Pleurae 49 

Chapter VII. — The Circulatory System 50 

An Important System 50 

Organs of Circulation 50 

The Heart 50 

The Pericardium 51 

The Endocardium 51 

Heart's Weight and Size 51 

Its Cavities 51 

Its Capacities 52 



Chapter VII. — The Circulatory System — Continued. 
The Heart — Continued. 

The Right Auricle 52 

The Right Ventricle 53 

The Left Auricle 53 

The Left Ventricle 53 

The Blood 54 

The Circulation of the Blood 55 

The Arteries 55 

The Systemic Circulation 56 

The Aorta 56 

The Coronary Arteries 57 

The Innominate Artery 57 

The Common Carotid Artery 57 

The External Carotid Artery 57 

The Internal Carotid Artery 58 

The Tympanic 58 

The Arteriae Receptaculi 58 

The Anterior Meningeal 58 

The Ophthalmic 58 

The Anterior Cerebral 58 

The Middle Cerebral 58 

The Anterior Choroid 58 

The Posterior Communicating 58 

The Circle of Willis 58 

The Subclavian Artery 58 

The Vertebral Artery 59 

The Thyroid Axis 59 

The Inferior Thyroid 59 

The Transversalis Colli 59 

The Suprascapular 59 

The Internal Mammary Artery 59 

The Superior Intercostal Artery 59 

The Axillary Artery 59 

The Brachial Artery 59 

The Radial Artery 60 

The Ulnar Artery 60 

The Superficial Arch 60 

The Deep Palmar Arch 60 

The Thoracic Aorta 60 

The Pericardiac Branches 61 

The Bronchial Arteries 61 

The Esophageal Branches 61 

The Posterior Mediastinals 61 

The Intercostals 61 

The Abdominal Aorta HI 

The Phrenic 61 

The Coeliac Axis 61 

The Gastric 61 

The Hepatic 61 

The Splenic 61 

The Superior Mesenteric 61 

The Inferior Mesenteric 62 

The Suprarenal 62 

The Spermatics 62 



Chapter VII. — The Circulatory System — Continued. 
The Abdominal Aorta — Continued. 

The Renal 62 

The Lumbar 62 

The Sacra Media 62 

The Common Iliac Arteries 62 

The Internal Iliac 62 

The External Iliac Artery 62 

The Epigastric 62 

The Circumflex Iliac 63 

The Femoral Artery 63 

The Superficial Epigastric 63 

The Superficial Circumflex Iliac 63 

The Superficial External Pudic 63 

The Deep External Pudic. . . 63 

The Profunda Femoris 63 

The Muscular Branches 63 

The Anastomica Magna 63 

The Popliteal Artery 63 

The Anterior Tibial Artery 64 

The Dorsalis Pedis Artery 64 

The Posterior Tibial Artery 64 

The Internal Plantar 64 

The External Plantar 64 

The Lesser or Pulmonary Circulation 64 

The Pulmonary Artery 64 

The Right and Left Pulmonary Arteries 65 

The Veins 65 

Venous Valves 65 

The Sinuses 65 

The Veins Are Divided 65 

Veins of the Head 66 

Veins of the Neck 66 

External Jugular. 66 

Posterior External Jugular 66 

Anterior Jugular 66 

Internal Jugular 66 

The Vertebral 66 

The Veins of the Upper Extremity 66 

The Radial Vein 67 

The Cephalic Vein 67 

The Median Vein 67 

The Principal Veins of the Thorax 67 

The Azygos Veins 67 

The Right Azygos 67 

The Left Lower Azygos 67 

The Left Upper Azygos 67 

The Spinal Veins 67 

The Subclavian Vein 67 

The Innominate Veins 68 

The Superior Vena Cava 68 

The Veins of the Lower Extremity 68 

The Superficial Veins 68 

The Internal or Long Saphenous 68 

The External or Short Saphenous 68 




Chapter VII. — The Circulatory System — Continued. 

The Veins — Continued. 

The Internal Iliac Vein 68 

The Common Iliac Veins 69 

The Inferior Vena Cava 69 

The Portal System 69 

The Hepatic Vein 69 

The Portal Vein 69 

The Cardiac Veins 69 

The Pulmonary System 69 

The Pulmonary Veins 69 

The Capillaries 70 

The Foetal Circulation 71 

Chapter VIII. — The Organs of Special Senses 72 

The Eye 72 

The Membranes 72 

Chambers of the Eye 72 

The Retina. . . , 73 

The Iris 73 

The Eyelids 74 

The Lachrymal Gland 74 

The Ear 74 

The External Ear 75 

The Middle Ear 75 

The Internal Ear 76 

Other Special Organs 76 

The Nose 76 

The Tongue 76 

Touch 76 

Chapter IX. — The Body : Its Weight and Constituents 77 

Weight of the Different Parts of the Body 77 

The Chemical Constituents of the Body (after Huxley) 78 

Anatomical and Physiological Constants 79 

General Statistics 79 

Digestion 79 

Circulation 80 

Respiration 80 

Part Second, 
ancient and modern embalming 81 

• Chapter X. — Ancient Embalming 83 

General Remarks 83 

Egyptian Methods of Embalming 85 

Jewish Methods 94 

Methods of the Romans and Other Nations 97 

On the Western Hemisphere 98 

Among Early Christians 99 

Chapter XI. — Modern Embalming 101 

Dr. Frederick Ruysch 101 

Dr. William Hunter 102 

John Hunter 103 

The Hunterian Method 104 

M. Boudet's 104 



Chapter XI. — Modern Embalming — Continued. 

M. Franchini's 104 

Jean Nicholas Gannal 105 

M. Sucquet 105 

M. Falcony 106 

Dr. Chaussier's 106 

Franciolla's 107 

Brunetti.. 108 

A Method in Vogue in Belgium 108 

Dr. Tscheirnoff's 109 

The Florentine Process 110 

A German Process 110 

Embalming but Little Practiced To-day in England Ill 

Chapter XII. — Up to Date Embalming 112 

Introductory Remarks 112 

Preservation as a Reason for Embalming 113 

Sanitation as a Reason 114 

Thorough Embalmment 114 

The Condition, Appearance and Disease of the Body 114 

To Thoroughly Embalm 117 

Appearance of a Body After Thorough Embalmment 118 

Chapter XIII. — Death: Its Modes, Signs and Changes 119 

Modes of Death 119 

Signs of Death 119 

Syncope, Asphyxia and Trance 119 

Cessation of the Heart's Action 119 

Cessation of Respiration 120 

Cooling of the Body 121 

Hypostasis . 121 

Post Mortem Staining 121 

Rigor Mortis 122 

Putrefaction 123 

Chapter XIV.— The Blood 125 

Blood, Lymph and Chyle 125 

Coagulation of the Blood 125 

Circulation of the Blood 126 

Causes of Arteries Being Empty after Death 127 

Circulation of the Fluid 128 

Chapter XV. — Embalming Instruments : Their Use and Care. . . . 129 

Instruments Should Be Kept Clean 129 

Aseptic Instruments 130 

Should Take Just Pride in His Instruments 130 

Sterilizing Instruments 131 

To Remove Rust from Steel Instruments 131 

Instruments Should Be Sharp 131 

The Number and Quality 131 

The Instrument Necessary for Arterial Work 132 

Instruments Used for Cavity Injection 132 

Chapter XVI. — Arterial Injection 133 

Selection of the Artery to Be Injected 133 

The Raising and Injecting of Arteries 134 

To Raise an Artery 134 

The Brachial Artery and Basilic Vein 135 

Location 135 

The Linear Guide 135 



Chapter XVI. — Arterial Injection — Continued. 

The Brachial Artery and Basilic Vein — Continued. 

The Anatomical Guide 135 

To Raise the Artery or Vein 136 

The Femoral Artery and Vein 136 

Location 136 

Linear Guide 136 

The Anatomical Guide 139 

To Raise the Artery or Vein 139 

The Common Carotid Artery and Internal Jugular Vein 139 

The Common Carotid Artery 139 

The Linear Guide 140 

The Anatomical Guide 140 

To Raise the Artery and Vein 140 

The Radial Artery 140 

To Locate and Raise the Radial Artery 140 

The Posterior Tibial Artery 143 

Location 143 

To Raise the Posterior Tibial Artery 143 

To Remove the Blood 144 

The Blood 144 

The Methods 144 

To Remove Blood from the Heart 144 

Circulation Not Destroyed by Tapping the Heart 144 

The Valves of the Heart and Veins 147 

To Remove Blood by the Veins 147 

If the Basilic Vein 147 

To Open the Basilic Vein 147 

If the Femoral Vein 148 

The Internal Jugular Vein 148 

The Proper Time to Withdraw the Blood 148 

Second Injection 149 

" Skin Slip : " Its Causes and Prevention 149 

Slipping of the Skin 149 

To Prevent Slipping of the Skin 150 

Formula and Treatment 150 

Discoloration 150 

Treatment 151 

Congestion of the Peripheral Veins 151 

The Brownish or Greenish Spots 151 

Bruised and Other Spots 151 

Discoloration Caused by Biliverdin 152 

The Ice Mixture 152 

Formula 152 

A Substitute 152 

Chapter XVII. — Cavity Injection. 155 

The Thoracic Cavity 156 

The Pleurae 156 

To Inject the Pleural Cavities 156 

The Pleural Cavities may be Injected 159 

To Inject the Lung Tissue 159 

To Inject the Abdominal Cavity 159 

To Inject the Stomach and Intestines 159 

To Remove Gases and Liquids. . 160 

To Remove Gases from the Thoracic Cavity 160 



Chapter XVII. — Cavity Injection — Continued. 
To Remove Gases and Liquids — Continued. 

To Remove Gases from the Abdominal Cavity 160 

To Remove Liquids from the Abdominal Cavity 160 

Chapter XVIII. — The Needle Processes 163 

The Eye Process 163 

The Operation 163 

To Inject through the Foramen Magnum 164 

The Champion Needle Process 167 

The Operation 167 

Part Third. 

morbid anatomy and treatment of special diseases. . . 169 

Introductory Remarks 171 

Chapter XIX. — Acute Infectious Diseases 172 

Smallpox 172 

Scarlatina — Scarlet Fever 173 

Diphtheria 174 

Typhoid Fever 175 

Typhus Fever 177 

Tuberculosis — Consumption 178 

Cholera, Asiatic 180 

Yellow Fever 184 

Cerebro-spinal Meningitis 185 

Cholera Infantum 186 

Chapter XX. — Diseases Affecting the Blood 187 

Septicaemia 187 

Pysemia 189 

Peritonitis 190 

Puerperal or Child Bed Fever 191 

Erysipelas 192 

Sunstroke 194 

Gangrene 195 

Post Mortem Cases 197 

Chapter XXI. — Diseases of the Air Passages and Chest 198 

Pneumonia — Lung Fever 198 

Gangrene of the Lungs 201 

Pleurisy — Pleuritis 202 

Primary Pleurisy 202 

Purulent Pleurisy 202 

Pericarditis 203 

Inflammation of the Pericardium 203 

Pneumo-pericarditis 203 

Valvular Diseases of the Heart 204 

Other Diseases of Air Passages and Chest, such as Laryngitis, 

Bronchitis, etc 205 

Chapter XXII. — Diseases Affecting the Alimentary Canal 206 

Obstinate Constipation 206 

Dysentery — Flux 207 

Appendicitis 208 

Inflammation of the Appendix Vermiformis 208 

Hernia or Rupture 209 

Sporadic Cholera — Cholera Morbus , 209 

Other Diseases of the Alimentary Canal . 210 



Chapter XXIII. — Diseases or the Kidneys 211 

Bright's Disease — Albuminuria 211 

Nephritis 212 

Inflammation of the Kidney 212 

Diabetes 212 

Sugar in the Urine 212 

Diseases of the Bladder 213 

Chapter XXIV. — Diseases of the Nerves 215 

Paralysis 215 

Apoplexy 219 

Chapter XXV. — Special Diseases 220 

Alcoholism 220 

Dilirium Tremens 223 

Dropsy 225 

Jaundice 228 

Rheumatism 229 

Tumors 230 

Cancer 231 

Syphilis 232 

Condition and Treatment of Mother and Fcetus 233 

Chapter XXVI. — Death from Accidental Causes 235 

Drowned Cases 235 

Treatment of a " Floater " 235 

Lightning and Electricity 237 

Cases of Mutilation 237 

Gunshot Wounds 238 

Asphyxia 239 

Opium or Morphine Poisoning 240 

Death Caused by Poisonous Gases 241 

Poisoning by Carbonic Acid 241 

Poisoning by Carbonic Oxid 242 

Poisoning by Coal Gas 242 

Part Fourth. 

sanitation and disinfection 245 

Chapter XXVII. — Infection (after Sternberg) 247 

Channels of Infection 247 

Susceptibility and Immunity 248 

Chapter XXVIII. — History of Bacteriology (after Abbott) 251 

Forms of Bacteria 256 

An Antiseptic 256 

Chapter XXIX. — Recent Methods of Giving Immunity to Certain 

Diseases 257 

Smallpox 257 

Vaccination 259 

Diphtheria 260 

Antitoxin 260 

Tetanus or Lockjaw 262 

Tetanus Antitoxin 262 

Chapter XXX. — Disinfection and its Effects (after Sykes) 263 

Chapter XXXI. — Antiseptic and Germicidal Value of Various 

Salts (after Sternberg) 269 

Chapter XXXII. — Practical Directions for Disinfection (after 
Sternberg) 274 


Part Fifth. 



Chapter XXXIII. — Resuscitation 279 

Definition 279 

Treatment of Syncope 279 

Howard's Method of Artificial Respiration 279 

Position of Patient 279 

Position of Operator 279 

Action of Operator 280 

Treatment for Asphyxia 280 

Asphyxia from Breathing Noxious Gases 280 

Asphyxia from Mechanical Obstructions of the Air Pas- 
sages 280 

Asphyxia from Poisons or Anaesthetics 281 

Treatment for Restoring a Drowned Person 281 

Ayphyxia from Drowning 281 

Position of Patient 281 

Position and Action of Operator 281 

Directions for Restoring the Apparently Dead 282 

Treatment for Lightning Strokes 282 

Treatment for Restoring Natural Breathing 282 

Rule 1. — To Maintain a Free Entrance of Air Into the Wind- 
pipe 282 

Rule 2.— To Adjust the Patient's Position 283 

Rule 3. — To Imitate the Movements of Breathing 283 

Rule 4.— To Excite Inspiration 283 

Treatment After Natural Breathing Has Been Restored 284 

Rule 1. — To Induce Circulation and Warmth 284 

Rule 2.— If from Intense Cold 284 

Rule 3. — If from Intoxication 284 

Rule 4. — If from Apoplexy or Sunstroke 284 

Stimulants and Food 284 

Chapter XXXIV. — Miscellaneous Information 285 

Post-mortem Wounds 285 

Prevention 285 

To Bandage a Body for Shipment 286 

Glossary 287 

General Index 309 

Appendix — Thirteen Hundred Questions for Review 317 


Portraits of Authors .Frontispieces 

Full Page Anatomical Inserts. 



Fig. 1 — Front View of Cranium. 
" 2 — Side View of Cranium. 
" 3&4 — Vertical Section of Facial Bones. 
" 5 — Ethmoid Bone — Upper Surface. 
" 6 — Ethmoid Bone — Nasal Surface. 
11 7 — Palate Bone — Nasal Surface. 
" 8 — Hyoid Bone — Anterior Aspect. 
II. BONES OF THE HEAD— (continued). 
Fig. 1 — Base of Skull — Inner Surface. 
11 2 — Inferior Surface of Cranium — Base of Skull. 
"' 3&4 — Temporal Bone — External Surface (3); Inner Sur- 
face (4). 
• l 5&6 — Sphenoid Bone — Inner Surface (5); Anterior Sur- 
face (6). 
" 7&8 — Inferior Maxillary — Outer Surface (7); Inner Sur- 
face (8). 


Fig. 1 — Spine (vertebrae), Thorax, Clavicle, and Portion of 

" 2— Pelvis. 

" 3 — True or Sternal Ribs. 
11 4 — Sternum — Anterior Surface. 
" 5 — Os Innominatum of Right Side — Inner Surface and Lines 

of Articulation of Ilium, Ischium, and Pubes. 
" 6 — Os Innominatum of the Left Side— Outer Surface. 
" 7&8 — Coccyx Bone — Posterior Surface (7); Anterior and 
Upper Surfaces (8) . 

IV. BONES OF TRUNK— (continued) . 

Fig. 1 — Posterior View of Trunk. 
" 2&3 — Atlas and Axis — Anterior Surface (2); Posterior 

Surface (3). 
" 4&5 — Atlas — Superior Surface (4) ; Inferior Surface (5). 
" 6 — Axis — Anterior Surface. 
11 7 — Cervical Vertebra — Superior Surface. 
" 8 & 9— A Dorsal (8) and a Lumbar Vertebra (9)— Superior 





Fig. 1&2— Clavicle (left)— Superior Surface (1) ; Inferior Surf ace( 2). 
" 3 — Scapula — Posterior and Outer Surface. 
11 4 — Scapula — Internal, or Concave, Surface. 
" 5 — Scapula — Front View of Anterior Margin. 
" 6 — Humerus (left) — Posterior View. 
" 7 — Humerus (Left) — Anterior View*. 
" 8&9 — Ulna — Posterior View (8) ; Anterior View (9), 
" 10 & 11— Radius — Anterior View (10) ; Posterior View (11). 
" 12 — Bones of Right Hand— Posterior Surface. 
11 13&14 — Carpus, Metacarpus, and Phalanges of Thumb 
(left)— Posterior Surface (13) ; Anterior Sur- 
face (14). 
" 15 & 17— Carpal Bones (left), First Row— Superior Artic- 
ular Surface (15) ; Inferior Surface (17). 
" 16 & 18— Carpal Bones (left) , Second Row— Intercarpal Artic- 
ular Surface (16) ; Digital Surface (18). 
Fig. 1 — Femur (left) — Anterior Surface. 
2 — Femur (left) — Posterior Surface. 
3 & 4— Left Patella (Knee Cap)— Anterior Surface (3); 

Posterior Surface (4). 
5&6 — Tibia (left) — Anterior and Inner Surfaces (5) ; Poste- 
rior Surface (6). 
7 & 8— Fibula (left)— Anterior Surface (7); Posterior Sur- 
face (8). 
9 & 10— Bones of Foot (right)— Upper or Dorsal Surface (9) ; 

Inferior or Plantar Surface (10). 
11 & 12 — Tarsal and Metatarsal Bones (left) — Upper or 
Dorsal Surface (11) ; under or Plantar Surface (12). 


Fig. 1 — Ligaments of the Vertebrae, Sternal End of Ribs, Pelvis, 
and Ilio-Femoral Articulation — Anterior Surface. 
" 2 & 3 — Ligaments of Right Temporo-maxillary Articulation 

—External Surface (2) ; Internal Surface (3). 
" 4&5 — Internal Ligaments Connecting Occipital Bone with 
Axis and of the Articulation Between Atlas and 
Axis — Posterior View. 
" 6&7 — Ligaments of Sterno-clavicular and Sterno-costal 
Articulation with Anterior Intercostal Ligaments 
— Anterior Surface (6) ; Posterior Surface <7). 
" 8&9 — Ligaments of Shoulder- joint and Scapuloclavicular 

" 10 & 11— Ligaments of Left Elbow-Joint— Left Anterior Sur- 
face (10) ; Posterior Surface (11). 
" 12 — Ligaments of Left Wrist-joint and Hand. 
" 13— Ligaments of Left Wrist- joint and Hand— Anterior 


Fig. 1— Ligaments of Lower Part of Spine, Pelvis, and Ilio- 
femoral Articulations. 




Fig. 1 — Ligaments of Cervical and Dorsal Vertebrae. 
" 2 — Dorsal Ligaments of Spinal Column, Pelvis, and Ilio- 
femoral Articulation. 
" 3 — Ligaments of Left Knee- Joint. 
" 4&5 — Ligaments of Left Knee-Joint — Internal Anterior 

View (4) ; Posterior View (5). 
" 6 — Ligaments of Sole of Left Foot. 
" 7 — Ligaments of Left Foot — Internal Surface. 
" 8 — Ligaments of Left Foot — External and Dorsal Surfaces. 


Fig. 1— Muscles of Face and Neck — Anterior Surfaces. 
" 2— Muscles of Neck— Right Side. 
" 3 — Muscles of Neck — Front View. 
11 4 — Deep Muscles of Right Side of Neck. 


Fig. 1 — Muscles of Back of Pharynx and Lower Jaw. 
2 — Muscles of Palate and Throat — Posterior View. 
3 — Muscles of Tongue — Lateral View of Right Ride. 
4 — Internal Muscles of Lower Jaw. 
5 — Muscles of Soft Palate. 

6 — Muscles of Posterior Surface of Neck and Upper Part of 
<4 7 — Deep Muscles of Neck and Back. 


Fig. 1 — Muscles of Face, Trunk, Arms and Upper Part of Thighs 
— Anterior View. 
"■ 2 — Plantar Fascia or Aponeurosis of Right Foot. 
" 3 — Plantar Muscles, First Layer — Inferior Surface, Right 

" 4 — Second Layer of Plantar Muscles of Right Foot. 
" 5 — Third Layer of Planter Muscles of Right Foot. 
" 6 — Fourth Layer of Dorsal Muscles of Right Foot. 


with some of Anterior Surface) . 

Fig. 1 — Muscles of Trunk, Upper Part of Thighs, and Arms. 
" 2 — Deep Muscles of Neck — Anterior View. 
" 3— Deep Muscles of Back of Neck. 
" 4 — Tendons and Tendinous Sheaths on Posterior Surface of 

" 5 — Tendons and Tendinous Aponeuroses of Right Wrist 

and Hand. 



Fig. 1 — Muscles of Anterior Surface of Lower Extremities. 
" 2 — Muscles on External Surface of Right Side of Pelvis and 
Lower Extremity. 




Fig. 1 — Muscles of Posterior Surface of Pelvis and Lower 
" 2 — Muscles of Inner Surface of Pelvis, Thigh, Leg, and 


Fig. 1 — Base of Brain, Showing Origin of Nerves and Arteries. 


Fig. 2 — Vertical Longitudinal Section of Brain, Cerebrum, 
and Cerebellum, through Center. 


Fig. 1 — Thoracic Parietes with Viscera Enclosed (Abdo- 
men and Abdominal Viscera in Natural Position). 

TERIOR VIEW— {continued) . 

Fig. 2 — Lungs, in Position, and Deeper Abdominal Viscera 
(Small Intestine Being Removed). 


Fig. 1 — Small Intestine (Jejunum and Ilium), Mesentery, 

and Mesenteric Vessels. 
Fig. 2 — Internal Arrangement of Hepatic Blood Vessels, 

the Liver Being Divided Transversely. 

tinued) . 

Fig. 3 — Large Intestine, with Principal Blood Vessels. 

tinued) . 

Fig. 4 — View of Posterior Surface of the Deep Viscera of 
Abdomen and Pelvis, with Principal Blood Ves- 
" 5— Internal Structure of Kidney, with Blood Vessels 
and Ducts. 


tinued) . 
Fig. 6— View of Posterior Surface of the Superficial Vis- 
cera of Abdomen and Blood Vessels. 


Fig. 1 — Anterior View. 



(continued) . 
Fig. 2 — Posterior View, 

(continued) . 

Fig. 3 — Principal Chylopoietic Viscera, Blood Vessels and 
" 4 — Posterior View of Solar Plexus and Minor Plex- 
uses, with some of the Deep Blood Vessels. 


Fig. 1 — Anterior Surface of Heart and Pericardial Cov- 
" 2 — Internal Cavities of Ventricles — Anterior View. 


Fig. 1 — Arteries of Anterior Surface of Head and Neck. 


Fig. 2 — Arteries and Veins of Lateral Surface of Head, 
Face and Neck. 


Fig. 3— Arteries of Right Side of Neck. 


Fig. 4— Arteries and Veins of Right Side of Neck. 


Fig. 1— Superficial Arteries on Internal and Anterior Sur- 
face of Arm, Forearm, and Hand. 
2— Deep Arteries of Arm, Forearm and Hand— Ante- 
rior Surface. 



Fig. 1— Principal Arteries and Veins of Neck, Thorax, and 
Arms, with Deep Blood Vessels of Abdominal 



Fig. 1— Distribution of Internal Maxillary and Labial or 
Facial Arteries and Veins on Left Side of Head. 
1 ' 2— Posterior Surface of Lungs and Trachea, with Their 
Principal Arteries, Veins and Nerves. 


Fig. 1— The Cceliac Axis and its Branches, and Their Ram- 
ifications, Pancreas, Spleen and Duodenum in 




Fig. 1. — Portal Vein and Its Branches, Liver, Stomach, 
Pancreas, Spleen, Portion of Large and Small 
Intestines in Position (Transverse Colon Re- 

Fig. 1. — Arteries of Pelvis and Internal Genital Organs in 
Female Subject. 
" 2. — Arteries of Pelvis in Male Subject. 

Fig. 1. — Arteries on Internal Surface of Pelvis, Thigh and 
Knee of the Right Extremity. 
" 2. — Arteries on Dorsal Surface of Right Foot. 
'" 3. — Planter Arch of Arteries in Sole of Right Foot. 
(continued) . 
Fig. 4. — Deep Arteries in Sole of Right Foot. 
" 5. — Arteries on Anterior Surface of Right Leg and 

11 6. — Arteries on Posterior Surface of Right Leg. 
Fig. 1. — Foetal Organization. 



Anatomical Cuts. 


Fig. 1.— Bones of the Skeleton 2 

" 2. — A Thin Slice of Bone, Highly Magnified, Showing the Lacunae, 

etc 7 

3.— Microscopic View of a Muscle 14 

4.— Section of Skin Magnified 21 

5. — Cerebro-spinal Nerve System 28 

6.— The Alimentary Canal 34 

7.— The Jaws and Teeth 35 

8. — Sectional View of the Upper Air Passages 46 

9.— Blood Crystals 54 

10. — Blood Corpuscles 54 

11 . — Venous Valves 65 

12.— Capillaries 70 

14.— Chambers, Valves and Vessels of the Heart 127 

Full-Page Half Tone Engravings. 

13. — Beginning a Dissection 115 

15. — Raising the Brachial Artery 137 

16. — Injecting the Arterial System through the Radial Artery 141 

17. — Asperating the Blood from the Heart 145 

18. — Making a Dissection 154 

19. — Dissecting the Thoracic and Abdominal Cavities 158 

20. — Arterial Injection by the Eye Process 162 

21. — Injecting the Arterial System by the Champion Needle Process 166 


Bacteriological Engravings. 


Fig. 22.— Bacillus diphtheriae 174 

11 23.— Typhoid bacilli 175 

" 24. — Bacillus typhi abdominalis 178 

" 25. — Bacillus tuberculosus 179 

" 26. — Spirillum cholerae Asiaticae (comma bacillus) 180 

11 27. — Bacillus cadaverous (yellow fever) 184 

" 28. — Streptoco'cci (erysipelas) 193 

" 29. — Micrococcus pneumoniae crouposae 198 

" 30. —Micrococcus pneumoniae crouposae (single colony) 199 

" 31. — Bacillus cadaveris 248 

" 32. — Colonies of bacteria 251 

11 33. — Bacillus tuberculosus 253 

" 34. — Pus containing streptococci 256 


Fig. 1. — Front View of Cranium. 

A. Frontal bone. 

R. Parietal hone. 

C. Great wing of sphenoid bone. 

D. Temporal (temple) bone. 

E. Malar (cheek) bone. 

F. Superior maxillary (upper jaw). 
a. Nasal bone. 

H. Inferior maxillary (lower jaw). 

a. Coronal suture, 

ft. Frontal suture. 

c. Squamous suture. 

d. Frontal eminence. 

e. Superciliary arch. 

g. Zygnomatic process of malar bone. 

h. Supra-orbital ridge. 

i. Supra-orbital foramen. 

k. Nasal process. 

L Frontal crest of temporal ridge, 

m. Nasal process of superior maxillary. 

n. Malar process of superior maxillary. 

o. Alveolar process of superior maxillary. 

p. Infra-orbital foramen. 

q. Superior maxillary fossa. 

r. Nasal spine of superior maxillary. 

8. Anterior nasal opening. 

t. Infra-orbital margin of superior maxil- 

it. Fossa of lachrymal sac- 

v. Alveolar process of superior maxil- 

w. Maxillary process of malar bone. 

x. Frontal process of malar bone. 

//. Temporal process of malar bone. 

z. Anterior malar foramen. 

Fig. 2. — Side View of Cranium. 

A.—H. Same as Fig. 1. 

«. Frontal eminence. 

6. Superciliary arch. 

■d. Nasal process of frontal bone. 

e. Supra-orbital margin of frontal bone. 

/. Supra-orbital foramen of frontal bone. 

g. Malar process of frontal bone. 

h. External frontal crest of temporal ridge. 

i. Temporal or semicircular ridge. 

k. Coronal suture. 

I. Parietal eminence. 

m. Squamous plate of temporal bone. 

Mastoid process. 

Meatus auditorium externus. 

Zygomatic arch. 

Temporal process of malar bone. 

Frontal process of malar bone. 

Maxillary process of malar bone. 

Anterior malar foramen. 

Malar process of superior maxillary. 

Superior maxillary fossa. 

Infra-orbital foramen. 

Superior maxillary protuberance. 

Fig. 3. — Vertical Section of Facial Bones. 

Showing inner surface of orbit, antrum highmorianum, and lateral 

surface of superior maxillary, with portions of sphenoid, 

temporal, and palate bones posteriorly. 

Fig. 4. — Vertical Section of Facial Bones. 

Showing interior and outer wall of nasal cavity, with portions of 
frontal, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal sinuses. 

Fig. 5. — Ethmoid Bone — Upper Surface. 
Fig. 6. — Ethmoid Bone — Nasal Surface. 
Fig 7. — Palate Bone — Nasal Surface. 
Fig. 8. — Hyoid Bone — Anterior Aspect. 


BOXES OF THE HEAD— (Continued). 

Fig. 1. — Base of Skull— Inner Surface. 

A. Frontal bone. 

B. Lesser win.i-s of sphenoid bone. 
C. Greater wings of sphenoid bone. 
I). Squamous plate of temporal bone 
E. Petrous portion of temporal bone. 

/•'. Mastoid portion of temporal bone. 

G. Occipital bone. 

//. Basilar process of occipital bone. 

/. Ethmoid bone. 

a. Orbital plates of frontal bone. 

b. Digital depressions. 

c. Internal frontal spine. 

d. Crista galli. 

e. Foramina cribrosa. 

/. Anterior elinoid processes. 

g. Optic foramen. 

//. Middle elinoid processes. 

i. Sella turcica. 

k. Posterior elinoid processes. 

I. Internal carotid sulcus. 

m. Foramen lacerum anterius orbitale. 

n. Foramen rotundum. 

o. Foramen ovale. 

p. Foramen spinosum. 

q. Hiatus canalis Fallopii. 

r. Internal auditory canal. 

t. Jugular foramen. 

n. Occipital fossa. 

10. Ante-condyloid foramen. 

x. Posterior condyloid foramen. 

//. Mastoid foramen. 

z. Foramen magnum. 

Fig. 2. — Inferior Surface of Cranium — Base of Skull. 

A. Bony or hard palate. 

B. Alveolar ridge of superior maxillary. 
C. Superior maxillary. 

D. Palate or horizontal plate of palatt 


E. Pterygoid processes of sphenoid bone. 

F. Greater wing of sphenoid. 

G. Vomer. 

IT. Squamous plate of temporal bone 

I. Mastoid process. 

K. Petrous portion of temporal bone. 

L. Basilar process. 

0. Zygomatic arch. 

a. Foramen incisivum. 

b. Posterior nasal spine. 

/. External pterygoid plate. 

<l. Posterior nasal openings. 

h. Foramen ovale. 

/. Foramen spinosum. 

k. Inferior orbital fissure. 

in. Condyloid eminence. 

n. FissuraGlaseri. 

o. Eustachian tube. 

ii. External auditory canal. 

Internal carotid foramen. 
Styloid process. 
Stylo-mastoid foramen. 
Aqueduct of cochlea. 
Jugular foramen. 
Fossula petrosa. 
Condyles of occipital bone. 
Anterior condyloid foramen. 
Posterior condyloid foramen. 
Mastoid process. 

Figs. 3 and 4. — Temporal Bone — External Surface (3) ; Inner Surface (4). 

A. Squamous plate. I C. Petrous portion. 

B. Mastoid portion. 

Figs. 5 and 6. — Sphenoid Bone — Inner Surface (5) ; Anterior Surface (6). 

I C. Greater wings. 

A. Body. 

B. Lesser wings. 

Figs. 7 and 8. — Inferior Maxillary — Outer Surface (7) ; Inner Surface (8). 
Bod.) . | /?. Ascending ramus. 

a. Base or inferior margin. 

| b. Alveolar bolder. 

B^y$* ~v^L 4 

;$!&£: -^ '^^gmm 

C ^^m 





Fig. 1. — Spine (Vertebrae), Thorax, Clavicle, and portion of Scapula. 

a. Atlas first vertebra. 

b. Axis second vertebra. 
r. Last cervical vertebra. 

d. Vertebral canal for vertebral artery. 

e. Odontoid process. 

/. First dorsal vertebra. 

'<}. Last dorsal vertebra. 

h. First lumbar vertebra. 

i. Last lumbar vertebra. 

k. First rib. 

1. Last true or sternal rib. 

in. First false or asternal rib. 

ii. Last floating rib. 

o. Manubrium or first bone of sternum. 

p. Body or middle piece of sternum. 

q. Fusiform or xiphoid process. 

r. Clavicle. 

s. Scapula. 

t. Glenoid cavity of scapula. 

A. Sacrum. 

B. Innominatum. 

C. Ilium. 

Fig. 2. — Pelvis. 

D. Ischium. 

E. Pubes. 

a. Superior oblique process of sacrum. 

b. Base or promontory of sacrum. 
e. Linear arcuata interna. 

d. Anterior sacral foramen. 

c. Inferior brim of pelvis. 
/. Sacro-iliac symphysis 

Crest of ilium or superior brim of pelvis. 
Anterior superior spinous process of 

Anterior inferior spinous process of 

Anterior semilunar notch. 
Spine of ischium. 

m. Ilio-pubal eminence. 

n. Acetabulum. 

o. Brim of acetabulum. 

p. Notch of acetabulum. 

q. Obturator foramen. 

r. Horizontal branch of pubes. 

s. Spine of pubes. 

t. Descending ramus of pubes. 

u. Symphysis pubis. 

v. Ascending ramus of ischium. 

w. Tuber of ischium. 

x. Descending ramus of ischium. 

A. Posterior extremity. 

B. Body. 

Fig. 3. — True or Sternal Ribs. 

I C. Anterior extremity. 

a. Head. 

b. Neck. 

c. Tubercle. 

d. Angle. 

A. Manubrium, or first bone 

B. Body or middle portion. 

Fig. 4. — Sternum — Anterior Surface. 

I C. Ensiform or xiphoid process. 

a. Superior semilunar notch. 

b. Clavicular fossa. 

c. Articular fossa for first rib. 

Articular fossa for second rib. 
Articular fossa' for true ribs. 

Fig. 5— 0s Innominatum of Right Side — Inner Surface and Lines of Articulation 
of Ilium, Ischium, and Pubes. 

A. Ilium. I C. Pubes. 

B. Ischium. | D. Obturator foramen. 

Fig. 6. — 0s Innominatum of Left Side — Outer Surface. 

A.—D. As in Fig. 5. | E. Acetabulum. 

Figs. 7 and 8. — Coccyx Bone — Posterior Surface ( 7 ) ; Anterior and Upper Surfaces (8) 


BONES OF TRUNK — (Continued). 

Fig. 1. — Posterior View of Trunk. 

Atlas. (See Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 5. ) 


Last cervical vertebra. 

First dorsal vertebra. 

Last dorsal vertebra. 

First lumbar vertebra. 

Last lumbar vertebra. 

Spinous processes. 

Transverse processes. 

Intervertebral foramen. 

First rib. 

Last rib. 

n. Clavicle. 

o. Scapula. (See Table V., Figs. 3, 4, and 5.) 

p. Sacrum. 

q. Coccyx. 

r. Ilium. 

s. Ischium. 

t. Pubes. 

v. Opening to sacral canal. 

v. Superior oblique processes of sacrum. 

w. False spinous processes. 

x. Posterior sacral foramen. 

z. Cornua of sacrum. 

Figs. 2 and 3. — Atlas and Axis — Anterior Surface (2); Posterior Surface (3). 

a-b. Same as Fig. 1. 
C. Odontoid process. 

d. Articular surface of atlas for occipital 


Figs. 4 and 5. — Atlas — Superior Surface (4); Inferior Surface (5) 

a. Anterior half arch. 

6. Posterior half arch. 

c. Lateral mass. 

</. Posterior tubercle of atlas. 

e. Articular surface for odontoid process. 

/. Condyloid fossa. 

g. Transverse process of atlas. 

Vertebral foraman. 
Groove for vertebral artery. 
Internal tubercle for transverse liga- 
Spinal canal. 

Anterior tubercle of atlas. 
Inferior anticular or oblique processes. 

Fig. 6. — Axis — Anterior Surface. 


Odontoid process. 
Neck of odontoid process. 
Articular surface for anterior half arch 
of atlas. 

Apex of odontoid process. 
Superior oblique- processes. 
Inferior oblique processes. 
Transverse processes. 

Fig. 7. — Cervical Vertebra — Superior Surface. 

a. Body. 

6. Arch. 

c. Spinous process. 

d. Interspinous cleft. 

Transverse processes. 
Superior oblique processes. 

Vertebral foramen. 
Spinal canal. 

Figs. 8 and 9. — A Dorsal (8) ; and a Lumbar Vertebra (9) — Superior Surfaces. 

a. Body. 

b. Arch. 

c. Vertebral notch for intervertebral fora- 


Spinous process. 

Transverse pr< >eesses. 

Articular surface for costal tubercle. 

Superior oblique processes. 



Figs. 1 and 2. — Clavicle (Left) — Superior Surface (1); Inferior Surface (2). 

o. Body. 

;. Sternal (b) and Acromial (c) cud. 

Fig. 3. — Scapula —Posterior and Outer Surface. 

a. Supra-spinatus fossa. 

/>. Infra-spinatus fossa. 

c. Spine. 

d. Acromion process. 

e. Articular surface for clavicle. 

/. Coracoid process. 

o. Neck. 

p. Glenoid cavity. 

Fig. 4. — Scapula — Internal, or Concave, Surface. 

a. Subscapular fossa. 

b. Anterior angle or condyle. 

c. Glenoid cavity. 

(/. Margin or brim of glenoid cavity. 

e. Acromion process. 

/;. Supra-scapular notch. 

o. Tubercle for origin of triceps muscle. 

Fig. 5. — Scapula — Front View of Anterior Margin. 

a. Glenoid cavity. 

b. Brim of cavity. 

c. Anterior margin. 

d. Inferior angle. 

e. Spine. 

Fig. 6. — Humerus (Left) — Posterior View. 

a. Head of humerus. 

b. Greater tuberosity. 

c. Neck (anatomical). 

d. Body. 

e. f. External (e) and Internal (/) ridge. 
g. h. Internal (g) and External (/<) condyle. 
i. Trochlea. 

a. Olecranon process 

b. Coronoid process. 

Fig. 7. — Humerus (Left) — Anterior View. 
Figs. 8 and 9. — Ulna — Posterior View (8) ; Anterior View (9). 

I c. Greater sigmoid notch. 

A. Carpus. 

B. Metacarpus. 

a. Navicular. 

b. Lunar. 

c. Cuneiform. 
(J. Trapezium. 
e. Trapezoid. 
/. Magnum. 

Figs. 10 and 11. — Radius — Anterior View (10); Posterior View (11). 
Fig. 12. — Bones of Right Hand — Posterior Surface. 

I C. Fingers— phalanges. 

g. Unciform. 

h-m. Metacarpal bones. 

n. Bases of metacarpal bones. 

o. Heads of metacarpal bones. 
p-t. Phalanges. 

Figs. 13 and 14. — Carpus, Metacarpus, and Phalanges of Thumb (Left) — Posterior 
Surface (13); Anterior Surface (14). 

Figs. 15 and 17. — Carpal Bones (Left), First Row — Superior Articular Surface (15); 

Inferior Surface (17). 

a. Navicular. 

b. Lunar. 

I e. Cuneiform. 
I <L Pisiform. 

Figs. 16 and 18. — Carpal Bones (Left), Second Row — Intercarpal Articular Surface 
(16) ; Digital Surface (18 ). 

a. Trapezium. 

b. Trapezoid. 

c. Magnum. 

<1. Unciform. 

( . Hamular process of unciform. 



Fig. l. — Femur (Left) — Anterior Surface. 

a. Head. 

b. Fossa for ligamentum teres. 

c. Neck. 

d. Trochanter major. 

e. Trochanter minor. 

/. Anterior Inter- trochanteric line. 

g. Body. 

h. External condyle. 

i. Internal condyle. 

k. Articular surface for patella. 

Fig. 2. — Femur (Left) — Posterior Surface. 

a-r. As in Fig. 1. 

/. Posterior inter-trochanteric line. 
g. Superior oblique lines of linea aspera. 
h. Linea aspera. 
i. Inferior oblique line of linea aspera. 

k. Body. 

I. Popliteal fossa. 

m. External condyle. 

)). Internal condyle. 

<>. Inter-condyloid fossa. 

Figs. 3 and 4. — Left Patella (Knee Cap) — Anterior Surface (3) ; Posterior Surface (4), 
Figs. 5 and 6. — Tibia (Left) Anterior and Inner Surfaces (5); Posterior Surface (6). 

a. Internal condyle. 

b. External condyle. 

c. Internal articular surface. 

d. External articular surface. 

r. Inter-condyloid eminence. 
/. Articular surface for head of fibula. 
I. Articular surface for astragalus. 
m. (5). i. (6). Internal malleolus. 

Figs. 7 and 8. — Fibula (Left) — Anterior Surface (7) ; Posterior Surface (8; 

a. Capitulum or head. 

b. Superior articular surface. 

c. Body. 

d. External malleolus. 

c. Tibial surface. 

/. Articular surface of astragalus. 

Figs. 9 and 10. — Bones of Foot (Right) — Upper or Dorsal Surface (9); Inferior or 

Plantar Surface ( 10) . 

a. Astragalus. 

b. Os calcis. 

c. Navicular. Cuneiform bones. 
g. Cuboid. 

h, i. Metatarsal bones. 

k\ m. First phalanges. 

/. i). Second phalanges. 

o. Third or ungual phalanges. 

Figs. 11 and 12. — Tarsal and Metatarsal Bones (Left) — Upper or Dorsal Surface (11) 
Under or Plantar Surface (12). 

I. Astragalus. 

II. Oc calcis. 

III. Navicular. 

IV. Internal cuneiform bone. 

V. Middle cuneiform bone. 
VI. External cuneiform bone. 
VII. Cuboid. 

Metatarsal bones. 



q. Tuberosity of fifth metatarsal bone, 
r. Sesamoid'bones of great toe. 



Fig. 1. — Ligaments of the Vertebrae, Sternal End of Ribs, Pelvis, and Ilio-Femoral 
Articulation — Anterior Surface. 

1. Anterior vertebral ligament. 

2. Anterior occipito-atlantoid ligament. 

3. Intervertebral fibro-cartilage. 

4. Intertransverse ligaments. 

5. Posterior costo-vertebral ligaments. 

»). Internal COSto- transverse ligaments 

7. External cos to- transverse ligament? 

8. Posterior intercostal ligaments. 

9. Lumbo-costal ligaments. 

Figs. 2 and 3. 

-Ligaments of Right Temporo-Maxillary Articulation — External Sur- 
face (2) ; Internal Surface (3). 

1. Capsular ligament. 

Figs. 4. and 5. — Internal Ligaments Connecting Occipital Bone with Axis and of 
the Articulation between Atlas and Axis — Posterior View, the Pos- 
terior Half Arches of these Bones having been removed. 

Figs. 6 and 7. — Ligaments of Sterno- Clavicular and Sterno- Costal Articulations with 
Anterior Intercostal Ligaments — Anterior Surface (6) ; Posterior Surface (7). 

1. Interclavicular ligament. 

2. Internal capsular ligament of sterno- 

clavicular articulation. 

3. Rhomboid ligament. 

4, 4. Ligamenta coruscantia. 

5. Anterior proper sternal ligament. 
G. Posterior proper sternal ligament. 

Figs. 8 and 9. — Ligaments of Shoulder -Joint and Scapulo- Clavicular Articulation. 

1. Claviculo-acrominal ligament. 

2. External capsular ligament of clavicle. 

3. Trapezoid ligament. 

4. Conoid ligament. 

5. Coraco-acrominal ligament. 

G. Transverse ligament of scapula. 

7. Capsular ligament of shoulder-joint. 

8. Tendon of long head of biceps. 

9. Glenoid ligament. 

Figs. 10 and 11. 

-Ligaments of Left Elbow- Joint — Anterior Left Surface (10) ; 
Posterior Surface (11) . 

1. Capsular ligament. 

2. External lateral ligament. 

3. Internal lateral ligament. 

4. Orbicular ligament of radius. 

5. Oblique ligament of rs 

G. Interosseous ligament. 

dio-ulnar articu- 

Fig. 12. — Ligaments of Left Wrist-Joint and Hand. 

1. Interosseous ligament. 

2, 3. Same as Figs. 10 and 11. 

4. Posterior radio-carpal ligament. 

5. Posterior superficial carpal ligaments. 
G. Posterior deep carpal ligaments. 

7. Internal lateral ligament of carpus. 

8. Proper ligaments of carpus. 

9, Dorsal carpo-metacarpal ligaments. 

K), 10. Dorsal ligaments of m e t a ca rpa 1 

11,11. External lateral ligaments of fin- 

V2. Internal lateral ligaments of fingers.' 

Fig. 13. — Ligaments of Left Wrist- Joint and Hand — Anterior Surface. 

8,8. Anterior carpo-metacarpal liga 

2, 3. Anterior radio-carpal ligaments. 

4. Lateral radial ligaments. 

5. Lateral ulnar ligament. 

6. Triangular cartilage. 

7. 7. Anterior proper carpal ligaments. 


9,9. Anterior in ter-metacarpal ligaments. 
10, 11. 12. Ligaments of metacarpophalan- 
geal articulation. 



Fig. I. — Ligaments of Lower Part of Spine, Pelvis, and Ilio femoral Articulations. 

m. Last lumbar vertebra. 

n. Sacrum. 

o. Coccyx. 

p. Ilium. 

q. Crest of ilium. 

r. Anterior superior spine of ilium. 

s. Anterior inferior spine of ilium. 

Horizontal ramus of pubes. 
Descending ramus of pubes. 
Symphysis pubis. 
Ascending ramus of ischium. 
Tuber of ischium. 
Descending ramus of ischium. 

(For Bones of Pelvis see Plate III.) 

10. Superior ilio-lumbar ligaments. 

11. Inferior ilio-lumbar ligaments. 

12. Anterior ilio-sacral ligaments. 

13. Lesser sciatic ligaments. 

14. Anterior sacro- coccygeal ligament. 

15. Obturator ligaments. 

1G, 17. Capsular ligament of hip. 

18. Accessory ligaments of hip. 

19. Bursa of internal iliac muscle. 

20. Sub-pubic ligament. 

21. Inter-pubic ligament. 



Fig. 1. — Ligaments of Cervical and Dorsal Vertebrae. 

1. Superior attachment of posterior liga- 


2. Apparatus ligamentosus colli (neck). 

S. Capsular ligament. 

5. Posterior eosto-transverse ligament. 

6. Ligaments of necks of ribs. 

Fig. 2. — Dorsal Ligaments of Spinal Column, Pelvis, and Ilio -Femoral Articulations. 

(For bones of pelvis see Plate IV.) 

1. Inter-spinous ligaments. 

2. Posterior intercostal ligaments. 

3. Lumbo-costal ligaments. 

4. 5. Transverse ligaments. 
<>, 7. Ilio-lumbar ligaments. 
8, 9, 10. Ilio-sacral ligaments. 

11. Posterior irregular ligaments. 

12. Posterior sacro-coccygeal ligaments. 

13. 14. Sacro-sciatic ligaments. 

15. Obturator ligament. 

16. Sub-pubic ligament. 

17. 18, 19. Capsular ligament. 

1. Ligament of patella. 

3. Internal lateral ligament 

Fig. 3. — Ligaments of Left Knee-joint. 

I 4. Capsular ligament. 

Figs. 4 and 5. — Ligaments of Left Knee-joint — Internal Anterior View (4); Posterior 

View (5). 

1,2. Semilunar cartilages. 
3, 4. Crucial ligaments. 

6. Capsular ligament of head of fibula. 

7. Interosseous membrane of leg. 

Fig. 6. — Ligaments of Sole of Left Foot. 

1. Astragalo-calcanean ligaments. 

2. Calcaneo-cuboid ligament. 

3. Calcaneonavicular ligament. 

4. Cuboideo-navicular ligament. 

5. 6, 7. Cuneiform ligaments. 

8. 11. Cuboideo-metatarsal ligaments. 

10, 12. Metatarsal ligaments. 

Fibro-cartilaginous sheaths for flexoi 

15. Lateral ligaments of phalanges. 

Crucial ligaments. 

Inter-sesamoid ligaments. 

Fig. 7. — Ligaments of Left Foot — Internal Surface. 

1. Internal lateral or deltoid ligament. 

2. Posterior ligament of ankle. 

3. Posterior astragalo-calcanean ligament. 

4. Plantar calcaneo-cuboid ligament. 

5. 6. Navicular ligaments. 

7, 8, 9. Naviculo-cuneiform ligaments. 

Dorsal inter-cuneiform ligament. 
Dorsal ligament of base of first meta- 
tarsal bone. 
Plantar ligament. 
Internal lateral ligaments of toes. 

Fig. 8. — Ligaments of Left Foot — External and Dorsal Surfaces. 

1. Interosseous membrane of leg. 

2. Posterior tibio-fibular ligaments. 

3. 4. Anterior tibio-fibular ligaments. 
5, 6, 7. Lateral ligaments of ankle. 

8. Tarsal apparatus ligamentosus. 

9, 10. Calcaneo-cuboid ligaments. 

11, 12, 13. Dorsal navicular ligaments. 

14,15. Dorsal naviculo-cuneiform liga- 

16. Dorsal inter-cuneiform ligaments. 

17, IS, 19. Dorsal ligaments of tarsus and 

20. External lateral ligaments of toes. 



Fig. 1. — Muscles of Face and Neck — Anterior Surfaces. 

1,2. Occipitofrontal. 

3. Pyramidalis nasi. 

4,5. Orbicularis palpebrarum. 

6. Corrugator supereilii. 

7. Levator labii superioris alseque nasi. 

8. Levator labii superioris proprius. 
9, 10. Minor and major zygomatic. 

11. Levator anguli oris. 

12. Levator palpebra? superioris tendon. 

13. Buccinator; (14) Orbicularis oris. 
15. Triangularis menti. 

16. Quadratus menti. 

17. Levator menti. 

18. Masseter; (19) Temporal. 

20, 21, 22. Sterno-cleido-mastoid. 

23. Sterno-hyoid; (24) Sterno-thyroid. 

25. Anterior margin of trapezius. 

26. Omo-hyoid. 

27. Levator anguli scapula?. 

28. 29. Scalenus anticus et medius. 

30. Attrahens auris. 

31. Compressor naris. 

Fig. 2. — Muscles of Neck — Right Side. 

1, 2. Digastric. 

3. Hyo-digastric membrane. 

4. Mylo-hyoideus. 

5. Hyo-glossus. 

0. Stylo-hyoid; (8) Stylo-glossus. 

9. Stylo-pharyngeus. 

10. Middle constrictor of pharynx. 

11. Inferior constrictor of pharynx. 

12. Thyro-hyoid membrane. 

13. Thyro-hyoid. 

14. Sterno-hyoid ; (15) Sterno-thyroid. 

16, 17, 18. Omo-hyoid. 

19. Longus colli. 

20. Rectus capitis anticus major. 

21. 22. Three scaleni. 

23. Levator anguli scapula?. 

24. Splenius capitis. 

25. Sterno-cleido-mastoideus. 

26. Obliquus capitis superior. 

27. Obliquus capitis inferior. 

28. Trapezius. 

29. Deltoid. 

Fig. 5 . — Muscles of Neck — Front View. 

1-6. Same as Fig. 2. 

7. Stylo-glossus. 

8. Stylo-pharyngeus. 

9. Genio-hyoideus. 

10. Thyro-hyoideus. 

11. Sterno-thyroid. 

12. Inferior constrictor of pharynx. 

13. Sterno-hyoid. 

14, 15. Omo-hyoid. 

16. Crico-thyroideus. 

17. Longus colli. 

18. 19, 20. Three scaleni. 

21. Levator anguli scapula?. 

22. Splenius capitis. 

Fig. 4. — Deep Muscles of Right Side of Neck. 


Orbicularis oris. 






Superior constrictor of pharynx. 









Middle constrictor of pharynx. 












Inferior constrictor of pharynx. 



Thyro-hyoid membrane. 

Crico-thyroid muscle. 
Rectus capitis anticus major. 
L5, 16. Three scaleni. 
Levator anguli scapulae 
Splenius capitis. 
Serratus posticus superior. 
Superior rhomboid. 



Fig. 1. — Muscles of Back of Pharynx and Lower Jaw. 

a. Basilar process. 

b. Petrous bone. 

c. Ramus of lower jaw. 

d. Posterior cornua of hyoid. 

e. Thyroid cartilage. 

1, 2, 3. Constrictors of pharynx. 

4. Stylo-pharyngeus. 

5. Stylo-glossus; (6) Mylo-hyoid. 

/. Thyro-hyoid ligament. 

(j. Esophagus; (/;) Trachea. 

i. Styloid process. 

k. Stylo-maxillary ligament. 

7. Internal pterygoid. 

8. Masseter; (9) Buccinator. 

Fig. 2. — Muscles of Palate and Throat — Posterior View. 

b, c. Same as Fig. 1. 
Styloid process. 
Posterior nostrils. 
Condyle of lower jaw. 

2, 3. Same as Fig. 1. 
Azygos uvulae. 
Levator palati mollis. 

g. Base of tongue; (It) Epiglottis. 
i. Cricoid cartilage. 
k. Esophagus; (?) Trachea. 

3. Circumflexus palati mollis. 
7. Crico-arytsenoideus posticus. 
5. Palato-pharyngeus. 

Fig. 3. — Muscles of Tongue — Lateral View of Right Side. 

a. Body of lower jaw. 

b. Ramus of lower jaw. 

1. Lingualis; (2) Genio-glossus. 
3. Hyoglossus; (4) Stylo-glossus. 
5. Stylo-pharyngeus. 

c. Styloid process. 

d. Hyoid bone ; (e) Larynx; (/) Tongue. 

6. Genio-hyoideus. 

7. Mylo-hyoideus. 

8. Thyro-hyoid membrane. 

Fig. 4. — Internal Muscles of Lower Jaw. 

a. Body of sphenoid bone. 

b. Petrous bone. 

c. d, e. Lower jaw. 

1. Pterygoideus internus. 

2. Pterygoideus externus. 

3. . Masseter; (4) Mylo-hyoideus (divided). 

/. Hard palate. 

g. Pterygoid process. 

h. Posterior nostrils. 

5. Genio-glossus (divided). 

6. Genio-hyoideus (divided). 

Fig. 5. — Muscles of Soft Palate. 

Hard palate. 
Pterygoid process. 
Hamular process. 



1. Pterygoideus externus. 

2. Levator palati mollis. 

3. Circumflexus palati mollis. 

h. Posterior nostrils. 
i. Eustachian tube. 

4. Azygos uvulae. 

5. Palati-pharyngeus. 

Fig. 6. — Muscles of Posterior Surface of Neck and Upper Part of Thorax, 

a. Occipital bone. 

b. Superior semilunar line. 

c. Mastoid process. 

1. Splenitis capitis. 

2. Splenitis colli. 

3. Serratus posticus superior. 

4. Biventer cervicis. 

Ligamentum nucha?. 
Ligamentum apicum. 

Complexus cervicis. 
Transversalis cervicis. 
Longissimus dorsi. 

Fig. 7. — Deep Muscles of Neck and Back. 

1. Biventer cervicis. 

2. Complexus cervicis. 

3. Trachelo-mastoideus. 

4. Transversalis cervicis. 

5. Cervicalis ascendens. 

6. Lumbo-eostalis. 

7. Longissimus dorsi. 

s. Sacro-lumbalis. 

!». Spinalis dorsi. 

in. Spinalis cervicis. 

11. Semispinalis dorsi. 

12. Levatores costarum. 

13. Intercostales. 

14. Obliquus capitis superior 



Fig. 1. — Muscles of Face, Trunk, Arms, and Upper Part of Thighs — Anterior View. 

a. Occipito-frontalis tendon. 

d. Thyroid gland. 

g. Manubrium of sternum. 

i. Caroeoid process; (k) Acromion. 

p. Symphysis pubis. 

q. Anterior superior spine of ilium. 

1. Frontalis. 

2. Pyramidalis nasi. 

3. 4. Attollens et attrahens auris. 

5. Orbicularis palpebrarum. 

6. Levator labii superioris alseque nasi 

with compressor nasi. 

7. Levator labii superioris proprius. 

8. 9. Minor and major zygomatic. 

10. Levator anguli oris. 

11. Masseter; (12) Buccinator. 

13, 14. Triangularis et quadratus menti. 

15. Levator menti. 

16. Orbicularis oris. 

17. Platysma-myoides or latissimus colli. 

18. Sterno-cleido-mastoid. 

19. Sterno-hyoid. 

20. Scaleni. 

21. 22. Pectoralis major et minor. 

23. Subclavian. 

24. Serratus magnus anticus. 

25. External oblique (abdominis). 

26. Linea alba. 

27. Rectus abdominis. 

28. Transverse aponeuroses of rectus ab- 


29. Pyramidalis abdominis. 

30. Obliquus internus. 

31. Poupart's ligament. 

32. 33. Pillars of Poupart's ligament. 
34, 35. Abdominal rings. 

36. Inguinal canal. 

•s. Interclavicular ligament. 

t. Rhomboid ligament. 

u. Ligamenta coruscantia. 

v. Claviculo-acromial ligament. 

w. Coraco-acromial ligament. 

37. Deltoid. 

38. Coraco-brachialis. 

39. 40. Short and long head of biceps. 

41. Biceps. 

42. Subscapular; (43) Brachial. 

44. Internal head of triceps. 

45. Pronator teres. 

46. Supinator longus. 

47. Flexor carpi radialis. 

48. Palmaris longus. 

49. Flexor carpi ulnaris. 

50. Flexores of Angers. 

51. Long flexor of thumb. 

52. Anterior annular ligament of carpus. 

53. Abductor of thumb. 

54. Palmaris brevis. 

55. Adductor of thumb. 

56. Extensor carpi radialis longus. 

57. Extensor carpi radialis brevis. 

58. Extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis. 

59. Extensor primi internodii pollicis. 

60. Extensor secundi internodii pollicis. 

61. Extensor indicis. 

62. Extensor digitorum communis. 

63. Abductor indicis. 

64. Lumbricales. 

65. Abductor of little finger. 

66. Fascia lata femoris. 

67. External femoral ring. 

68. Falciforn process of fascia lata. 

Fig. 2. — Plantar Fascia or Aponeurosis of Right Foot. 

Fig. 3. — Plantar Muscles, First Layer — Inferior Surface, Right Foot. 

Fig. 4. — Second Layer of Plantar Muscles of Right Foot. 

Fig. 5. — Third Layer of Plantar Muscles of Right Foot. 

Fig. 6. — Fourth Layer of Dorsal Muscles of Right Foot. 



(Posterior View, with some of Anterior Surface.) 
Fig. 1. — Muscles of Trunk, Upper Part of Thighs, and Arms. 





Ocbicularis palpebrarum. 



Attollens auris. 



Retrahentes auris. 



Attrahens auris. 



Masseter; (7) Occipitales. 





Splenius capitis. 
Splenius colli. 





Complexus cervicis. 



Levator anguli scapulae. 






15. Rhomboideus minor et major. 



Latissimus dorsi. 



Serratus posticus inferior. 



Serratus anticus major. 



External intercostal. 






Obliquus abdominis externus. 



Obliquus abdominis internus. 



Glutaeus maximus (divided). 



Glutaeus medius. 






28. Gemellus superior et inferior. 

30. Obturator internus et externus 

Quadratus femoris. 

Vastus externus. 


Adductor magnus. 


37. Teres minor et major. 


Triceps brachialis. 

Long head of triceps. 

External head of triceps. 

Internal head of triceps. 


Brachialis internus. 

Supinator longus. 
, Extensor digitorum communis. 
, Extensor carpi ulnaris. 

Extensores carpi radiales. 
. Extensor pollicis brevis. 
. Abductor pollicis longus. 
, Extensor pollicis longus. 
, Flexor digitorum communis. 

Fig. 2. — Deep Muscles of Neck — Anterior View. 

1. Longus colli. 

2. Rectus capitis anticus major. 

3. Rectus capitis anticus minor. 

4. Rectus capitis lateralis. 

5, 6, 7. Three scaleni. 
8. Intertransversarii. 

a. Occipital bone. 

b. Mastoid process. 

Fig. 3. — Deep Muscles of Back of Neck. 

I c. Posterior tubercle of atlas. 

1. Rectus capitis posticus minor. 

2. Rectus capitis posticus major. 

3. Obliquus capitis superior. 

4. Obliquus capitis inferior. 

5. Interspinales. 

6. Multifldus spinae (cervicis). 

Fig. 4. — Tendons and Tendinous Sheaths on Posterior Surface of Carpus. 

Fig. 5. — Tendons and Tendinous Aponeuroses of Right Wrist and Hand. 

| (1. Muscular mass of little finger. 

a. Radius; (b) Pisiform bone. 
c. Muscular mass of thumb. 

1, 2. Palmaris brevis et longus. 

3. Anterior annular ligament of carpus. 

4. Anterior proper carpal ligament. 

5. Palmar fascia or aponeurosis. 

6. Terminations of palmar aponeurosis. 

7. Transverse palmar ligaments. 

8. Sheaths of long flexor tendons. 

9. Flexor carpi ulnaris tendon. 
10. Flexor carpi radialis tendon. 

I V V 



Fig. 1. — Muscles of Anterior Surface of Lower Extremities. 


Crest of ilium. 



Anterior superior spinous process. 



Trochanter major. 



Symx>hysis pubis. 
Trochanter minor. 







Tuberosity of tibia, 





Malleolus internus. 



Malleolus externus. 



Anterior annular ligament of ankle- 


Obliquus abdominis externus. 



Transversalis abdominis. 



Tensor fascia? lata?. 



Gluta?us medius. 



Iliacus internus. 



Psoas major. 



Pectinseus; (8) Sartorius. 



Adductor longus. 



Rectus femoris. 



Tendo communis extensorius. 



Ligament of patella. 



Vastus internus. 



Linea alba. 

Poupart's ligament. 

Internal pillar of external abdominal 

External pillar of external abdominal 

External abdominal ring. 
Internal abdominal ring. 
Posterior boundary of inguinal canal. 

Vastus externus. 
14.* Tendinous portion of vastus externus. 

Adductor magnus. 
Tibialis anticus. 
Extensor longus pollicis pedis. 
Extensor digitorum communis longus. 
Peronseus tertius. 
Perona?us longus brevis. 
Gastrocnemius; (23) Soleus. 
Extensor brevis pollicis pedis. 
Extensor digitorum communis brevis. 

Fig. 2. — Muscles on External Surface of Right Side of Pelvis and Lower Extremity. 

a. Crest of ilium. 

b. Anterior superior spine of ilium. 
r. External condyles of knee-joint. 
d. Tibia, 

e. Patella. 

/. Anterior annular ligament of ankle. 

g. External portion of annular ligament- 

h. Tuberosity of fifth metatarsal bone. 

1. Tensor fascia? lata?. 

2. Fascia lata, 

3. Gluta?us medius. 

4. Gluta?us maximus. 

5. Sartorius. 

6. Rectus femoris. 

7. Vastus externus. 

8. Biceps femoris (caput longum). 

9. Caput breve bicipitis femoris. 

10. Tibialis anticus. 

11. Extensor digitorum communis longus. 

12. Extensor long\is pollicis pedis. 

13. Perona?us tertius. 

14. Perona?us longus. 

15. Perona?us brevis. 

16. Sheaths of long and short peronaeal 


17. Soleus. 

18. Gastrocnemius. 

19. Tendon of Achillis. 

20. Extensor digitorum communis brevis. 

21. Abductor digiti minimi. 

1 VI 

f F^M 



Fig. 1. — Muscles of Posterior Surface of Pelvis and Lower Extremities. 

Crest of ilium. 



Tuber of ischium. 

Ascending ramus of ischium. 

Descending ramus of pubes. 

Trochanter major. 


Lesser sacro-sciatic ligament. 

Greater sacro-sciatic ligament. 

Li nea aspera. 


Popliteal fossa. 


Malleolus externus. 

Malleolus interims. 

Tendon of Achillis. 

Oblique line of tibia. 

J 5. 

Gluteus maximus. 

Gluteus medius. 


Gemellus superior. 

Obturator internus. 

Gemellus inferior. 

Quadratus femoris. 

Obturator externus. 

Caput longum bicipitis femoris. 

Caput breve bicipitis femoris. 

Tendo bicipitis femoris. 



Adductor magnus. 

Openings in adductor magnus for 

branches of perforating artery and 

profunda femoris vein. 
Inferior opening of Hunter's canal. 

16. Gracilis. 

17. Sartorius. 

18. Vastus externus. 

19. Poplitseus. 

20. Gastrocnemius. 

21. External head of gastrocnemius. 

22. Internal head of gastrocnemius. 

23. Plantaris. 

24. Plantar tendon. 

25. Tendon of Achillis. 

26. Soleus. 

27. Peronseus longus. 

28. Peronseus brevis. 

29. Flexor pollicis pedis longus. 

30. Tibialis posticus. 

31. Flexor communis digitorum pedis 


Fig. 2. — Muscles of Inner Surface of Pelvis, Thigh, Leg, and Foot. 

a. Crest of ilium. 

b. Sacrum. 

c. Coccyx. 

d. Linea innominata interna. 

e. Symphysis pubis. 
/. Obturator foramen. 

g. Great sacro-sciatic ligament. 

h. Lesser sacro-sciatic ligament. 

i. Great sciatic notch. 

k. Lesser sciatic notch. 

I. Descending ramus of pubes. 

Ascending ramus of ischium. 

Anterior sacral foramen. 

Tuber of ischium. 

Internal condyles of knee-joint. 


Internal surface of tibia. 

Internal malleolus. 

Internal portion of annular ligament 

of ankle-joint. 
Glutseus maximus. 

1. Psoas major. 

2. Iliacus internus. 

3. Obturator internus. 

4. Pyriformis; (5) Sartorius. 

6. Adductor longus. 

7. Gracilis; (8) Vastus internus. 
9. Rectus femoris. 

10. Adductor magnus. 

11. Semimembranosus. 

12. Semitendinosus. 

13. Gastrocnemius (internal head). 

14. Soleus; (15) Tendon of Achillis. 

16. Flexor digitorum communis longus per- 


17. Flexor pollicis pedis longus. 

18. Tibialis posticus 

19. Tendo tibialis antici. 

20. Tendo extensoris pollicis pedis longi. 

21. Adductor pollicis pedis. 

Fig. i. 



Fig. 1. — Base of Brain, Showing Origins of Nerves and Arteries. 

A. Anterior lobe of cerebrum. 

B. Middle lobe of cerebrum. 

C. Posterior lobe of cerebrum. 

Cerebellum (arbor vitae). 
Medulla oblongata. 

a. Fissure of Sylvius. 

b. Longitudinal fissure of cerebrum. 

c. Commissure of optic nerves. 

d. Tuber cinereum. 

e. Corpora mammillaria v. candicantia. 

/. Optic tract. 

g. Pons Varolii. 

h. Crus cerebelli ad pontem. 

i. Pyramidal body. 

k. Olivary body. 


1. Olfactory (first pair). 

2. Optic (second pair). 

3. Motor oculi (third pair). 

4. Pathetic (fourth pair). 

5. Trigeminus (fifth pair). 

6. Abducens (sixth pair). 

7. Facial, portio dura of seventh pair. 

8. Auditory, portio mollis of seventh 


9. Glossopharyngeal of eighth pair. 

10. Pneumogastric of eighth pair. 

11. Lingual or hypoglossal (ninth pair). 


12. Vertebral. 

13. Basilar. 

11. Anterior spinal. 

15. Posterior inferior cerebellar. 

10. Anterior inferior cerebellar. 

17. Superior cerebellar. 

18. Deep cerebral. 


Communicating branches (forming 
with anterior cerebral, internal 
carotid, and posterior or deep cere- 
bral arteries, the circle of Willis). 

Internal carotid. 

Foss?e of Sylvius. 


23. Corporis callosi. 

Fig. 2. 



AND BLOOD VESSELS— (Continued). 

Fig. 2. — Vertical Longitudinal Section of Brain, Cerebrum, and Cerebellum, 

through Center. 

I. Frontal "bone and frontal sinus. 

II. Crista galli. 

III. Perpendicular lamina of ethmoid 

IV. Body of sphenoid. 

1'. Posterior clinoid process. 

VI. Sella turcica. 

VII. Sphenoidal sinus. 

VIII. Basilar part of occipital bone. 

IX. Occipital part of occipital bone. 

X. Vomer. 

XI. Roof of pharynx. 

XII. Tentorium eerebelli enclosing 
straight sinus. 

A.—E. Same as Fig. 1. 

Convolutions of cerebrum. 


Corpus callosum. 

Genu corporis callosi. 

Splenium corporis callosi 

Septum lucidum. 


Anterior eras. 

Foramen of Monro. 

Thalamus of optic nerve. 

Anterior commissure. 

Soft commissure. 

Posterior commissure. 

Pineal gland. 

p. Peduncle or crus of pineal gland. 

q. Corpora quadrigemina. 

r. Pons Varolii. 

s. Aquseduct of Sylvius. 

t. Tuber cinereum. 

u. Infundibnlnm. 

v. Pituitary gland. 

w. Commissure of optic nerves. 

x. Optic nerve. 

y. Fourth ventricle. 

~. Corpus mammillare v. candicans. 

a. Anterior valve of cerebellum. 

3. Art. corporis callosi. 

Fig. I. 




Fig. 1. 

-Thoracic Parietes with Viscera Enclosed (Abdomen and Abdominal Viscera 
in Natural Position) . 

a. Clavicle. 

b. Sternum. 

c. First rib. 

d. Tenth rib. 

e. Costal cartilages 
/. Ilium 
g. Os pubis. 


Pectoralis minor. 
Internal intercostal. 
Triangular of sternum. 
Latissimus dorsi. 

Abdominal (oblique external and inter- 
nal, and transversalis). 
Rectus femoris. 

q. Tensor fasciae latae. 

r. Adductor femoris longus. 

s. Pectinseus. 

t. Poupart's ligament. 

w. Spermatic cord. 

x. Divided margin of obliquus externus. 

y. Fascia transversalis. 

z. Inferior pillar of external abdominal 
ring (annulus abdominalis). 

Axillary artery. 

Axillary vein. 

Internal mammary art. and ven. 

Superior anterior intercostal artt. 

Inferior anterior intercostal artt. 

Sternal branches of internal mammary 

Brachial plexus. 
Transverse art. and ven. of the scapula, 

with suprascapular nerve. 
Posterior intercostal artt. 
Intercostal nerves. 

11. Crural artery. 

12. Crural vein. 

13. Epigastric art. and ven. 

14. Great saphenous vein. 

15. Circumflex art. and ven. of ilium. 

16. Crural nerve. 

17. Anterior branch of the obturator nerve. 

18. Anterior external cutanea! nerve of the 


19. Cutaneal branch of the ilio-hypogastric 


20. Lumbo-inguinal nerve. 

I. Costal pleura. 

II. Left lung. 

III. Anterior mediastinum. 

IV. Phrenic pleura. 
V. Diaphragm. 

VI. Peritoneum. 

VII. External inguinal fossa. 

VIII. Peritoneal coat of 

IX. Urinary bladder. 

X. Suspensory ligament of liver. 

XI. Umbiliciis. 

XII. Round ligament of liver (obliter- 
ated umbilical vein). 

XIII. Lateral ligaments of bladder (ob- 
literated umbilical arteries). 

XIV. Middle ligament of bladder (ob- 
literated urachus). 
XV. Stomach. 
XVI. Right lobe of liver (with gall blad- 
XVII. Left lobe of liver (with gall blad- 
XVIII. Transverse colon. 
ATA'. Csecum. 

XX. Jejunum and ilium. 
A' AT. Descending colon. 
XXII. Sigmoid flexure. 
XXIII. Rectum. 


VIEW — Continued). 

Fig. 2. 

-Lungs, in Position, and Deeper Abdominal Viscera ( Small Intestine 
Being Removed). 

a. Clavicle. 
6. First rib. 

c. Eleventh rib. 

d. Crest of ilium. 


Psoas major. 
Internal iliac. 
a. Rectus femoris. 
h. Gluteus medius. 
i. Vastus externus. 
A:. External obturator. 
I. Obturator ligament. 
m. Adductor magnus. 
n. Adductor brevis. 


Adductor longus. 



Tensor fasciae latae. 



Neck of femur. 

Trochanter major. 

1. Crural artery. 

2. Crural vein. 

3. Superficial epigastric art. and ven. 

4. Deep art. and ven. of thigh. 

5. External circumflex art. and ven. of 


6. Obturator nerve. 

7. Superior lobe of right lung. 

II. Middle lobe of right lung. 

III. Inferior lobe of right lung. 

IV. Superior lobe of left lung. 

V. Inferior lobe of left lung. 

VI. Pleura. 

VII. Anterior mediastinal space. 

VIII. Diaphragm. 

IX. Esophagus. 

X. Stomach. 

XI. Spleen. 

XII. Left lobe of liver (a portion of 
left extremity being removed). 

XIII. Right lobe of liver. 

XIV. Gall bladder. 

XV. Suspensory ligament of liver. 

XVI. Duodenum. 

XVII. Jejunum. 

XVIII. Mesentery. 

XIX. Caecum. 

XX. Vermiform appendix. 

XXI. Ascending colon. 

XXII. Right flexure of colon. 

XXIII. Transverse colon. 

XXIV. Left flexure of colon. 

XXV. Descending colon. 

XXVI. Sigmoid flexure of colon. 

XXVII. Rectum. 

XXVIII. Peritoneum. 

XXIX. Ilium (divided). 

Fig. 2. 



Fig. 1. — Small Intestine (Jejunum and Ilium), Mesentery, and Mesenteric Vessels. 


Omentum (raised and thrown back). 








Ascending colon. 




Transverse colon. 


Right mesocolon 


Commencement of jejunum. 

1. Superior mesenteric artery. 

2. Large mesenteric vein. 

3. Jejunal arteries and veins. 

4. Ileac arteries and veins. 

5. Ileo-colic arteries and veins. 

6. Right colic arteries and veins. 

Fig. 2.- 

-Internal Arrangement of Hepatic Blood Vessels, the Liver Being Divided 

I. Right lobe. 
II. Left lobe. 
III. Lobus quadratus. 

IV. Lobus Spigelii. 

V. Porta hepatis. 

VI. Gallbladder. 

Anterior margin. 


Posterior margin. 


Suspensory ligament of liver. 


Round ligament of liver ( in fossa um- 




Inferior vena cava. 


Fossa ductus venosi. 


Portal vein. 


Hepatic artery. 

Choledoch duct. 
Cystic duct. 
Hepatic duct. 
Ductus venosus. 
Cystic duct. 
Fundus of gall bladder. 
Collum of gall bladder. 
Hepatic veins. 

Fig-. 3- 



Fig. 3. — Large Intestine, with Principal Blood Vessels. 

a. Divided end of jejunum. 

b. Divided end of ilium. 

c. Mesentery (divided), with principal 

blood vessels. 

d. Caecum. 

e. Ascending or right colon. 
/. Transverse colon. 

Descending or left colon. 
Sigmoid flexure of colon. 
Commencement of rectum. 
Transverse mesocolon. 
Right mesocolon. 
Left mesocolon. 

1. Superior mesenteric artery. 

2. Great mesenteric vein. 

3. Middle colic artery and vein. 

4. Right colic artery and vein. 

5. Ileo-colic artery and vein. 

6. Inferior mesenteric artery. 

7. Minor mesenteric vein. 

8. Left colic artery and vein. 

9. Internal hemorrhoidal artery and vein . 

Fig. 4. 

Fig- 5- 



Fig. 4. — View of Posterior Surface of Deep Viscera of Abdomen and Pelvis, with 
Principal Blood Vessels. 

a. Tenth dorsal vertebra. 

b. Last rib. 

c. Ilium. 

d. Diaphragm. 

e. Suprarenal gland. 

/. Right kidney. 

(j. Left kidney. 

h. Sigmoid flexure of colon. 

i. Ascending colon and caecum. 

k. Rectum. 

1. Descending abdominal aorta. 

2. Inferior vena cava. 

3. Renal artery and vein. 

4. Common iliac artery. 

5. Common iliac vein. 

6. Internal iliac artery. 

7. Internal iliac vein. 

8. External iliac vein. 

Fig. 5. — Internal Structure of Kidney, with Blood Vessels and Ducts. 

Cortical, cineritious or secreting sur- 
face (with tubuli contorti and Mal- 
pighian corpuscles). 


Mammillary process. 

Calyx renalis . 
Pelvis renalis. 
Renal artery. 
Renal vein. 

m m n 



Fig. 6. 

-View of Posterior Surface of Superficial Viscera of Abdomen and 
Blood Vessels. 

Inferior vena cava. 




Head of pancreas. 

Tail of pancreas. 


h. Ileum. 

i. Caecum . 

k. Ascending colon. 

I. Descending colon, 

m. Sigmoid flexure of colon. 

u. Rectum. 


1. Coeliac. 

2. Splenic. 

3. Hepatic. 

4. Superior mesenteric. 

5. Inferior mesenteric. 
7. Left colic. 


8. Left colic. 

9. Minor mesenteric. 

10. Splenic. 

11. Great mesenteric. 

6. Internal hemorrhoidal. 
12. Ilio-colic. 

Arteries and Veins. 

I 13. Right colic. 



Fig. 1. — Anterior View. 





First rib. 



Thyroid gland. 






Right bronchus. 
Left bronchus. 





Dorsal spine. 



Right lung. 



Posterior mediastinum. 








Left lobe of liver. 

Right lobe of liver. 

Ascending colon. 


Jejunum and ileum. 

Gall bladder. 

Suspensory ligament of liver. 

1. Arch of aorta. 

2. Descending thoracic aorta. 

3. Subclavian. 

4. Common carotid. 

5. Innominate. 

6. Intercostal arteries and veins. 
14. Mesenteric. 


7. Superior vena cava. 

8. Right innominate. 

9. Lett innominate. 

10. Subclavian. 

11. Internal jugular. 

12. Azygos. 

13. Left lower azygos. 

15. Great vein. 

16. Jejunal and ileac arteries and veins. 

Ducts and Glands. 

17. Thoracic duct. 

18. Right (minor) duct. 

19. Bronchial glands. 

20. Pulmonic glands. 

21. Deep jugular glands. 

Axillary glands. 
Intercostal glands. 
Mesenteric plexus 

with mesenteric 

Fig. 2. 



Fig. 2. — Posterior View. 

a. Body of first dorsal vertebra. 

6. Spinous process of first dorsal vertebra. 

c. First rib. 

d. Scapula. 

e. Spinal cord. 
/. Esophagus. 
g. Trachea. 

ft. Apex of right lung. 

i. Parietal layer of pleura. 

k. Diaphragm. 

I. Heart. 

m. Left bronchus. 

n. Kidney. 

o. Pelvis renalis. 

p. Ureter. 

q. Suprarenal gland. 

r. Peritoneum. 

s. Rectum. 

t. External sphincter ani muscle. 

u. Levator ani muscle. 

v. Great sacro-sciatic ligament. 

w. Pyriform muscle. 

x. Ilium. 

y. Psoas major muscle. 

z. Glutseus muscle. 

1. Arch of aorta. 

2. Descending thoracic aorta. 

3. Descending abdominal aorta. 

4. Common iliac artery. 

5. Internal iliac artery and vein. 

6. External iliac artery and vein. 

7. Sacral median artery and vein. 

8. Innominate artery. 

9. Subclavian artery. 

10. Common carotid artery. 

11. Internal mammary artery and vein. 

12. Intercostal arteries, veins, and nerves. 

13. Renal artery and vein (with suprare- 

nal branch). 

14. Internal spermatic artery and vein. 

15. Internal hemorrhoidal artery and vein. 

16. Middle hemorrhoidal artery and veins. 

17. Common pudic artery and vein. 

18. Ischiadic artery and vein. 

19. Superior glutseal artery and vein. 

20. Subclavian vein. 

21. Superior vena cava. 

22. Azygos vein. 

23. Left lower azygos vein. 

24. Lumbar vein (1 and 2). 

25. Inferior vena cava. 

26. Common iliac vein. 

27. Thoracic duct. 

28. Receptacle of the chyle. 

29. Lumbar glands. 

30. Intercostal glands. 

31. Posterior mediastinal glands. 

32. Intercostal nerve (1). 

33. Thoracic ganglion (1). 

34. Pneumogastric (vagus) nerve. 

35. Recurrent vagus nerve. 

36. Phrenic nerve. 

37. Thoracic part of sympathetic nerve 

(with thoracic ganglion). 

38. Major and minor splanchnic nerve. 

39. Intercostal nerves (12). 

40. Lumbar nerve (1). 

41. Anterior external cutaneous nerve of 


42. Crural nerve. 

43. Obturator nerve. 

44. Lumbar ganglion of sympathetic nerve. 

45. Ischiadic plexus. 

46. Sacral nerves. 



Fig. 3. — Principal Chylopoietic Viscera, Blood Vessels, and Ducts. 

Left lobe of liver (under surface). 
Lobus quadratus of liver (under sur- 
face) . 
Right lobe of liver (under surface). 
Lobus Spigelii of liver (under surface). 
Gall bladder. 
Cystic duct. 
Hepatic duct. 
Ductus communis choledochus. 

Descending part of duodenum, with 
place of entrance of choledoch duct. 
Pancreatic duct. 
Head of pancreas. 
Body of pancreas. 
Tail of pancreas. 

Inferior horizontal part of duodenum. 
Left kidney. 

Descending abdominal aorta. 
Coeliac axis artery. 
Left coronary artery of ventricle. 
Splenic and pancreatic arteries. 
Hepatic artery. 

(5. Gastro-duodenal arteries. 

7. Renal artery and vein. 

8. Superior mesenteric artery and vein. 

9. Portal vein. 

Fig. 4. 

-Posterior View of Solar Plexus and Minor Plexuses, with Some of the Deep 
Blood Vessels. 

a. Diaphragm. 

b. Inferior vena cava (with hepatic veins). 

c. Esophagus. 

d. Stomach divided (with branches of par 


e. Spleen. 

/. Head of pancreas. 

g. Tail of pancreas. 

'h. Kidney. 

i. Suprarenal gland. 

k. Ureter. 

1. Descending abdominal aorta. 

2. Left coronary of ventricle. 

3. Splenic artery. 

4. Hepatic artery (with hepatic plexus). 

5. Renal artery and vein (with renal 


6. Internal spermatic artery and vein 

(with internal spermatic plexus). 

7. Superior mesenteric artery. 

8. Inferior vena cava. 

9. Solar (coeliac) plexus. 

10. Phrenic plexus. 

11. Gastric plexus. 

12. Splenic plexus. 

13. Superior aortic (abdominal) plexus. 


Fig, 2. 



Fig. 1. — Anterior Surface of Heart and Pericardial Covering. 

a. Appendix of right auricle. 

b. Appendix of left auricle. 

c. Right ventricle. 
(/. Left ventricle. 

e. Transverse or auriculo-ventricular 

/. Anterior longitudinal sulcus. 
a. Apex of heart. 

h. Pericardium divided and thrown 

1. Pulmonary artery. 

2. Ascending aorta. 

3. Right coronary artery. 

4. Front branch of left coronary artery. 

5. Commencement of great coronary vein. 

Fig. 2. — Internal Cavities of Ventricles — Anterior View. 


Right auricle. 


Appendix of right auricle. 


Superior vena cava. 
Inferior vena cava. 



Left auricle. 


Appendix of left auricle. 
Pulmonary veins. 



Pulmonary arteries. 


Ascending aorta. 


Right ventricle. 
Left ventricle. 



Apex of heart. 

n. Wall of the ventricles. 

o. Opening of pulmonary artery. 

p. Opening of aorta. 

(/. Tricuspid or right auriculo-ventricular 

>•. Bicuspid or left auriculo-ventricular 

,«. Tendinous cords. 

t. Musculi pectinati. 

//. Fleshy surface of cut edge of right ven- 

Figf. i. 



Fig. 1. — Arteries of Anterior Surface of Head and Neck. 

a. Occipito-frontalis. 

ft. Orbicularis palpebrarum. 

c. Corrugator supercilii. 

d. Levator labii superioris ala?que nasi. 

e. Levator labii superioris proprius. 
/. Zygomaticus minor. 
g. Zygomaticus major. 
h. Masse ter. 
?'. Buccinator. 
ft. Orbicularis oris. 

1. Triangularis menti. 

m. Quadratus menti. 

1. Subclavian. 

2. Internal mammary. 

3. Transverse scapular. 

4. Transverse of neck. 

5. Ascending cervical. 

6. Inferior thyroid. 

7. Common carotid. 

8. Superior thyroid. 

9. External maxillary or labial. 

10. Coronary of lower lip. 

11. Coronary of upper lip. 



Levator anguli oris. 
Stern o-cleido-mastoid. 









Scalenus anticus. 


Scalenus medius. 


Thyroid gland. 









Dorsals of nose. 


Alaries of nose. 










Deep temporals (from internal maxil 

Temporal (superficialis). 



Frontal branch of temporal. 



Fig. 2.— Arteries and Veins of Lateral Surface of Head, Face, and Neck. 






Culcullaris v. trapezius. 









Splenius capitis. 



Splenius colli. 






Retrahens auris. 
Attollens auris. 




Masse ter 






Zygomaticus major 


Zygomaticus minor. 

Orbicularis oris. 

Triangularis menti. 

Quadratus menti. 

Orbicularis palpebrarum. 


Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi. 

Lower jaw. 

Digastricus maxillae inferioris. 








External jugular. 


Common branch, between external and 







internal jugular. 
Internal jugular. 
Anterior facial. 


Cerebral ophthalmic 


11. External carotid. 

12. Posterior auricular. 

13. Temporal (superficial). 

14. Transversa faciei. 

15. External maxillary. 

16. Submental. 

17. Angular. 

18. Frontal. 

Figr- 3- 



Fig. 3. — Arteries of Right Side of Neck. 

a. Inferior maxillary (lower jaw.) 

b. Os hyoides. 

c. Clavicle. 

d. Larynx. 

e. Thyroid gland. 

/. Trachea. 

g. Acromion scapulae. 

h. Mastoid process. 

i. Styloid process. 

k. Processus transversus atlantis. 


Digastric (anterior belly 
Levator anguli scapula?. 
Scalenus anticus. 
Scalenus medius. 







Pectoralis major. 



Right common carotid. 


Branching of right common carotid, 


External carotid. 


Internal carotid. 


Superior thyroid. 


Superior laryngeal. 




Hyoid branch of lingual. 


External maxillary or facial. 


Ascending palatine. 




Occipital ( with ascending and descend 

ing branches). 

13. Posterior auricular. 

14. Temporal (superficial). 

15. Right subclavian. 

10. Trunk of thyro-cervical. 

17. Inferior thyroid. 

18. Ascending cervical. 

19. Transversalis humeri. 

20. Transversalis colli. 

21. Axillary. 

22. External thoracic. 




Fig. 4.— Arteries and Veins of Right Side of Neck. 

a-x. As in Fig. 
y. First rib. 

First bone of sternum. 


1. Superior vena cava. 

2. Left innominate. 

3. Right innominate. 

4. Right subclavian. 

5. Axillary. 

6. External jugular. 

12. Innominate. 

13. Right common carotid. 

14. Right subclavian. 

15. Axillary. 

16. External carotid. 

17. Internal carotid. 

18. Superior thyroid. 

19. Lingual. 


Internal jugular. 




Internal maxillary. 


Middle jugular. 


Arch of aorta. 



External maxillary or facial 




Posterior auricular. 




Inferior thyroid. 


Transversa'lis humeri. 


Transversalis colli. 


External thoracic. 


b A 





Fig. 1 

-Superficial Arteries on Internal and Anterior Surface of Arm, Forearm, 
and Hand. 






Pectoralis major. 
Latissimus dorsi. 







Semilunar fascia of biceps. 






Long head of triceps. 

XI . 


Short head of triceps. 



Brachialis anticus. 



Internal intermuscular ligament. 
Internal condyle of humerus. 



Supinator longus. 



Pronator teres. 



Flexor carpi ulnaris. 







Muscular branches to coraco-brachial 


and biceps muscle. 



Muscular branches to triceps. 



Profunda superior brachii. 



Anastomica magna. 









Recurrent radial. 



Dorsal branch of radial. 

Palmaris longus. 

Flexor carpi ulnaris. 

Extensor carpi radialis longus. 

Flexor pollicis longus. 

Flexor digitorum communis sublimis. 

Flexor digitorum communis profundis. 

Abductor pollicis longus. 

Extensor pollicis brevis. 

Anterior annular ligament of wrist. 

Ball of thumb, abductor and flexor 

brevis pollicis. 
Tendon of flexor longus pollicis. 
Abductor pollicis. 

Volar branch of radial. 
Muscular branch to ball of thumb. 
13, 14. Branches from princeps pollicis. 
Volar branch of ulnar. 
Superior arch of palm. 
Common volar digital. 
Volar ulnar. 
Dorsal radial. 
Deep or communicating branch. 

Fig. 2. — Deep Arteries of Arm, Forearm and Hand — Anterior Surface. 


a. Coraco-brachial. 

b. Latissimus dorsi. 

c. Long head of triceps. 
(1. Short head of triceps. 
e. Brachialis anticus. 

/. Supinator brevis. 

g. Internal intermuscular ligament. 

h. Internal condyle of humerus. 

i. Tendon of biceps (divided). 

A - . Extensor carpi radialis longus. 

I. Extensor caipi radialis brevis. 

m. Tendon of long supinator (divided). 

n. Radial insertion of pronator teres. 

o. Origin of internal radial and palmaris 

p. Interosseus membrane. 

q. Flexor polli is longus. 

r. Flexor (divided). 

s. Pronator quadratus. 

t. Tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris (di- 

u. Anterior annular ligament (divided). 

v. Abductor digiti minimi. 
w. Opponens digiti minimi. 

x. Interosseus. 






Profunda superior brachii. 



Anastomica magna. 



Bifurcation of brachial. 



Recurrent radial. 








Anterior recurrent ulnar. 



Posterior recurrent ulnar. 






Continuation of ulnar. 


Dorsal branch of radial. 

Superflcialis volse. 

Dorsal branch of ulnar. 

Section of communicating branch of 

Deep palmar arch. 
Deep branch of ulnar. 
Princeps pollicis. 
Indicis radialis. 
Digitalis communis (divided). 
Interosseae palmares. 

Fig. i. 



Fig. 1. — Principal Arteries 

Lower jaw. 
Os hyoid. 
Thyroid gland. 
First rib. 

Right auricle. 


and Veins of Neck, Thorax, and Arms, with Deep Blood 
Vessels of Abdominal Cavity. 

Quadrat us In mho rum. 
Transverse abdominal. 
Internal iliac. 
Spermatic cord. 

Poupart's ligament. 
Pectoralis major. 
Scalenus anticus. 

Ascending aorta. 


Arch of aorta. 


Right common carotid. 

Right subclavian. 

Left common carotid. 

Left subclavian. 

Facial (or labial). 


Descending abdominal aorta. 

Inferior phrenic. 

Cceliac axis. 

Superior mesenteric. 

Internal spermatic. 

Inferior mesenteric. 

Superior vena cava. 
Left innominate. 
Right innominate. 
Internal jugular. 
External jugular. 

14. Subclavian. 

15. Superior thyroid. 

16. Subcutanese colli. 

17. Inferior thyroid. 

18. Labial. 

19. Posterior cephalic. 
21. Anterior facial. 

23. Pulmonary. 

24. Anterior branch of left coronary 



Left auricle. 
Right ventricle. 
Left ventricle. 





Suprarenal capsules. 












Flexor biceps of elbow. 


Brachialis anticus. 


Triceps extensor. 


Supinator longus. 


Flexor carpi ulnaris. 


Flexor pollicis longus. 


Flexor digitorum communis 


Pronator quadra tus. 



Internal hemorrhoidal. 


Common iliac. 


Internal iliac. 


External iliac. 






Branching of brachial. 






Common interosseous. 


Internal interosseus. 


Recurrent radial. 


Recurrent ulnar. 


Deep palmar arch. 


Superficial branch of radial. 



Inferior vena cava. 






Internal spermatic. 
Common iliac. 



Internal iliac. 


External iliac. 


Nerve inguino cutaneus. 


Nerve ilio-lumbalis. 










Arteries and Veins. 

25. Right coronary of heart. 

33. Renal. 

37. Circumflex iliac. 

38. Ilio-lumbar. 
46. Sacra media. 

Fig. i. 

Fig. 2. 



Fig. 1. 

-Distribution of Internal Maxillary and Labial or Facial Arteries and Veins 
on Left Side of Head. 

o. Frontal bone. 

b. Great wing of sphenoid. 

c. Upper maxillary. 

d. Inner wall of orbit. 

e. Malar bone. 

/. Inferior maxillary. 

g. Body of maxillary. 


h. External pterygoid. 
i. Internal pterygoid. 
k. Masseter. 

I. Orbicularis oris. 
•ft. Buccinator. 


2. Internal jugular. 

3. External jugular. 

4. Labial. 

5. Anterior facial. 

6. Posterior facial. 

Arteries and Veins. 

7. Occipital. 

8. Posterior auricular. 

11. Deep temporal. 

12. Inferior alveolar. 

13. Posterior alveolar. 

19. Cerebral ophthalmic. 

20. Frontal. 


1. Left common carotid. 

9. Temporal (superficial). 

10. Internal maxillary. 

14. External maxillary. 

15. Coronaria labii inferioris. 

16. Coronaria labii superioris. 

17. Dorsal of nose. 

18. Angular. 

Fig. 2. 

-Posterior Surface of Lungs and Trachea, with their Principal Arteries, 
Veins and Nerves. 

a. Larynx. 

b. Trachea. 

c. Right bronchus. 

d. Left bronchus. 

e. Superior lobe of lung. 

f. Inferior lobe of lung. 

g. Middle lobe of lung. 

ft. Righ auricle, with orifice of inferior 

vena cava. 
i. Left orifice. 
k. Right ventricle. 
I. Left ventricle. 


3. Right coronary of heart. 

4. Pulmonary. 

5. Arch of aorta. 

6. Innominate. 

7. Subclavian. 

8. Common carotid. 



Great vein of heart. 

9. Internal jugular. 
10. Superior vena cava. 



Pneumogastric (vagus). 
Recurrent laryngeal branch of pneu- 
Recurrent branches of tracheal. 

14. Recurrent branches of cardiac. 

15. Superior laryngeal. 

1<>. Cardiac branch of sympathetic. 

17. Cardiac plexus. 



Fig. 1. — The Coeliac Axis and Its Branches, and Their Ramifications, Pancreas, 

Spleen and Duodenum in Position, the Stomach Having Been 

Raised and the Transverse Mesocolon Removed. 

The Coeliac Axis is a short, thick trunk, about half an inch in length, arising 
from the aorta opposite the margin of the diaphragm. It passes nearly hori- 
zontally forward and divides into three large branches — the gastric, hepatic 
and splenic. Occasionally it gives off one of the phrenic arteries. 

The Splenic, in the adult, is the largest of the three branches. It takes a tortu- 
ous course to the left along the upper border of the pancreas, to which it gives off 
the pancreaticse parvae and pancrea magna. Its other branches are the gastric 
(vasa brevia) and left gastro-epiploica. 

The Gastric (coronaria ventricula) is the smallest branch of the cceliacaxis and 
distributes branches to the esophagus, cardiac end of the stomach, and, by its 
largest branch, to the stomach along its lesser curvature as far as the pylorus, as 
well as to the two layers of the lesser omentum, through which it passes. 

The Hepatic, in the adult, ranges between the other two in size, but in the foetus 
is the largest of the three. Its course is upward and to the right. It gives off the 
pyloric, gastro-duodenalis (which divides into the gastro-epiploica dextra and 
pancreatico-duodenalis superior), and cystic. 

The branches from these arteries freely anastomose with each other and with 
other arteries to these members. 

The Superior Mesenteric artery and the beginnings of its branches are also 
shown, as well as a portion of the portal and splenic veins. 



Fig. 1. — Portal Vein and Its Branches, Liver, Stomach, Pancreas, Spleen, Portion of 
Large and Small Intestines in Position (Transverse Colon Removed). 

The Portal Venous system is composed of four large veins which collect the venous blood 
from the digestive viscera. These are the inferior and superior mesenteric, splenic and 
gastric, which unite to form the portal vein (vena portse), which is quite large in size, and 
extends from the pancreas to the stomach. 

The Portal vein is about four inches long, being formed by the junction of the superior 
mesenteric and splenic veins, their union taking place in front of the vena cava and 
behind the upper border of the great end of the pancreas. Passing upwards through the 
right border of the lesser omentum to the under surface of the liver, it enters the trans- 
verse fissure, where it is somewhat enlarged, forming the sinus of the portal vein and 
divides into two branches, which accompany the ramifications of the hepatic artery and 
hepatic duct throughout the substance of the liver. The right is the larger but shorter 
branch. The portal vein lies behind and between the hepatic duct and artery, the former 
being to the right and the latter to the left. Filaments of the hepatic plexus of nerves 
and numerous lymphatics, surrounded by a quantity of loose areolar tissue, accompany 
these structures. 

The Inferior Mesenteric returns the blood from the rectum, sigmoid flexure and de- 
scending colon. It ascends beneath the peritoneum in the lumbar region, passes behind 
the transverse portion of the duodenum and pancreas and terminates in the splenic vein. 
Its hemorrhoidal branches inosculate with those of the internal iliac, thus establishing a 
communication between the portal and general venous systems. Other anastomoses with 
veins of the systematic system also take place. 

The Superior Mesenteric returns the blood from the small intestine, caecum, and 
ascending and transverse colon. The large trunk, formed by the union of its numerous 
branches, ascends along the right side and in front of the corresponding artery, passes in 
front of the transverse portion of the duodenum, and unites behind the upper border of 
the pancreas, with the splenic vein to form the portal vein. Usually the right gastro- 
epiploic vein empties into the superior mesenteric close to its termination, but in the 
plate it opens into the splenic vein. 

The Splenic commences by five branches which return the blood from the substance of 
the spleen. These form a single vessel which passes from left to right behind the upper 
border of the pancreas below the artery and terminates at its greater end by uniting at a 
right angle with the superior mesenteric to form the vena portse. It is of large size, is not 
tortuous like the artery and receives the following additional branches: vasa brevia, left 
gastro-epiploic, pancreatic branches, pancreatico-duodenal and inferior mesenteric. 

The Gastric veins are two in number. The smaller (the pyloric) runs along the lesser 
curvature of the stomach toward the pyloric end. receives branches from the pylorus and 
duodenum, and terminates in the vena portse; the larger (the coronary) begins near the 
pylorus, runs along the lesser curvature of the stomach toward the esophageal opening, 
and curves downward and backward between the folds of the lesser omentum to end in 
the vena portse. 

Fig. i. 

Fig. 2. 



Fig. 1. — Arteries of Pelvis and Internal Genital Organs in Female Subject. 

a. Sacrum. 

b. Crest of ilium. 

c. Spina ilii anterior superior. 

d. Psoas magnus muscle. 

e. Internal iliac muscle. 

/. Rectum. 

g. Uterus. 

h. Lateral ligament of uterus. 

i. Ovum, with ovarian ligament. 

k. Fallopian tubes. 

Arteries . 

1. Descending abdominal aorta. 

2. Sacra media. 

3. Internal spermatic. 

4. Internal iliac. 

5. External iliac. 

Internal iliac. 


Middle hemorrhoidal. 

Circumflex iliac. 

a. Last lumbar vertebra. 

b. Sacrum. 

Fig. 2. — Arteries of Pelvis in Male Subject. 

I e. Crest of ilium. 


d . Psoas magnus. 

e. Internal iliac. 

/. Transverse abdominal. 

g. Rectus abdominis. 

h. Ureter. 

/. Bladder. 

k. Rectum. 

I. Vas deferens. 


1. Descending abdominal aorta. 

2. Inferior mesenteric. 

3. Internal hemorrhoidal 

4. Left colic. 

5. Sacra media. 

6. Internal spermatic. 

Common iliac. 
External iliac. 
Internal iliac. 
Circumflex iliac. 
Inferior epigastric. 


Fig- 3- 



Fig. 1. 

-Arteries on Internal Surface of Pelvis, Thigh and Knee of the Right 


Fourth lumbar vertebra. 

Fifth lumbar vertebra. 

Spinal canal. 



Linea arcuata interna. 

(j. Symphysis pubis. 

h. Crest of ilium. 

i. Anterior superior spine of ilium. 

k. Lesser sacro-sciatic ligament. 

/. Rectum. 

Internal iliac. 
Psoas major. 

Internal obturator. 
Levator ani. 
Vastus interims. 



Rectus femoris. 

Adductor magnus. 



Tendo gracilis. 

Gastrocnemius (internus). 


Right common iliac. 
Internal iliac. 
External iliac. 
Sacra lateralis. 
Glutaea superior. 
Glutrea inferior. 
Internal pubic. 
Middle hemorrhoidal. 




Circumflex iliac. 


Profunda femoris. 

Circumflexa femoris interna. 

Perforating profunda femoral (1). 

Perforating profunda femoral (2). 

Perforating profunda femoral (3). 

Femoral, in Hunter's canal. 

Anastomotica magna. 


Inferior internal articular of knee. 

Fig. 2. — Arteries on Dorsal Surface of Right Foot 

Os calcis. 



Tuber ossis metatarsi (5) 


1. Dorsalis pedis. 

•2. External tarsal. 

3. Internal tarsal. 

4. Metatarsal. 

5. Interossese dorsalis metatarsi. 

Digi tales pedis dorsalis. 

Interosseus dorsal with the external 

and internal branches to great toe. 
Communicating branch to deep plantar 


Fig. 3. — Plantar Arch of Arteries in Sole of Right Foot. 

c. Capitulum ossis matatarsi (1). 

rt. Tuber os calcis. 

b. Tuberositas ossis metatarsi (5) 

d. Flexor digitorum pedis communis bre 

vis v. perforatus. 

e. Abductor pollicis pedis. 

/. Flexor brevis pollicis pedis. 
g. Flexor longus pollicis pedis. 


Flexor digitorum pedis communis lon- 
gus v. perforans. 

Abductor digiti pedis (5). 
Flexor brevis digiti pedis (5). 
Transversalis pedis. 

1. Posterior tibial. 

2. External Plantar. 

3. Branches of internal plantar. 

4. External plantar of toe. 


Communicating branch of deep plantar 

Plantaris pollicis pedis. 
Interosseus plantar. 

Fig. 6. 

Fig. 4. 



Fig. 4.— Deep Arteries in Sole of Right Foot. 

a. Tuber os calcis. 


b. Abductor pollicis pedis. 

c. Interosseus plantar of foot. 

d. Short flexor of toe. 


1. Posterior tibial. 

2. External plantar. 

3. Internal plantar. 

4. Tibialis plantaris pollicis pedis. 

5. Perforating branches. 

G. Deep plantar arch. 

7. Interosseus plantar. 

8. Digitalis pedis plantares. 

9. External plantar of toe. 

Fig. 5. — Arteries on Anterior Surface of Right Leg and Foot. 

/. Patella. 

g. Tuberosity of the tibia. 

h. Tibia. 

i. Internal malleolus. 
k. External malleolus. 


q. Tendo communis extensorius. 
x. Ligament of patella. 

//. Tibialis anticus. 

z. Extensor pollicis pedis longus. 

a. Extensor digitorum communis longus. 
(3. Peronaeus tertius. 
y. Soleus. 

<5. Gastrocnemius. 

£. Extensor pollicis pedis brevh 

Extensor digitorum communis brevis. 

13. Anterior tibial. 

14. Recurrent tibial. 

15. Dorsal of foot. 

16. External malleolar. 


' 17. 

! 19. 


Internal malleolar. 

External tarsal. 

Internal tarsal. 

Interosseae metatarsi dorsalis. 

Fig. 6. — Arteries on Posterior Surface of Right Leg. 

k. Popliteal space. 
I. Head of fibula. 
m. Fibula. 

External malleolus. 
Internal malleolus. 


y. Short head of biceps femoru 


Heads of gastrocnemius. 

Peronaeus longus. 

Peronaeus brevis. 

Flexor longus pollicis pedis. 

//. Tibialis posticus. 

ii. Flexor digitorum longus. 

/. Tendon of Achillis. 

n. Soleus. 

9. Popliteal. 

10. Internal superior articular of knee. 

11. External superior articular of knee. 

12. Internal inferior articular of knee. 

13. External inferior articular of knee. 

Arteries . 


Anterior tibial. 

Peronaeal of fibula. 

Posterior tibial. 

External posterior malleolar. 



Fig. 1. — Foetal Organization. 

a. Right ventricle of heart. 

b. Left ventricle of heart. 
r. Left auricle of heart. 
d. Origin of aorta. 

c. Arch of aorta. 

/. Pulmonary artery. 

a. Left branch (divided). 

It. Left pulmonary veins. 

i. Ductus arteriosus. 

k. Descending aorta. 

/. Superior vena cava. 

m. Left innominate vein. 

n. Common iliac artery. 

o. External iliac artery. 

p. Internal iliac artery. 

q. Umbilical artery. 

r. Umbilicus. 

s. Umbilical vein. 

t. Fundus of bladder. 

?/. Urachus. 

v. Placenta. 

iv. Amnion. 

x. Chorion. 

y. Spongy portion of placenta. 

z. Left lobe of liver. 

a. Right lobe of liver. 
/3. Gall bladder, 
y. Umbilical vein. 

J. Portal vein, anastomosing with umbili- 
cal vein. 
e. Ductus venosus. 

Hepatic vein. 
Inferior vena cava. 
Lobus Spigelii. 
Supra-renal capsule. 







True Ribs 


False Ribs 

Spinal Column 





End of Spine 

Carpal Bones 

Metacarpal Bones 





Bones of 

Ankle > 
and Foot 

Fig. 1.— Bones of the Skeleton. 


The Head 

(22 bones). 

1. Cranium 
(8 bones). 

2. Face 

(14 bones). 

r Frontal (forehead). 

Two Parietal (sides). 
I Two Temporal (temple) bones. 
1 Sphenoid (base of skull). 
| Ethmoid (sieve-like bone at root of tongue). 
[ Occipital (back and base of skull). 

Two Superior Maxillary (upper jaw). 

Inferior Maxillary (lower jaw). 

Two Malar (cheek). 

Two Lachrymal (in orbit of eye). 
| Two Turbinated (scroll like). 
I Two Nasal (bridge of nose). 
I Vomer (bone between the nostrils). 
( Two Palate. 

The Trunk 
(54 bones). 

1. Spinal column 
(24 bones). 

2. Kibs 
(24 bones). 

Seven Cervical Vertebra?. 
Twelve Dorsal Vertebrae. 
Five Lumbar Vertebrae. 

/ True Eibs. 
I False Ribs. 

3. Sternum (breast bone). 

4. Hyoides (bone at root of tongue). 

5. Pelvis 
(4 bones). 

Two Inominata. 



The Limbs 
(124 bones). 

1. Upper Limbs 
(64 bones). 

2. Lower Limbs 
(60 bones). 

Moulder {gggj; 


f Humerus. 

1 Ulna and Radius. 

{Eight Carpal Bones. 
Five Metacarpal Bones 
Phalanges (14 bones). 

Tibia and Fibula. 

{Seven Tarsal Bones. 
Five Metatarsal Bones 
Phalanges (14 bones). 




The Bones of the Skeleton are about two hundred 
in number. 

Some authorities omit the 6 small bones of the ear, which makes 
the number exactly 200. Counting these and the 8 small sesamoid 
bones at the root of the thumb and great toe, as other authorities do, 
makes the number 214. The teeth are never enumerated among the 

The bones are placed in such a position as to bestow 
individual character upon the body, afford points of con- 
nection to the numerous muscles, and give firmness and 
strength to the entire fabric. In the extremities they are 
hollow cylinders, and by their formation and structure are 
admirably calculated to support weight and resist vio- 
lence. Bone has been found by experiment to possess 
twice the resisting property of oak. 

" Cut a sheet of foolscap in two pieces. Roll one half into a com- 
pact cylinder, and fold the other into a close, flat strip; support the 
ends of each and hang weights in the middle until they bend. The 
superior strength of the roll will astonish one unfamiliar with this 
mechanical principle. In a rod, the particles break in succession, first 
those on the outside, and later those in the center. In a tube, the 
particles are all arranged where they resist the first strain. Iron pil- 
lars are therefore cast hollow. Stalks of grass and grain are so light as 
to bend before a breath of wind, yet are stiff enough to sustain their 
load of seed." 

In the Head and Trunk the bones are flattened and 
arched for the purpose of protecting cavities and providing 



an extensive surface for attachment. In some situa- 
tions they present projections which serve as levers; in 
others smooth grooves which act as pulleys for the passage 
of tendons. By their numerous divisions and mutual ap- 
position, the bones are equally adapted to fulfill every 
movement of the body, which may tend to its preserva- 
tion or be conducive to its welfare. 

Classification of Bones. — The bones are divided into 
four classes: long, short, flat and irregular. 

The long bones are ninety in number and act as sup- 
ports, or levers; as in the limbs. 

The short bones are thirty in number and are found 
where strength is required and motion is limited; as in 
the hands and feet. 

The flat bones are forty in number, and protect the 
viscera by forming walls around them ; as in the head, 
chest, etc. 

The irregular bones are forty in number ; as in the face, 
vertebral column, etc. 

The Composition of the Bones at maturity is about 
one part animal, or organic matter, consisting of gelatine, 
vessels and fat, and about two parts mineral, or inorganic 
matter, consisting of phosphate and carbonate of lime 
(62 1-3 per cent.), with fluoride of lime, phosphate of mag- 
nesium, sodium and chlorid of sodium (4 1-3 per cent.). 
The proportion varies with age. In youth it is nearly half 
and half, while in old age the mineral is greatly in excess. 
Heat will remove the animal matter and leave the mineral. 

Put a bone into a hot fire for a few minutes and when carefully 
removed it will have the same shape as before, but be much lighter, 
perfectly white, very brittle, and will easily crumble. The animal or 
organic part has been burnt out, leaving only the earthy or inorganic 

Acid will remove the mineral matter and leave the 


Immerse a long, slender bone for some time in dilute muriatic 
acid. The bone will retain its original shape but be lighter in weight, 
soft and pliable, so that it can be twisted or tied into a knot. The 
acid has eaten out the earthy part but left unaffected the animal part. 

The Structure of Bones. — Bone is composed of an 
outer compact layer, and an inner cellular or spongy 
structure. The spongy structure increases in quantity, and 
becomes more porous at the ends of a long bone, while the 
compact portion increases near the middle, where strength 
is needed. 

Fresh or Living Bone is moist, pinkish in color, and 
covered with a tough membrane, called the periosteum 
(from peri, around; osteon, a bone), filled with marrow, 
and lined with a similar membrane, the endosteum (en 
in ; osteon, a bone). 

The Lacunae. — If a thin transverse section of bone be 
placed under the microscope, black spots with lines run- 
ning in all directions are 

seen. These are cavities >^5A' if \ *> ^"" '*^~^' *V 
called lacunae, from which V**' *-*. \ A ' T^'-H^t 

radiate small tubes. The \. '^, /*"<-- -v }f^\r~~\J :V :\\ %i *< 
lacuna? are arranged in cir- i > * ^ \' ; 1 / ;•,» , % A - 

cles around large tubes, <*/' h %^ - 

called the Haversian ca- V^V* >J . •■; ~ Vt . -: ^,70' 
nals, which serve as pas- ^^v^^-^^^V^V'S-''*;:^^ 
sages for the blood ves- *! \~*sV~:' ~\ " ■ ' y - **" 
sels. By means of these ' -^^^ ■ x->C 
canals the blood circulates Fig - 2 - 

. , iiii i' A thin slice of bone, highly magnified, show- 

thrOUerh the bone tiSSUe, ing the lacunae, the tiny tubes (eanaliculi) radi- 

. . . ating from them, and four Haversian canals, 

nourishing it. three seen crosswise and one lengthwise. 

Development of Bone. — The bone structure does 
not reach its full development until about the twenty- 
fifth year. The skeleton of the body in infancy is com- 
posed largely of cartilage, which is a white, glistening 


substance commonly known as gristle. As age advances 
earthy matter is deposited in the cartilage, the bone 
gradually becoming harder and growing proportionately 
to other parts of the body. The bones in childhood being 
tough are not easily fractured, and when broken readily 
heal again, while those of elderly people are brittle and 
liable to fracture and do not easily reunite. 

The Joints are movable or immovable. The mova- 
ble joints are covered with a soft, smooth cartilage which 
fits so perfectly as to be air tight. It is lined with a thin 
(synovial) membrane, which secretes a viscid fluid not 
unlike the white of an egg. This fluid lubricates the 
joints and prevents friction. The body is the only self- 
oiling machine in existence. The immovable joints 
have no synovial membrane. The bones which form 
the joint are bound together firmly with strong liga- 
ments (from liyo, I join), so as to keep them always in 

Injury and Repair of Bones. — The proper growth 
and development of the bones is often hindered by disease 
or injury. Lack of a proper amount of earthy matter 
makes the bones soft and allows them to be easily bent 
out of shape, causing deformity. 

The Breaking- of a Bone is by no means an infre- 
quent occurrence. When broken the blood oozes out of 
the fractured ends. This soon becomes a watery fluid, 
which, in the course of a couple of weeks, thickens to a 
gristly substance, forming a cement which holds the frac- 
tured ends in place. In five or six weeks the broken parts 
will have reunited, bone matter having been gradually 
deposited about the fracture. This new formation is 
larger than the adjacent bone, but the extra matter is 
ura dually absorbed, and often no trace of the injury 



The Bones of the Skull and the Face form a cavity 
for the protection of the brain. They are immovable, ex- 
cept the lower jaw which is hinged at the back, so as to 
allow the opening and shutting of the mouth. 

The Skull Bones are composed, in general, of two 
compact plates, with a spongy layer (diploe) between. 
The outer bones are joined together by notched edges, or 
sutures, similar to what the carpenter terms dovetailing. 

The Cranial Cavity thus formed affords a perfect 
shelter for the brain. It is oval in shape and adapted to 
resist pressure. It communicates at the base, through the 
foramen magnum, with the spinal cavity. 


The Trunk contains the two largest cavities, the chest 
and abdomen. The principal bones are those of the spine, 
the ribs and the pelvis, or hips. 

The Spinal Column consists of twenty-four bones, 
called vertibrae (verto, to turn), one placed upon another, 
between which are placed pads of cartilage. A canal is 
hollowed out of the column for the protection of the spinal 
cord. There are projections (processes) at the back and 
sides, which serve as levers for the attachments of muscles 
and ligaments. The skull articulates with the spine in a 
peculiar manner. On the top of the upper vertebra (atlas) 
are two little hollows (faucets) lined with the synovial 
membrane, which receive the projections on the lower 
part of the skull, one on either side of the foramen mag- 
num, allowing the head to rock to and fro. The second 
vertebra (axis) has a peg (odontoid process) which projects 
through a hole in the atlas, so that when we move the 
head sidewise, the atlas turns around the peg of the axis. 
The spinal column serves as a support for the whole body. 


The Ribs are twenty-four in number and are arranged 
in pairs on each side of the chest. They are also attached 
to the spine at the back. The upper seven pairs are at- 
tached by cartilages to the sternum (breastbone); the next 
three pairs are fastened to each other and to the cartilage 
above ; and the last two pairs, the floating ribs, are loose. 
The long, slender and arched ribs give lightness and 
strength, and the cartilages give elasticity to the chest — 
properties essential to the protection of the organs within, 
and to freedom of motion in respiration. 

The Iimomiiiata (nameless), or hip bones, form the 
pelvis in front and at the sides and the sacrum and 
coccyx at the back. The hip bones form the pubic 
arch and are joined by a seam, termed the symphysis 

The Extremities, or limbs, are connected to the trunk, 
and are four in number : two upper, joined to the thorax 
through the intervention of the shoulder ; and two lower, 
connected with the pelvis. The upper pair, comprising the 
shoulders, arms, and hands, are subservient to tact and 
prehension ; the lower pair, comprising the legs and feet, 
to support and locomotion. 


The Shoulder. — The bones of the shoulder are the clav- 
icle (collar bone) and the scapula (shoulder blade). The 
clavicle is a long bone shaped like the italic/'. It articu- 
lates at one end with the sternum and at the other with 
the scapula. 

The Scapula is a thin, flat, triangular bone, situated 
on the top and back of the chest, forming the back part 
of the shoulder. 

The Shoulder Joint. — The humerus, or arm bone, ar- 
ticulates to the shoulder blade by a ball-and-socket joint. 


This consists of a cuplike (glenoid) cavity in the scapula, 
and a rounded head of the humerus to fit it, thus affording 
a free rotary motion. 

The Elbow is formed by the humerus and ulna articu- 
lation. The ulna is small at the lower end, while the 
radius, or large bone of the forearm, on the contrary, is 
small at its upper end, and large at its lower end, where 
it forms the wrist joint. 

The Carpus, or wrist, consists of two rows of short 
bones, one row of which articulates with the radius, form- 
ing the wrist joint, and the other with the metacarpal bones. 

The Hand. — The metacarpal bones, or bones of the 
palm, support the fingers and thumb. Each finger has 
three bones, while the thumb has two. The first is articu- 
lated with the metacarpal bone, the second to the first, and 
the third to the second. The bones of the fingers and 
thumb are called the phalanges. 


The Femur, or thigh bone, is the longest, largest, and 
strongest bone in the skeleton. It articulates with the 
hip bone by a ball-and-socket joint. The acetabulum, a 
cup-shaped depression, receives the head of the femur, 
forming a very strong joint. 

The Knee Joint is strengthened and protected by the 
patella or kneecap, the largest sesamoid bone, which is 
firmly fastened over the joint in the tendon of the quadri- 
ceps muscle. 

The Tibia, or shin bone, the largest bone of the leg, 
articulates with the femur, forming the knee joint; with 
the foot, forming the ankle joint; and with the fibula, the 
small outside bone of the leg. 

The Foot, in general arrangement, is very similar to 
that of the hand. The several parts of the foot are the 


tarsus, the metatarsus, and the phalanges. The numerous 
bones are joined together with cartilages, giving elasticity 
to the foot in walking. 

A study of Plates I to VI will give a very good idea of 
the appearance and relative sizes of the bones. 

Sesamoid Bones are small osseous masses, developed 
in tendons, which exert a degree of force upon the parts 
over which they glide. They are enveloped entirely by 
the fibrous tissue of the tendon in which they exist, except 
on the side that articulates with the part over which they 

Wormian Bones are sometimes found in the cranial 
sutures, but are not constant in number or size. 

Articulations are divided into three classes : (1) syn- 
arthrosis, immovable ; (2) amphiarthrosis, synchondrosis 
or symphysis, having limited motion ; (3) diarthrosis, having 
free motion. The latter is divided into gliding joints, ball- 
and-socket joints, and hinge joints. The varieties of 
motion in joints are : flexion, extension, adduction, abduc- 
tion, rotation, circumduction, and gliding movements. 

The Structures that enter the formation of joints are, 
the articular lamellar of bone, cartilage, fibro-cartilage, 
synovial membrane, and ligaments. Articular lamella of 
bone differs from ordinary bone tissue in being more dense, 
containing no Haversian canals, nor canaliculi, and having 
large lacunae. Cartilage is temporary or permanent, The 
first forms the original framework of the skeleton, and be- 
comes ossified. Permanent cartilage is not prone to ossifi- 
cation, and is divided into three varieties : (1) articular, 
covering the ends of bones in joints ; (2) costal, forming 
part of the skeleton ; (3) reticular, arranged in lamellae, or 
plates, to maintain the shape of certain parts. Fibro-car- 
tilage is (1) inter-articular, separating the bones of a joint ; 
(2) connecting, binding bones together ; (3) circumferential, 


deepening cavities ; (4) stratiform, lining grooves. Syno- 
vial membranes secrete the synovia, a viscid, glairy fluid, 
resembling the serous membranes in structure. They are 
(1) articular, lubricating joints ; (2) bursal, forming closed 
sacks ; (3) vaginal, ensheathing tendons. 


The Ligaments, which bind the bones together at the 
joints, are strong bands of a smooth, silvery white, fibrous 
tissue. It is solid and inelastic, softer than cartilage, but 
harder than membrane. The bond formed is so strong that 
the bones are sometimes broken without injury to the 
fastenings. There are a vast number of ligaments in the 
human body, various in form and office, and each with its 
own special name. For shape, size, office, and names of 
ligaments, see Plates VII to IX. 



The Muscles are the moving organs of the animal 
frame. They constitute by their size and number the great 
bulk of the body, upon which they bestow form and sym- 
metry. In the limbs they are situated around the bones, 
which they invest and defend, while they form to some of 
the joints a principal protection. In the trunk they are 
spread out to enclose cavities, and constitute a defensive 
wall, capable of yielding to internal pressure, and again 
returning to its original position. Their color presents 

the deep red that is character- 
istic of flesh, and their form is 
variously modified to execute 
the varied range of movements 
Fig 3- which they are required to ef- 

Microscopic view of a Muscle, show- f eC t. MuSCle is COIUpOSed of a 

ing at one end, the fibrillar ; and, at the r 

other, the disks, or ceiis. of the fiber. number of parallel fibers placed 
side by side, and supported and held together by a delicate 
web of areolar tissue, so that if it were possible to remove 
the muscular substance, we should have remaining a beau- 
tiful reticular framework, possessing the exact form and 
size of the muscle without its color and solidity. 

Wash out the color from a lean piece of beef and the fine fibers of 

which the meat is composed are easily detected. In boiling corned 

beef the fibers often separate, owing to the delicate tissue which 

bound them together being dissolved. The microscope shows that 



these fibers are in turn made up of minute filaments (fibrils), and that 
each fibril is composed of small cells arranged like a string of beads. 
This gives the muscle its striped, or striated, appearance. The cells 
are filled with a fluid or semi-fluid mass of living (protoplasmic) 

Number of Muscles. — There are about five hundred 
muscles in the human body, each having a special use, and 
all working together harmoniously and perfectly. Many 
of the external muscles can be seen and traced on Plates 
X to XV, but beneath these are still larger numbers, many 
being quite tiny and delicate, too small to be seen with 
the unaided eye. 

Contractility is a peculiar and wonderful property 
possessed by muscles, resulting from the elastic nature 
of the muscular tissues. Contraction is effected by an effort 
of the will, by cold, certain kinds of irritation, a sharp 
blow, etc. When a muscle contracts it becomes shorter 
and thicker, drawing the ends nearer together. Bending 
the elbow nicely illustrates this action. The biceps 
muscle on the front of the upper arm can be seen and felt 
to become shorter and thicker as it contracts. Contrac- 
tility does not always cease at death, as a contraction of 
the muscles is frequently noticed in certain cold-blooded 
animals long after the head has been severed from the 

The Tendons are white, glistening cords, or bands, 
formed almost entirely of white fibrous tissue, have few 
vessels and no nerves, and serve to connect the muscles 
with the structure on which they act. This union is so 
firm that, under extreme violence, the bone itself rather 
breaks than permits of the separation of the tendon from 
its attachment. The muscular fibers spring from the sides 
of the tendon, allowing more of them to act upon the bone 
than if directly attached. This mode of attachment gives 
strength and elegance. In the broad muscles the tendon 


is spread so as to form an expansion, called aponeurosis. 

Fasciae {fascia, a bandage) are laminae of variable 
thickness which invest the softer structures. The super- 
ficial fasciae are composed of fibro-areolar tissue, and are 
found beneath the skin almost over the whole body. The 
deep fasciae are of aponeurotic structure, dense, inelastic, 
and fibrous, ensheathing muscles and affording attachment 
to some of them, ensheathing also the vessels and nerves, 
and binding down the whole into a shapely mass. 

Arrangement of Muscles. — The muscles are generally 
arranged in pairs, one expanding as the other contracts, 
giving the bone to which they are attached its backward 
and forward, or other, movements. 

Grasp the arm tightly above the elbow and bend the 
forearm, when the muscle on the inside can be felt as it 
swells and becomes hard and prominent, while the outside 
(triceps) muscle relaxes. Straighten the arm and the 
conditions are reversed. When the muscles of one side of 
the face become palsied, those on the opposite side draw 
the mouth that way. 

Modification of Muscles. — Muscles present various 
modifications in the arrangement of their fibers in relation 
to their tendinous structure. Sometimes they are com- 
pletely longitudinal, and terminate at each extremity in 
tendon, the entire muscle being fusiform in its shape ; in 
other situations, they are dispersed like the rays of a fan, 
converging to a tendinous point, as the temporal, pectoral, 
gluteal, etc., and constitute a radial muscle. Again they 
are penniform, converging like the plumes of a pen to one 
side of the tendon, which runs the whole length of a muscle, 
as in the peronei ; or bipenniform, converging to both 
sides of the tendon. In other muscles the fibers pass ob- 
liquely from the surface spread out on one side (of a tendi- 
nous expansion), to that of another extended on the opposite 


side as in the semimembranous ; or they are composed 
of penniform, or bipenniform, fasciculi, as in the deltoid, 
and constitute a compound muscle. 

Kinds of Muscles. — There are two classes of muscles, 
voluntary and involuntary. The voluntary muscles are 
those capable of being put in motion by the will, and are 
composed of reddish fibers. Each one is intended to aid in 
some movement of the body. All muscles lying on the 
outside of the skeleton are voluntary. Involuntary muscles, 
on the other hand, are not capable of being put into action 
by the will, and are composed of paler fibers, which differ 
also in shape. Involuntary muscular tissue enters into the 
formation of the internal organs, as the stomach, intestines, 
etc. The heart is an involuntary muscle, but its fiber is 
similar in appearance and structure to those of the volun- 
tary type. The muscles which move the arms, legs, and 
head are under the control of the will, while the heart beats 
on day and night. The eyelid combines both classes of 
muscles, so that we wink constantly, yet may restrain or 
accelerate that motion. 

Attachment of Muscles. — Muscles are attached to the 
periosteum and perichondrium of bone and cartilage, to the 
subcutaneous areolar tissue, and to ligaments. The more 
fixed extremity of a muscle is called the origin, and the 
more movable, the insertion. The muscles may be ar- 
ranged in conformity with the general divisions of the 
body, into those of the head and face, of the neck, of the 
trunk, of the upper extremities, and of the lower extremi- 
ties. It is not necessary in a work of this kind to describe 
all of the muscles — only a few that serve as guides to the 
principal arteries and veins and the diaphragm. 

The Sterno-cleido-mastoid arises by two heads from 
the sternum and the inner third of the clavicle, and passes 
upwards and backwards to be inserted into the mastoid 

E.— 2 


process of the temporal bone and the superior curved line 
of the occipital bone, behind the ear. The anterior border 
serves as a guide to the common carotid artery and internal 
jugular vein. 

The Biceps arises by two heads, the long head from 
the upper margin of the glenoid cavity, the short head from 
the apex of the coracoid process, and is inserted into the 
back of the tuberosity of the radius and the fascia of the 
forearm. The inner border serves as a guide to the 
brachial artery and basilic vein. 

The Sartorius arises from the anterior superior spinous 
process of the ilium (front part of the hip bone), and half of 
the notch below it, and passes obliquely downwards and 
inwards to be inserted into the upper internal surface of 
the tibia. It is the longest muscle of the body. The 
internal border serves as a guide to the femoral artery and 

These are the guides to the arteries and veins that are 
usually raised for embalming purposes. Other arteries, as 
the radial, ulna, tibial, etc., are raised but other guides are 
used for making the incision. 

The Diaphragm (a partition wall) is the thin 
musculo-fibrous septum, placed obliquely across the trunk, 
and separating the thorax from the abdomen, forming the 
floor of the former cavity and the roof of the latter. It is 
the great muscle of respiration and expulsion. It has 
three openings — the aortic, esophageal and that of the vena 
cava — but is impervious to liquids contained in or injected 
into either cavity. 

Wonders of the Muscles. — The action of many mus- 
cles is required to keep the human body in an upright 
position. The center of gravity is so high up, and the 
joints work so easily, that were it not for the muscular 
action the skeleton would constantly topple over. But 


for the steadying effect of the muscles of the neck the head 
would be forced to respond to its tendency to fall forward. 
The strong muscles of the back restrain the hips' natural, 
forward incline, while the muscles of the calf counteract 
the pulling forward of the great muscles of the thigh, act- 
ing over the kneecap. So it is with other sets of muscles, 
all acting so perfectly that they are unthought of until 
science calls attention to them. 

Muscular Sense is useful in many ways : The sensa- 
tion of weight is felt in lifting an object. Cultivation of 
this sense enables one to form a very precise estimate of 
the weight of a body by simply lifting it. Walking is a 
perilous performance which constant practice alone has 
made safe. Some authorities define walking as perpetual 
falling with constant self-recovery. In running we simply 
incline our bodies more and fall faster. 

Development of the Muscles. — Proper exercise de- 
velops and improves the muscles, while violent, un- 
guarded exercise is injurious. A muscle remaining 
entirely idle loses the power to take up the nourishment 
provided, becomes soft and weak, growing constantly 
smaller, and finally the muscular tissues almost wholly 
disappear. Exercise increases the flow of blood to the 
muscles, promoting their nourishment and stimulating 
their growth. The large, hard and strong muscles of men 
engaged in manual labor contrasted with the thin and 
flabby muscles of professional men who are unaccustomed 
to exercise, clearly show the effects of exercise. Exercise 
is essential to the health of the whole body, increasing the 
circulation and power of breathing, and stimulating every 
part of the body to a healthy growth. To obtain the best 
advantage exercise should be regular and systematic, and 
taken in proper amounts. 




The Skin, or integument (intego, to cover), is the tough, 
thin, elastic investment, with which the entire surface of 
the body is covered. Its perfect elasticity adapts it to every 
motion of the body. The skin surface of an adult is about six- 
teen square feet. It is not a mere covering, being an active 
and important excretory and absorbing organ. Like the 
joints it is self -oiling, but for a different reason, namely, to 
preserve its smoothness and delicacy. It also replaces 
itself as fast as worn out. The skin varies in thickness in 
different parts of the body, being quite thick when exposed 
to friction and pressure, as on the soles of the feet and 
palms of the hands. At the openings of the body, as the 
mouth, it becomes merged into the mucous membrane. 
The true skin consists of fibro-areolar tissue, and merges 
with the fatty tissues beneath it in which layer is found an 
abundant supply of blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics and 

Structure of the Skin. — The skin consists of two 
layers, outer and inner. The latter is called derma, cutis, 
or true skin, all meaning the same thing. The outer layer 
is variously called the cuticle {ndiruhi. little skin), epider- 
mis (epi, upon ; derma, skin), and scarfskin. This layer is 
what is commonly styled the skin and the part raised by a 











Nerve ter- 


blister. It neither bleeds nor suffers from heat or cold, and 
possesses neither blood vessels nor nerves. The cuticle is 
composed entirely of small flat cells, or scales, which are 
constantly being shed from the surface in the form of scurf, 
dandruff, etc., but are 

■ a 

constantly being re- W 

newed from the cutis Epidermis gj 

below. The number of 

these cells is almost 

beyond conception. 

Harting estimated the 

number in one square 

inch, counting only a 

single layer, at over a 

billion, each complete 

in itself. 

Rete Mucosum. — 
On the lower side of the 
cuticle is a soft layer called the rete mucosum made up of 
small grains and forming a pigment, which gives to the 
skin its color and complexion. This matter varies in color, 
being in the negro almost black, and in the European 
various shades from the most pronounced brunette to the 
lightest blonde. 

In the purest complexion there is some of the pigment. The skin 
has a powerful effect upon the coloring matter. Thus, exposure readily 
tans, while the African living for a time in the forest, or secluded from 
the sun, loses much of his normal blackness. 


Swea t 

Fig. 4. — Section of Skin Magnified 

"Skin Slip." — The rete mucosum softens quickly by 
decomposition after death, and often allows the cuticle to 
slip or become detached, as in dropsy. This is known as 
skin slip. 

Uses of the Skin. — As an excretory organ the skin 
removes certain waste material from the body. This 


process of elimination is produced by the perspiration, or 
sweat. This office of the skin is a very important one. If 
the skin were to be covered with a coat of varnish, or other 
impervious covering, thus preventing sweating, death would 
soon result. The amount of sweat secreted in a day aver- 
ages about two pints, varying according to weather, amount 
of exercise, etc. The sudoriferous, or sweat, glands are 
small tubes, opening in the outside of the skin and coiled up 
just below the true skin. They cover every portion of the 
skin, being numerous and important in their office, secret- 
ing the perspiration. The skin serves also as an organ of 
sensation, the nerves conveying the sense of touch, pain 
and temperature being situated in it. It assists in the 
respiratory process, slightly absorbing oxygen, and giving 
off carbonic acid gas. The skin likewise has an absorptive 
power by which certain substances are carried into the 

The Hair is but a modified form of the cuticle, and 
exists on nearly the whole surface of the body, varying in 
length and size. It forms a protection from heat and cold, 
and shields the head from blows. The roots of the hairs 
are imbedded in small openings in the skin, called hair 
follicles, these follicles being from one-twelfth to one- 
fourth of an inch in depth. The outside of a hair is com- 
pact and hard, consisting of a layer of colorless scales 
which overlie one another like shingles on a roof. The 
interior is porous and conveys the liquids by which it 
is nourished. It also contains pigmentary matter, upon 
which the color of the hair depends. The hair and 
scalp are kept soft and pliable by the oily secretion of 
the small glands, which open into the hair follicles, called 
sebaceous glands. That portion of a hair outside the skin 
is called the shaft. Each hair grows from a tiny bulb 
[papilla), which is an elevation of the cutis at the bottom 


of a little hollow of the skin. The hair is produced, like 
the cuticle, from the surface of this bulb, by the constant 
formation of new cells at the bottom. When the hair is 
pulled out, this bulb, if uninjured, will produce a new hair, 
but once destroyed it will never grow again. Hair grows 
at the rate of five to seven inches a year. 

The popular idea that hair grows after death is due to the shrink- 
ing of the skin, allowing the portion of hair below the surface to pro- 
ject. This is especially noticeable in the beard. 

When the color once changes it cannot be restored. The hair has 
been known to whiten in a single night. 

Hairs are destitute of feeling, but nerves are found in the hollows 
in which the hair is rooted, causing pain when the hair is pulled. Thus 
insensible, though they are, hairs become wonderfully delicate instru- 
ments for conveying an impression of even the slightest touch. 

The hair, next to the teeth and bones, is the least destructible 
part of the body, and its color is often preserved for many years after 
other portions of the body have decayed. 

The Nails begin near the tips of the fingers and toes, 
and consist of two parts, a root and a body. The latter is 
the part exposed to view, being about four times the length 
of the root. They protect the tender fingers and toes, and 
give the power to grasp firmly and pick up easily any 
desired object. The nail is firmly set in a groove {matrix) 
in the cuticle, from which it grows at the root in length 
and from beneath in thickness. So long as the matrix 
at the root is uninjured, the nail will be reproduced after 
an accident. 

Like the hair the nail is a mere modified form of the epidermis, 
its horny appearance and feeling being due to the fact that the scales 
or plates of which it is composed are much harder and more closely 
packed. It is thrown into ridges which run parallel to each other 
except at the back part where they radiate from the center of the root. 

The whitish semi-circular portion near the root, called the lunula 
(lunula, little moon), owes its different color to the fact that its ridges 
contain fewer blood vessels and therefore less blood. 

The thumb nail will grow from the root to its free end in about 
five months, and the nail of the great toe in twenty months, 



The Lymphatics are very delicate, transparent, nerve- 
less vessels which exist beneath the skin and in all the 
mucuous membranes. Thus they permeate nearly every 
portion of the body, being closely interlocked with the 
blood capillaries. The parts of the body free from them 
are the brain, spinal cord, eyeball, cartilage, tendons, 
membranes of the ovum, placenta, umbilical cord, nails, 
cuticle, hair, and bone. They are formed of three coats, 
like arteries and veins, and are nourished by nutrient ves- 
sels. Like the veins, the lymphatics are provided with 
valves which permit the matter which they convey to flow 
only one way. Their economy in the human system 
seems to be to gather up portions of waste matter capable 
of further use, emptying it, now known as lymph, into the 
veins, whence it is conveyed to the heart. 

The Lacteals, or chyliferous vessels, are small lym- 
phatics, which have their origin in the mucous membrane 
lining the small intestine. Through them the greater 
part of the digested food is absorbed from the small intes- 
tine and transferred to the circulatory sj^stem. Projecting 
from the lining membrane of the small intestine are vast 
numbers of delicate, hair-like projections about a third of 
an inch long, called villi. In each villus are small blood 
vessels and lacteals. The villi dip into the digested and 
liquified food substance, taking it up into the lacteals, where 
it becomes a milky-white substance and is called chyle. 

The Lymphatic Glands are small, hard, pinkish bodies, 
varying in size from a pinhead to an almond, placed along 
the course of these absorbent vessels. They are found 
principally in the mesentery, along the great blood vessels, 
in the popliteal space, groin, mediastinum, neck, axilla, 
and front of the elbow. The lymphatic vessels pass 
through these glands. They receive their names from the 


region in which they are situated, as the mediastinal, axilla, 
etc. In these glands are formed corpuscles resembling the 
white corpuscles cf the blood, which are taken up by the 
stream of lymph as it flows past. 

The Thoracic Duct is a tube or canal which com- 
mences in the receptaculum chyli, in front of the second 
lumbar vertebra, passes through the aortic opening in the 
diaphragm, ascending to the left subclavian vein at its 
junction with the internal jugular into which it empties. 
It is the channel for the lymph and chyle from the whole 
body except the right side of the body above and including 
the convex surface of the liver. Its average length in 
adults is from fifteen to eighteen inches, and its diameter 
is about that of a goose quill. It has three coats and is 
provided with valves. 

The Lymphatic Duct is about an inch in length, ter- 
minating in the right subclavian vein at its junction with 
the internal jugular, and draining the lymphatics of those 
parts that are not connected with the thoracic duct. 

The Lymph is an alkaline fluid of a thin, colorless, or 
yellowish appearance. It closely resembles, in appearance 
and composition, blood deprived of its red corpuscles and 
diluted with water. This is the fluid which flows through 
the lymphatic system. 


Visceral anatomy treats of the organs contained in the three great cavi- 
ties of the body, the cranium, the thorax and the abdomen, with their 
appendages. These organs and appendages are called the viscera, or visceral 
organs ; and those of any cavity are called the viscera of that cavity. The 
chapters immediately following are devoted, in the main, to the considera- 
tion of visceral anatomy. 



The Nervous System includes the brain, the spinal 
chord, and the nerves. It is also divided into the cerebro- 
spinal and sympathetic systems. Although distinct from 
all other systems of the body, the nervous system unites 
the various parts and organs into one complete organic 
whole. It is the medium through which all impressions 
upon the mind are received and acted upon. The move- 
ments of the body and all the processes of life are regulated 
by it. 

Nervous Tissue is composed of two kinds of matter, 
white and gray, and consists of two different structures, 
nerve cells and nerve fibers. The nerve cell is the part that 
is capable of creating nerve force, while the nerve fiber acts 
as conductor of this force. The nerve cells form the gray 
matter of the nervous tissue, and are of a pulp-like sub- 
stance of about the consistency of blanc-mange. The nerve 
fibers consist of minute, white, glistening fibers, sometimes 
as small as one-twenty-five-thousandth part of an inch. 
Every nerve fiber is connected with a nerve cell, 



The Nerves are white, glistening cords made up of 
bundles of nerve fibers, and penetrate every part of the 
body. These bundles divide and subdivide as they proceed. 
They also gather into little masses or nerve centers, called 
ganglions (ganglion, a knot). These nerve centers answer 
to the offices along a telegraph line where messages are 
sent and received, while the nerves correspond to the wires 
that carry the messages. Nerves contain two kinds of 
nerve fibers, one of which conducts from the nerve centers 
to the muscles or organs, and the other from the latter to 
the nerve centers. The first is called sensory nerves and 
the latter motor nerves. 

If you place a finger on a hot stove the sensation of pain travels 
to. the nerve center through the sensory nerves. A peculiar force is 
generated in the nerve center which is conducted through the motor 
nerves to the muscle which controls the finger, causing it to contract 
and thus be removed from contact with the hot surface of the stove. 

Nerve Current. — This passing of the sensation to the 
nerve center and of force back to the muscle constitutes 
what is called the nerve current. This current travels at 
about the rate of one hundred and ten feet a second, being 
much slower than an electric current. About one twenti- 
eth of a second is required for a sensation to pass from the 
foot to the brain, and an equal time is required for the 
force generated to travel back. 

Nerve Sensations. — Hearing, feeling, tasting, seeing, 
and smelling are all different kinds of sensations, each with 
its special nerve centers which preside over it. There are 
also several varieties of motor nerves, some coming from 
centers which preside over the heart and stomach, others 
over muscles, etc. Certain motor nerves, called vasomotor 
nerves, are distributed to the walls of the blood vessels and 
control the circulation by regulating the size of the blood 
vessels, causing them to dilate or contract according to the 
amount of blood needed. 


The Sympathetic System consists of nerves and 
nerve centers, or ganglions. There 
are two chains of ganglions, one on 
each side of the spinal column, with- 
in the body, running the whole length 
Ld extending into the chest and ab- 
domen. There are thirty pairs 
of these ganglions. The sym- 
pathetic system of nerves sup- 
plies the involuntary muscular 
tissue, governs all acts of se- 
cretion, equalizes the circula- 
tion, and controlsthe nutri- 
tion of the body. Nerves 
from the ganglions are 
distributed to the mucous 
membranes and the 
organs concerned in 
nutrition — the stom- 
ach, liver, intestines, 
etc. The vasomotor nerves belong 
to this system. Thus all the organs 
of the body are bound together with 
cords of sympathy, so that if one 
suffers all suffer with it. 

The Cerebro-spinal System 
consists of the brain and spinal 
cord and the nerves coming from 
them. This system supplies the 
greater part of the body with 
nerves. It presides over sen- 
sation, special senses, volun- 

Fig. 5.— Cerebro Spinal Nerve System. tai'V motion, intellect, aild all 

movements which characterize different individuals, 



The Brain is the seat of the mind and it is the func- 
tions which the brain performs that distinguishes man 
from other animals. Man becomes a conscious, intelligent, 
responsible being through the action of the brain. The 
average brain weighs about forty-nine and a half ounces 
in the adult male and forty-four ounces in the female. It 
is egg-shaped, soft, and yielding, closely filling the skull 
cavity. It is surrounded by a delicate double membrane, 
called the arachnoid, forming a closed sac, and filled, as are 
also the brain spaces, with a watery liquid. Within the 
membrane, still more closely investing the brain, is a fine 
vascular membrane, called the pia mater, which dips down 
between the convolutions and laminae and is prolonged 
into the interior, forming the velum interpositum and 
choroid plexuses of the fourth ventricle. This tissue 
receives its blood supply from the internal carotid and ver- 
tebral arteries, and so copiously does it bathe the adjacent 
parts that it is said to use one-fifth of the entire 
circulation of the body. It is plentifully supplied with lym- 
phatics and nerves. The outermost envelope of the brain 
is the dura mater, a dense, tough, glistening, fibrous mem- 
brane, which lines the interior of the brain case, as well 
as the spinal column. It separates the various parts of 
the organs by strong partitions. 

Ganglions. — The brain is composed of a number of 
nerve centers, or ganglions, which are connected with one 
another and the motor and the sensory nerves of the sys- 
tem. It consists of both white and gray matter, and is 
divided into three portions, cerebrum, cerebellum, and 
medulla oblongata. 

The Cerebrum (the brain) occupies the front and upper 
part of the cavity of the cranium, and comprises about 
seven-eights of the entire weight of the brain. It is divided 


into two lateral halves, or hemispheres, right and left, by 
the great longitudinal fissure, which extends throughout 
the entire length of the cerebrum, reaching to the base in 
front and behind, but in the middle it is interrupted by a 
transverse commissure of white matter, the corpus cal- 
losum, which connects the two hemispheres. In this 
fissure lodges the falx cerebri. Each hemisphere is divided, 
by fissures on the under surface of the brain, into three 
lobes, anterior, middle, and posterior. Thus we are pro- 
vided with two brains, as well as hands, feet, eyes, and 
ears, and one hemisphere has been known to be destroyed 
in large part without particular injury to the mental 
powers. The cerebrum is the center of intelligence and 
thought, and is a mass of white fibers with cells of gray 
matter on the outside, or lodged here and there in gan- 
glion. The surface is not smooth, except in infancy, but is 
arranged in large convolutions and sulci, which arrange- 
ment very largely increases the surface for gray matter. 
This surface has been estimated in some cases to measure 
as much as six hundred and seventy square inches. Depth 
and intricacy of these convolutions are characteristic of 
high mental power. Persons of weak mind are oftentimes 
said to be lacking in gray matter, while brainy persons are 
said to possess it in large quantities. When the cerebrum 
becomes seriously injured or diseased the person is often 
unable to converse intelligently from an inability to re- 
member words and lack of force to articulate them. 

The Cerebellum (a small brain) is situated beneath 
the posterior lobes of the cerebrum, in the inferior occipital 
fossae. It is connecbed by the crura-connecting bands to 
the rest of the brain, two to the cerebrum, two to the 
medulla oblongata, and two blending together in front, form- 
ing the pons Varolii. It is about the size of a small fist and 
weighs about five ounces. In structure it is similar to the 


cerebrum, being divided into hemispheres, but unlike that 
portion has parallel ridges, which, letting the gray matter 
down deep into the white matter within, gives it a peculiar 
appearance, called the arbor vitae, or tree of life. This 
part of the brain is the center for the control of the volun- 
tary muscles, particularly those of locomotion. If it is 
injured or diseased the power of locomotion is greatly hin- 
dered, the muscles not acting together as they should. The 
falx cerebelli projects between the lateral lobes of the 
cerebellum . 

The Medulla Oblongata {medulla, marrow ; oblongus, 
rather long) is the upper enlarged part of the spinal cord 
extending from the upper border of the atlas to the pons 
Varolii, and connects the spinal chord with the various 
ganglions of the brain. Its anterior surface rests on the 
basilar groove of the occipital bone, white its posterior 
surface forms the floor of the fourth ventricle. It is about 
an inch and a quarter in length and an inch wide, and is 
composed of a mass of white matter, within which is im- 
bedded a collection of gray matter or nerve cells. By 
connecting the spinal chord with the brain, it serves to con- 
duct the sensation and motor stimulus to and from the 
brain. Probably its most important function is its entire 
control over the acts of respiration, and if it is injured or 
destroyed, breathing ceases and death results. Within the 
medulla oblongata is also supposed to lie the centers of the 
vasomotor and cardiac nerves, and nerves of phonation, 
deglutition, mastication, and expression. 

The Spinal Cord is the cylindrical elongated part of 
the cerebro-spinal axis, which is contained in the spinal 
canal. Its length is usually about sixteen or seventeen 
inches. It commences at the upper border of the axis 
and terminates at the lower border of the first lumbar 
vertebra in the cauda equina. It has two enlargements, 


one in the cervical region, and one in the lumbar. It is 
composed of gray matter internally and white matter 
externally. It gives out thirty-one pairs of nerves — eight 
cervical, twelve dorsal, five lumbar, five sacral, and one 
coccygeal — which divide and subdivide, going to all parts 
of the trunk and limbs. Each nerve arises by two roots, 
the anterior being the motory, and the posterior, the sensory 
root. These roots soon unite into one sheath though they 
preserve their special functions. 

The Cranial Nerves, consisting of twelve pairs, arise 
from the lower part of the brain and medulla oblongata. 
They are as follows : — 

1. Olfactory, nerves of smell. 

2. Optic, nerves of vision. 

3. Motor Oculi, ) 

4. Pathetic, > Eye moving nerves. 

6. Abducens, \ 

5. Trigeminus (trifacial), nerves of the face, which divide 
into three branches, going respectively to the upper part of 
the face, eyes and nose ; to the upper jaw and teeth ; and 
to the lower jaw and mouth, the latter branch becoming 
the nerve of taste. 

7. Facial, nerves of expression. 

8. Auditory, nerves of hearing. 

9. Glossopharyngeal, nerves of the pharynx, tonsils, etc. 

10. Pneumogastric, nerves of the larynx, lungs, liver, 
stomach and heart (in part). 

11. Accessory, nerves regulating the vocal movements 
of the larynx. 

12. Hypoglossal, nerves giving motion to the tongue. 



The Organs of Digestion consist of the alimentary 
canal and accessor} 7 organs. All food, before it is in a 
condition to afford nourishment to the tissues, must un- 
dergo a certain process, called digestion. It is while 
passing through these digestive organs that digestion takes 

The Alimentary Canal, the chief organ of digestion, 
is a musculo-membranous tube about twenty-five to thirty 
feet in length, extending from the mouth to the anus, and 
lined throughout with mucous membrane. It is divided 
into different parts, each with its distinctive name and 
duties. These are the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, 
stomach, small intestine and large intestine. The first 
three lie above the diaphragm, and the rest below it. The 
accessory organs are the teeth, salivary glands, liver, pan- 
creas and spleen. 

The Month, placed at the commencement of the ali- 
mentary canal, is an oval-shaped cavity formed by the 
lips, cheeks, jaws, palate and tongue, in which the mastica- 
tion of the food takes place. It opens posteriorly into the 
pharynx by the fauces and contains the tongue, teeth, hard 
palate, soft palate, uvula, anterior and posterior pillars of 
the fauces, tonsils and the openings of Steno's and Whar 
ton's ducts and the ducts of Rivinus. 

E.— 3 (33) 



The Salivary Glands are the parotid, lying below and 
in front of the external ear, the submaxillary and sub 
lingual glands, lying in the corresponding fossae on the 


2. Hard palate. 

3. Lower jaw. 

4. Teeth. 

5. 5, G, 6. Mucous membrane. 

7. Roof of mouth. 

8, 8. Soft palate. 
9, 9. Pharynx. 

10. Uvula. 

11, 11. Tongue. 

12. Floor of mouth. 

14, 15. Esophagus. 


Cardiac end. 

Pyloric end. 

Lesser curvature. 

Greater curvature. 

Cardiac orifice. 

Pyloric valve. 

Beginning of duodenum. 

Descending duodenum. 

Ending of duodenum. 

Transverse duodenum. 

Gall bladder. 

Cystic duet. 
29, 30. Hepatic duet. 

31. Choledoeh duct. 

32. Pancreatic opening. 

33. Pancreatic duet. 

34. Choledoeh opening. 

35. Jejunum. 
86,86,%. Ilium. 
37.38. Ending of ilium. 
39. Ilio-ca^cal valve. 
40.41. Caecum. 

42. Vermiform appendix. 

43. 43.44. Ascending colon. 
45. Transverse colon. 
46,47,47. Descending colon. 
48,49. Sigmoid flexure. 

50. Rectum. 

51. Sphyncter muscle. 

52. Anus. 

Fig. 6.— The Alimentary Canal, a Portion of Esophagus Being Removed. 

inner surface of the inferior maxillary bone. All these 
glands open into the mouth by ducts and are stimulated 
to action by the presence of food in the mouth, and by the 
operation of chewing. The fluid secreted by these glands 




is called the saliva. It is mixed with the food during the 
act of mastication and keeps the interior of the mouth 
moistened. The saliva is of the greatest importance in the 
proper digestion of the food, moistening and softening the 
food so that when it enters the stomach the digestive 
juices there can readily act upon it. 

The Tongue is the organ of special sense of taste. It 
is situated in the floor of the mouth, in the interval 
between the two lateral por- 
tions of the body of the lower 
jaw. Its base, or root, is di- 
rected backwards, and con- 
nected with the hyoid bone 
by numerous muscles, with 
the epiglottis by three folds 
of mucous membrane, which 
form the glosso-epiglottic lig- 
aments, and with the soft pal- 
ate and pharynx by means of 
the anterior and posterior pil- 
lars of the fauces. Its mucous 
membrane is reflected over 
the floor of the mouth to the 
inner surface of the gums, 
forming in front a fold, the 
fraenum of the tongue. 

Opening for nerves and blood vessels. 

Fig. 7. — The Jaws and Teeth. 

Papillae cover nearly the entire 
surface of the dorsum of the tongue, giving it its charac- 
teristic roughness. The arteries are the lingual, submental 
and ascending pharyngeal. 

The Teeth are a very important factor in the scheme 
of digestion. Their office is to reduce the food to a proper 
condition as to fineness, so that it can pass through the 
pharynx and esophagus into the stomach, and there be 
easily acted upon. This process is called mastication. 


The teeth, of which there are thirty-two in the complete 
adult set, sixteen in each jaw, consist of crown, neck, and 
root. The crown is the part above the gums, and is 
covered with a white, glistening substance, called enamel, 
which is the hardest substance in the human body. The 
permanent teeth in each jaw are as follows: four incisors, 
two canine, four bicuspids and six molars. 

The Jaws possess the mechanism for grinding the food. 
The lower jaw being movable, its muscles bring it against 
the upper one, giving it also a sidewise motion. The 
tongue, lips and cheeks assist in mastication by keeping 
the food mass between the teeth. 

The Pharynx, or throat, is a musculo-membranous 
sac, conical in form, four and a half inches long, with the 
base upwards and the apex downwards, extending from 
the basilar process of the occipital bone to the lower border 
of the cricoid cartilage in front and fifth cervical vertebra 
behind, where it becomes continuous with the esophagus. 
It forms that part of the alimentary canal which lies back 
of the nose, mouth and larynx. It has seven openings 
communicating with it: the two posterior nares, the two 
eustachian tubes, the mouth, larynx and esophagus. The ar- 
teries that supply the pharynx are superior thyroid, ascend- 
ing pharyngeal, pterygo-palatine, and descending palatine. 

The Esophagus (gullet) is a musculo-membranous 
canal, about nine inches long, extending from the pharynx, 
at the lower border of the cricoid cartilage of the larynx, 
and the fifth cervical vertebra, along the front of the spine, 
through the posterior mediastinum, passing through the 
esophageal opening into the abdomen, to the cardiac ori- 
fice of the stomach, opposite the ninth dorsal vertebra, 
where it terminates. It is located in the neck, behveen 
the trachea and the vertebral column. Its general direction 
is vertical. It is the narrowest part of the alimentary canal. 


The esophageal arteries are chiefly branches from the tho- 
racic aorta. The veins empty into the vena azygos minor. 

The Stomach, the principal organ of digestion, is 
pyriform in shape, of musculo-membranous structure. It 
is about twelve inches in length by four inches in average 
diameter, when moderately full, and will contain on an 
average from three to five pints of fluid. It is held in 
position by the lesser omentum, and is situated diagonally 
across the upper part of the abdomen, in the epigastric 
and right and left hypochondriac regions, above the trans- 
verse colon, and below the liver and diaphragm. The 
muscular fibers composing the wall of the stomach are 
arranged in three layers, the first running lengthwise of, 
the second around, and the other obliquely across, the 
stomach. When food enters the stomach the lining 
membrane, which in rest is of a pinkish color, becomes 
bright red from the increased flow of blood to its blood 
vessels, and the secretion of gastric juice, the digestive 
fluid of the stomach, begins. In the healthy adult about 
fourteen pints of gastric juice is secreted by the peptic 
glands every twenty-four hours. The muscular fibers of 
the walls are stimulated to action by the presence of food 
in the stomach, and, by alternate contractions and expan- 
sions, give it a sort of motion which causes the contents to 
roll about in its interior, thoroughly mixing them with the 
gastric juice. The digested portion of the food is taken 
up into the circulation, and the remainder passes through 
the pyloric orifice into the small intestine where digestion 
is completed. Stomach digestion requires from one to four 
hours, according to the condition of the food when it enters. 

The Fundus, or splenic end, is the left extremity of the 
stomach. It lies beneath the ribs, in contact with the 
spleen, to which it is connected by the gastro-splenic omen- 
tum. The pylorus, or lesser end. of the stomach lies in 


contact with the anterior wall of the abdomen, near the 
end of the cartilage of the right eighth rib. The lesser 
curvature is concave, extending from the esophageal to 
the pyloric orifice, along the upper border of the organ, is 
connected to the liver by the gastro-hepatic omentum, and 
to the diaphragm by the gastro-phrenic ligament. The 
greater curvature is convex, and extends between the 
same orifices, along the low T er border, and gives attach- 
ment to the great omentum. The esophageal orifice is 
situated between the fundus and the lesser curvature. It 
is the highest part of the organ, and somewhat funnel- 
shaped. The pyloric orifice opens into the duodenum, the 
aperture being guarded by a kind of valve, the pylorus. 

The arteries of the stomach are the gastric, arising 
from the coeliac axis, the pyloric and right gastro-epiploic 
branches of the hepatic, and the left gastro-epiploic and 
vasa branches of the splenic artery. Veins terminate in 
the splenic and portal veins. 

The Small Intestine is a convoluted tube, about 
twenty feet in length, and is the organ in which chylifica- 
tion takes place. When the food enters the small intes- 
tine it is a grayish, semi-liquid mass called chyme. Here 
it is mixed with pancreatic juice, bile, and intestinal juice, 
all digestive fluids. The interior membrane is lined with 
hair-like projections called villi, which absorb the digested 
food into the circulatory system. The small intestine has 
three coats — a muscular, a cellular, or submucous, and a 
mucous. The mucous coat contains the crypts of Lieber- 
kuhn, or simple follicles ; theBrunner's, or duodenal, glands; 
and the solitary glands, situated throughout the intestine, 
though most numerous at the lower portion of the ileum. 
They are agminated into some twenty or thirty oval 
patches, named Peyer's patches, situated opposite the 
mesenteric attachments, some of which are as much as 


four inches in length. They are most numerous and 
largest in the ileum. The small intestine is divided into 
three parts, duodenum, jejunum and ileum. 

The Duodenum is so called from being equal in length 
to the breadth of twelve fingers (about ten inches). It is 
the shortest, the widest, and the most fixed part of the 
small intestine. It is only partially covered by the peri- 
toneum, and has no mesentery. From the pylorus, it 
ascends obliquely upwards and backwards two and a half 
inches to the under surface of the liver, then decends three 
and a half inches in front of the kidney, and passes four 
inches transversly across the spine to the left side of the 
second lumbar vertebra, terminating in the jejunum, where 
the mesenteric artery crosses the intestine. The ductus 
communis choledochus and the pancreatic duct open into 
the descending portion. 

The Jejunum (jejunus, empty) is so named from being 
usually found empty and includes about two-fifths of the rest 
of the intestine, its coils lying around the umbilical region. 

The Ileum is so named from its twisted course, and 
comprises the remainder of the small intestine. It lies 
below the umbilicus, and terminates in the right iliac 
fossa, at the ileo-caecal valve. 

The Large Intestine extends from the termination of 
the ileum to the anus, and its chief office is the expulsion 
from the body of the undigested portions of food. It is 
about five feet in length, much larger than the small 
intestine, more fixed in position, and is sacculated. In its 
course it describes an arch, which surrounds the convolu- 
tions of the small intestine. It has the same coats as the 
small intestine, and is divided into the caecum, colon, and 

The Caecum (ccecus, blind) is a blind pouch behind the 
entrance to the small intestine, lying in the right iliac 


fossa. It is the beginning of the large intestine, of which 
it is the most dilated part, measuring two and one-half 
inches in diameter. It is two-thirds covered by peri- 
toneum. The ileo-caecal valve guards the entrance of the 
small intestine and when the caecum is distended prevents 
any reflex into the ileum. 

The Appendix Vermiformis is a narrow, worm-like 
tube, supposed to be the rudiment of the lengthened caecum 
found in all mammalia, except the orang-outang and wom- 
bat. It is about the size of a goose quill and is three to 
six inches long. It is directed backwards and upwards 
from the lower part of the caecum, being retained by a 
fold of the peritoneum. 

The Colon extends from the ileum to the rectum and 
is divided into the ascending, transverse, and descending 
colons, and the sigmoid flexure. The ascending colon ex- 
tends upwards to the under surface of the liver, where it 
forms the hepatic flexure of the colon. The transverse 
colon crosses the abdomen just below the liver, stomach, 
and spleen, to the left hypochondrium, where it terminates 
in the splenic flexure of the colon. The descending 
colon descends in front of the left kidney to the left iliac 
fossa. The sigmoid flexure of the colon is curved like an 
S, first upwards, then downwards, extending from the crest 
of the left ileum to the sacro-iliac synchondrosis. 

The Rectum {rectus, straight) is the lower portion of 
the large intestine, extending from the sigmoid flexure to 
the anus. It is six or eight inches in length. The lower 
inch or inch and a half has no peritoneal investment. The 
sphincter ani closes the anus. The glands are the same as 
in the small intestine, except the absence of Brnnner's 

The Liver is the largest glandular organ in the body, 
weighing from three to four pounds, and measuring trans- 


versely about twelve inches, in its antero-posterior diam- 
eter about six or seven inches, and in its greatest thickness 
about three inches. It is intended mainly for the secretion 
of bile, but effects also important changes in certain con- 
stituents of the blood in their passage through the gland. 
It is situated in the right hypochondrium, and extends 
across the epigastrium into the left hypochondrium. Its 
upper surface is convex and its under surface concave. 
The right extremity of the liver is thick and rounded while 
the left side is thin and flattened. Five fissures on the 
under surface divide it into fives lobes — right lobe, left 
lobe, lobus quadratus, lobus Spigelii and lobus caudatus. 
The right and left lobes form the bulk of the liver ; the 
others are merely lobules. The liver has five ligaments 
and five hepatic vessels. 

The Hepatic Duct joins the cystic duct from the gall 
bladder to form the ductus communis choledochus, which 
carries the bile to the descending portion of the duodenum. 

The Gall Bladder, the reservoir for the bile, is a con- 
ical, pear-shaped sac, three or four inches long, an inch in 
diameter, holding from an cunce to an ounce and a half, 
and lying on the under surface of the liver. Its secretion, 
called bile, is a viscid, golden-brown liquid, which is dis- 
charged from the gall bladder into the duodenum, and 
which aids in digestion, especially of the fats. 

The Pancreas (the sweet bread) is a racemose gland, 
similar in structure to the salivary glands, is about seven 
inches in length, of grayish-white color, and situated be- 
hind the stomach. It secretes another digestive fluid, 
called the pancreatic juice. While the bile acts particu- 
larly on the fats, the pancreatic juice acts directly upon the 
sugars and starches, still undigested. The head extends to 
the right, and occupies a part of the epigastric region. The 
tail lies above the left kidney, and in contact with the lower 


end of the spleen, and in the left hypochondriac region. The 
body lies behind the stomach and transverse colon and in 
front of the aorta, portal vein, inferior yena cava, splenic 
vein and the crura of the diaphragm. The arteries are 
the pancreatica magna and pancreaticae parvae, from the 
splenic ; the pancreatico-duodenalis from the hepatic 
and from the superior mesenteric. The veins open into the 
splenic and mesenteric veins. 

The Pancreatic Duct extends the whole length of the 
gland. It collects the pancreatic juice and carries it to the 
duodenum, which it enters about three inches below the 
pylorus, by an opening common to it and the ductus com- 
munis choledochus. 

The Spleen, Thyroid, Thymus, and Supra-renal 
Capsules, constitute the ductless, or blood glands. The 
spleen possesses no excretory duct, and is of an oblong and 
flattened form, soft, of very brittle consistency, highly 
vascular, of a dark, bluish-red color, and situated in the 
left hypochondriac region, embracing the cardiac end of the 
stomach. It is about five inches long, three inches wide 
by two in thickness. The vessels are the splenic artery, 
which is large and tortuous, and the splenic vein, which 
empties into the portal vein. 

The Supra-renal Capsules are two small, crecentric- 
shaped bodies, situated one on each kidney. The vessels 
are the supra-renal branches of the aorta, renal, and 
inferior phrenic arteries, and the supra-renal vein, which 
on the right side of the body empties into the inferior vena 
cava, and on the left side, into the left renal vein. 


The Abdomen is the largest cavity in the body and 
is situated between the thorax above and the pelvis below, 
and contains the : — 


Stomach. Pancreas. Abdominal Aorta. 

Intestines. Kidneys and Ureters. Inferior Vena Cava. 

Liver. Supra-renal Capsules. Reoeptaculum Chyli. 

GallBladder. BLADDER(when distended). Thoracic Duct. 

Spleen. UTERUs(during pregnancy). Solar Plexus, etc. 

It is bounded above by the diaphragm, below by the 
brim of the pelvis, at the back by the vertebral column 
and fasciae covering the psoas and quadratus muscle> in 
front and at the sides by the transversalis fascia, the lower 
ribs, and the iliac venter. It contains the greater part of 
the alimentary canal, pancreas, spleen, kidneys and supra- 
renal capsules. The openings in the diaphragm are three 
in number, the aortic, the esophageal and the opening for 
the vena cava. The openings in the abdominal walls are 
five in number, the umbilical, two internal and two 
femoral or crural rings. 

Reg-ions of the Abdomen. — The abdomen, for con- 
venience of description of its viscera, as well as of refer- 
ence to the morbid condition of the. contained parts, is 
artificially divided into nine regions, by two horizontal 
lines, one between the cartilages of the ninth ribs, another 
between the crests of the ilia, and two vertical lines from 
cartilages of the eighth rib on each side to the center of 
Poupart's ligament. The nine regions thus formed are 
named as follows : — 

Right Hypochondriac. Epigastric. Left Hypochondriac. 

Right Lumbar. Umbilical. Left Lumbar. 

Rtght Inguinal. Hypogastric. Left Inguinal. 

The Contents of these regions are respectively as fol- 

Right Hypochondriac — right lobe of liver, gall bladder, 
duodenum, hepatic flexure of colon, upper part of right 
kidney, and right supra-renal capsule. 

Epigastric — right two-thirds of stomach, left lobe and 
lobus Spigelii of liver, hepatic vessels, coeliac axis, solar 


plexus, pancreas, and parts of aorta, inferior vena cava, 
vena azygos and thoracic duct. 

Left Hypochondriac — splenic end of stomach, spleen, 
tail of pancreas, splenic flexure of colon, upper half of left 
kidney and its supra-renal capsule. 

Right Lumbar — ascending colon, lower half of right 
kidney and part of small intestine. 

Umbilical — transverse colon, transverse duodenum, 
part of the great omentum and mesentary, and part of 
small intestine. 

Left Lumbar — descending colon, lower half of left 
kidney a-nd part of small intestine. 

Right Inguinal — right ureter, appendix vermiformis, 
and spermatic vessels of that side. 

Hypogastric — part of small intestine, the bladder in 
children and when distended in adults and uterus during 

Left Inguinal — left ureter and spermatic vessels, and 
sigmoid flexure of the colon. 

The Peritoneum ( to extend around) is a serous mem- 
brane, and, like all membranes of this class, is a shut sac. 
Its parietal layer is reflected more or less completely over 
all the abdominal and pelvic viscera. Its free surface is 
smooth, moist and shining. Its attached surface is con- 
nected to the viscera and the parietes of the abdomen by 
the subperitoneal, areolar tissue. In the female, it is not 
completely closed, the Fallopian tubes communicating with 
it by their free extremities and thus it is continuous with 
their mucous membranes. 

Peritoneal Sacs. — The peritoneum is divided into two 
sacs, greater and lesser. The greater sac extends over the 
anterior two thirds of the liver, behind and above the 
stomach, below, behind, and in front of the great omentum, 
and below the mesocolon. The lesser sac, or cavity of 


the great omentum, extends behind and below the liver 
and stomach, above the mesocolon, and within the great 

The Omenta. — The great omentum consists of four 
layers of peritoneum, the most anterior and posterior of 
which belong to the greater sac and internal to the lesser 
sac. The two anterior layers descend from the stomach 
and the spleen, over the small intestines, and then ascend 
as the posterior layers, to eu close the transverse colon. 
The lesser omentum consists of two layers of peritoneum, 
the upper belonging to the greater sac, the lower to the 
lesser sac. It extends from the transverse fissure of the 
liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach, and contains 
in its right free margin the — 

Hepatic Artery. Ductus Communis Choledochus. 

Portal Vein. First Part of the Duodenum. 

Lymphatics. Hepatic Plexus of Nerves. 

The gastrosplenic omentum connects the stomach with 
the spleen, and contains the splenic vessels and Ahe vasa 

The Mesos, or Mesenteries, are folds of peritoneum 
connecting the various parts of the intestinal canal (except 
the duodenum) to the abdominal walls. Each one contains 
the vessels of the mesentery proper, mesocaecum, mesocolon 
and mesorectum. 

The Pelvic Cavity contains the bladder, male organs 
of generation, womb in female, and the rectum. The 
bladder lies behind the pubic arch. The womb lies behind 
the bladder in the female. During pregnancy it enlarges 
until at the latter end of the term, it nearly fills the ab- 
dominal cavity. 



N« ! e 

Back of f 
nasal passage ( 

Back of moutl 


The Organs of Respiration consist of the respiratory 
tract, or air passages, the lungs and certain muscles which 
assist in the act of breathing. The respiratory tract con- 
sists of the passages of the 
nose and mouth, the pharynx, 
larynx, and the trachea, or 

Mouth and Nose. — The 
air passages begin with the 
mouth and nose. The proper 
passages for the air to enter 
in the act of breathing are 
those of the nose. These 
passages are lined with a 
smooth, soft m embrane, 
called mucous membrane, 
the surface of which is in- 
creased by the projection 
into the nasal cavity of pe- 
culiarly shaped bones. This 
mucous membrane is con- 
stantly kept moist, thus 
catching particles of dust from the air as it passes through 
the nose and serving also to render the air moist to a 
certain extent. The air is also slightly warmed while 
passing through these passages. It is always better to 



Fig. 8. 
Sectional View of the Upper Air Passages. 


breathe through the nose than the mouth, as the latter 
cannot properly perform these offices. 

The Pharynx, already described, has two openings in 
its lower part, one to the esophagus and the other to the 
larynx, through which the air passes on its way to the 

The Larynx is a musculo-membranous, cartilaginous, 
triangular-shaped box, placed between the base of the 
tongue and the trachea. It is composed of nine cartilages: 
the thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis, two arytenoid and two 
cuneiform cartilages, and the two cornicula laryngis. 
Across its upper opening are stretched two fibrous bands, 
or cords, called the vocal cords, which are concerned in the 
production of the voice. Small muscles separate these 
cords as the air enters on its way towards the lungs, 
making a passage for the air between them. This open- 
ing is called the glottis. Just above is a leaf-like portion 
of cartilage, called the epiglottis, which, during the act of 
breathing, lies in such a position as to leave the larynx 
unobstructed. When food or drink is being swallowed, 
the epiglottis shuts down, closing the glottis and pre- 
venting the entrance of any foreign substances into the 

The Trachea, or Windpipe, is a membrano-cartilag- 
inous, cylindrical tube, about four and a half inches in 
length, and one inch in diameter. It begins at the lower 
border of the larynx, opposite the fifth cervical vertebra, 
and ends opposite the third dorsal, by its bifurcation into 
the two bronchi. It is composed of a fibro-elastic mem- 
brane, containing from sixteen to twenty cartilaginous 
rings connected by muscular fibers, which keep the walls 
rigid and prevent their collapse during the act of breath- 
ing. The thyroid gland lies in front of the upper portion 
of the trachea. 


The Bronchi are the right and left divisions of the 
trachea, which enter the lungs, dividing and subdividing 
into many bronchial tubes, ramifying all parts of the lungs. 
The last and most minute subdivisions are called bron- 
chioles. A smooth, mucous membrane, which is constantly 
kept moist by a secretion of mucous, lines the trachea and 
bronchial tubes throughout, extending with the vessels 
into all parts of the lungs. The arteries are the tracheal 
branches of the inferior thyroid, and the bronchial branches 
of the thoracic aorta. The veins open into the thyroid 
plexus and the bronchial veins. 

The Lungs, two in number, are the essential organs of 
respiration, contained in the thoracic cavity, one on each 
side. They weigh together about forty-two ounces, are 
conical in shape, and covered with a smooth membrane, 
called the pleura, which is deflected or turned back upon 
itself so as to line the chest walls. This membrane secretes 
a thin fluid which acts as a lubricator, preventing friction 
between the surface of the lungs and the chest walls during 
the act of breathing. The color of the lungs at birth is a 
pinkish white, which becomes mottled as age advances by 
slate colored patches, from the deposits of carbonaceous 
granules in the areolar tissue of the organ. The right lung 
is the larger and has three lobes, while the left lung is the 
smaller and has but two lobes. The apex of the lung pro- 
jects into the neck about one inch above the first rib. The 
base is broad, concave, and rests on the upper surface of 
the diaphragm. The root of the lung is where the bronchial 
vessels and nerves enter the lung, bound together by areo- 
lar tissue. 

Structure of the Lungs. — The lungs are invested 
with a serous coat (the pleura 1 ), a subserous, elastic areolar 
tissue, investing the entire organ and extending inwards 
between the lobules, and the parenchyma, or true lung 


tissue, composed of lobules, each consisting of several air 
cells, arranged around the termination of a bronchiole, 
and surrounded by six plexuses of pulmonary and bron- 
chial arteries and veins, lymphatics and nerves. The 
lungs are nourished by the bronchial arteries, and supplied 
with blood for oxygenation by the pulmonary arteries. 
The bronchial arteries are derived from the thoracic aorta 
and the pulmonary from the right ventricle of the heart. 
The bronchial veins open on the right side into the vena 
azygos and on the left side into the superior intercostal 
vein. The pulmonary veins open by four large orifices 
into the left auricle of the heart, carrying the oxygenated 
blood from the lungs to the heart. 

The Pleurae are two delicate serous sacs, one surround- 
ing each lung and reflected over the pericardium, the 
diaphragm, and the inner surface of the thorax. The 
pleurae meet for a short space behind the middle of the 
sternum, at the approximation of the anterior borders of 
the lungs. The visceral layer invests the lungs as far as 
the root, while the parietal layer lines the inner surface 
of the walls of the chest, the diaphragm and the peri- 
cardium. The cavity of the pleura is the space between 
the two layers. The mediastinum is the space between 
the two pleurae in the medium line of the thorax, extending 
from the sternum to the vertebral column, and containing 
all the viscera of the chest except the lungs. This space 
contains the heart and pericardium, and the large vessels, 
esophagus, azygos veins, etc. 

E.— 4 



An Important System.— -The constant wearing away 
of the organs and tissues of the body is as constantly being 
repaired by means of the nutriment furnished by the 
blood. This is carried and distributed by the circulatory 
system, which is necessarily one of importance. 

In a work on embalming, a careful and thorough study 
of this wonderful system which permeates every portion, 
and almost every tissue of the body, is most necessary, and 
its treatment is therefore quite full. 

Organs of Circulation. — The movement of the blood 
through and to every part of the body is called circulation, 
and the organs which produce and carry it on are called 
the organs of circulation. These are the heart and the 
blood vessels, and the latter are divided, according to the 
class of work done, into three classes, arteries, capillaries 
and veins. 


The Heart is a hollow, muscular organ, conical in shape, 
placed between the lungs, and inclosed in the cavity of the 
pericardium. The heart is placed obliquely in the chest, 
the base being directed upwards and backwards to the 
right, and the apex to the front and to the left, correspond- 
ing to the interspaces between the cartilages of the fifth and 
sixth ribs, one inch to the inner side and two inches below 



the left nipple. It is placed behind the lower two-thirds 
of the sternum and projects farther into the left than 
into the right cavity of the chest, extending from the 
median line about three inches into the left, and only 
one and a half inches into the right cavity. Its anterior 
surface is round and convex and formed chiefly by the 
right ventricle and part of the left. Its posterior surface 
is flattened and rests upon the diaphragm, and is formed 
chiefly by the left ventricle. 

The Pericardium (peri, around ; kardium, heart) is 
a conical, membranous, closed sac, containing the heart and 
the roots of the great vessels. It lies behind the sternum 
and between the pleurae, its apex upwards, its base below 
and attached to the tendon of the diaphragm. It is a 
sero-fibroas nembrane, the inner (serous) coat being 
reflected over the heart and vessels. Between the peri- 
cardium and the heart there is a small quantity of a clear 
fluid which acts as a lubricator, allowing the heart to 
move freely without producing any friction. 

The Endocardium is a serous membrane which lines 
the auricles and ventricles of the heart. 

Heart's Weight and Size. — In the adult the heart is 
about five inches in length, three and a half in breadth, 
and two and a half in thickness, being about the size of 
one's fist. It weighs from ten to twelve ounces in the 
male and from eight to ten ounces in the female. The 
heart increases in size and weight as age advances, but 
the increase is less marked in women than in men. 

Its Cavities. — The interior of the heart is divided by 
a longitudinal, muscular septum into two lateral halves, 
which, from their position, are named the right and left. 
A. transverse constriction divides each half into two cav- 
ities ; the upper cavity on each side is called the auricle, 
and the lower cavity the ventricle. There are, therefore, a 


right and left auricle and a right and left ventricle. The 
walls of the ventricles are thick and strong while those of 
the auricles are rather thin and less strong. The muscu- 
lar septum of the heart is complete, no communication 
existing after foetal life between the right and left sides. 
The right is the venous side of the heart and receives the 
venous blood from every portion of the body through the 
inferior and superior venae cavse and the coronary sinuses 
into the right auricle. The blood then passes from the 
right auricle into the right ventricle, and from the right 
ventricle through the pulmonary artery into the lungs for 
arterialization. It is returned as arterial blood, through 
the pulmonary veins to the left auricle ; from the left 
auricle it passes into the left ventricle, and from the left 
ventricle it is carried through the aorta and its divisions 
to all parts of the body. 

Its Capacity. — At each contraction of the heart each 
ventricle forces into the blood vessels about six ounces of 
blood. The average frequency of the pulse beat or heart 
contraction is seventy-two to seventy-six times per minute. 
It varies, however, in different persons, and in the same 
person under different conditions. Sudden emotions or 
sickness cause increase in frequency. It is also more fre- 
quent while a person is working than resting. The 
average amount of blood in the human body in normal 
condition is from sixteen to eighteen pounds ; hence, it will 
be seen that all the blood in the body passes through the 
heart in about forty seconds. As the heart is unceasing in 
its work day and night, the aggregate force exerted by it 
in a day is something stupendous. It is estimated that 
over three hundred barrels of blood are pumped into, and 
forced out of, the heart every twenty-four hours. 

The Bight Auricle is larger than the left, and when 
full holds two fluid ounces Its walls are about a line 


(one twelfth of an inch) in thickness. It consists of a 
principal cavity, or sinus, and an appendix auriculae. 
Two large veins, the superior vena cava and the inferior 
vena cava, and the coronary sinus, open into the right 
auricle. The latter is guarded by a valve, while the former 
are not. The auriculo- ventricular opening communicat- 
ing with the right ventricle is oval, about an inch broad, 
surrounded by a fibrous ring, and is guarded by the tricus- 
pid valve. The latter allows the blood to flow only in one 
direction, from the auricle to the ventricle. The eusta- 
chian valve is a remnant of the foetal circulation. 

The Right Ventricle is conical in form and contains 
about two fluid ounces. The tricuspid valve consists of 
three triangular segments connected by their bases with 
the auriculo-ventricular orifice and by their sides with each 
other. The semilunar valves are three in number, and 
guard the orifice of the pulmonary artery. The opening 
of the pulmonary artery is at the superior and internal 
angle of the ventricle. It is circular in form, surrounded 
by a fibrous ring, and is guarded by the semilunar valves. 

The Left Auricle is smaller than the right, its walls 
are a line and a half in thickness, and it receives the arte- 
rialized blood from the lungs. The openings of the 
pulmonary veins are generally four in number, sometimes 
only three, as the two left veins frequently end in a com- 
mon opening. These openings are not guarded by valves. 
The left a uriclo- ventricular opening is smaller than the 
right, and is guarded by the mitral valve. 

The Left Ventricle is longer, thicker, and more coni- 
cal than the right, projecting towards the posterior aspect. 
The walls are about twice as thick as those of the right 
ventricle. The aortic opening is small and circular, 
placed in front, and to the right, of the auriculo-ventricular 
opening, from which it is separated by one of the 



segments of the mitral valve. It is surrounded by a 
fibrous ring and guarded by semilunar valves. 


The Blood is the liquid by means of which the circula- 
tion is effected. It permeates every part of the body 

except the cuticle, nails, hair, 
teeth, etc., its office being to 
carry nutrition to every tissue 
in the body. It is the most 
abundant fluid in the body, 
comprising about one eighth 
of its entire weight. The blood 
is composed of a thin, colorless 
liquid, the plasma, filled with 
red disks or cells. These cells 
are so minute that it takes 
thirty-two hundred laid side 
by side to measure an inch, and 
A microscrope shows 
them to be rounded at the edges with concave sides. There 
is also a white globular cell to every three or four hundred 
red ones. The plasma also contains 
fibrin, albumen, and such mineral sub- 
stances as iron, lime, magnesia, phos- 
phorus, potash, etc. The blood con- 
tains the materials for building up 
every organ. The plasma is rich in 
mineral matter for the bones and 
albumen for the muscles. The red 
corpuscles contain oxygen, which is n 
so essential to every operation of life. 
It stimulates to action and tears down all that is worn 
out. In the latter process it unites with, and burns out. 

Fig. 9. — Blood Crystals. 

sixteen thousand if laid flatwise. 

Blood Corpusles. 


parts of muscles and other tissues, much as wood is burned. 
The unburned portion is caught up in the circulation, 
carried back to the lungs, where it undergoes purification, 
only to be again sent forth on its mission. 

The Circulation of the Blood is an interesting study. 
The blood goes from the heart and then returns again to 
the heart. Starting with the left ventricle the blood is 
forced through the aorta and its branches to all parts of the 
body. From the arteries it passes through the capillaries. 
The second set of capillaries then take it up, pass it 
into the veins and then in turn into the vense cavse, whence 
it is emptied into the right auricle of the heart. It then 
passes into the right ventricle from whence it is sent 
through the pulmonary artery to the lungs, to be returned 
through the pulmonary vein to the left auricle and then 
into the left ventricle, from which place it started. Blood, 
when it leaves the left ventricle, and while it is in the 
arteries, is red in color ; when returning through the veins 
it is bluish. Arterial blood is pure and contains much oxy- 
gen ; venous blood is impure, containing much carbonic 
acid and other waste matter. The blue, impure blood 
passing through the lungs loses its carbonic acid and takes 
up oxygen, becoming again bright red in color. 


The Arteries are the vessels or canals which convey 
the blood from the heart to different parts of the body. 
They are dense, very elastic, and cylindrical in form. They 
are composed of three coats : an internal or serous ; a 
middle, of muscular and elastic tissue ; and an external, of 
connective tissue. They are accompanied by veins with 
which the arteries are generally enclosed in a fibro-areolar 
investment, the sheath. The external and middle coats of 
the large arteries are nourished by the vasa vasorum. The 
arteries anastomose or communicate freely with each other 


everywhere throughout the body, permitting the establish- 
ment of collateral circulations. They are generally located 
as far as possible out of harm's way and are commonly found 
close to the bones or running through safe passages pro- 
vided for them. They are usually very straight and take 
the shortest route to the part of the body to be supplied 
by them with blood. The arteries that convey the blood 
to the lungs, with the veins that return the blood to the 
heart, form the lesser or pulmonic circulation. The aorta 
with its branches and returning veins, form the greater or 
systemic circulation. 


The Aorta, or great artery, is the main trunk of the 
systemic circulation. It commences at the aortic opening 
of the left ventricle of the heart, arching backwards over 
the root of the left lung into the posterior part of the 
thorax, where it descends on the left side of the spinal col- 
umn, through the aortic opening of the diaphragm, to the 
fourth lumbar vertebra, where it divides into the right and 
left common iliac arteries. The aorta is divided into the 
arch, the thoracic aorta, and the abdominal aorta. The 
arch is subdivided into an ascending, transverse and de- 
scending portion. The upper border of the arch is located 
about an inch below the upper margin of the sternum and 
ends at the lower border of the third dorsal vertebra. The 
branches of the aorta are : 

From the Arch. 

\ Two Coronary. Left Common Carotid. 

( Innominate. Left Subclavian. 

( Pericardiac. Esophageal. 

From the Thoracic. < Twenty InterooSTALS. 

( Bronchial. Posterior Mediastinal. 

From the Abdominal — Two Phrenic. 

S( J \stric. Two Sperm \tic. 

Hepatic. Inferior Mesenteric. 

Splenic. Eight Lumbab. 

Superior Mesenteric. Sacra Media. 

Two Supra-renal. Two Common Iliac. 

Two Renal. 


The Coronary Arteries arise from the aorta behind 
the semilunar valves, and run in the vertical grooves of 
the heart, to supply the tissues of the heart. 

The Innominate Artery arises from the summit of 
the arch of the aorta, is one and a half inches in length, 
and divides at the right sterno-clavicular articulation into 
the right common carotid and right subclavian arteries. 
On the left side these arise directly from the arch of the 

The Common Carotid Artery on the left side arises 
from the aorta, and the right from the innominate, the 
left being longer and deeper than the right. Their course 
is indicated by a line drawn from a point midway between 
the angle of the lower jaw and the mastoid process to the 
sterno-clavicular articulations. At the lower part of the 
neck they are separated only by the width of the trachea, 
and they are each contained in a sheath of the deep cer- 
vical fascia with the internal jugular vein externally and 
the pneumogastric nerve between the artery and vein. It 
divides at the left level of the upper border of the thyroid 
cartilage into the external and internal carotids. 

The External Carotid Artery ascends from its 
origin to the space between the neck of the ramus of the 
lower jaw and the external auditory canal, where it 
divides into the temporal and internal maxillary arteries. 
The branches of the external carotid are : — 

The Superior Thyroid. The Occipital. 

The Lingual. The Posterior Auricular. 

The Facial. The Temporal. 

The Ascending Pharyngeal. The Internal Maxillary. 

These branches and their subdivisions supply the tissues 
of the neck, face, mouth, and head, and the branches 
of one side anastomose freely with those on the other 


The Internal Carotid Artery ascends in front of the 
transverse processes of the upper cervical vertebra, and 
close to the tonsil, traverses the carotid canal in the 
temporal bone, and, after piercing the dura mater by the 
anterior cleinoid process, divides into its terminal branches. 
These branches of the internal carotid are : 

(1) The Tympanic, supplying the tympanum. 

(2) The Arterise Receptaculi, supplying the walls of 
the sinuses, the Casserian ganglion and the pituitary body. 

(3) The Anterior Meningeal, distributing to the dura 

(4) The Ophthalmic, supplying the eye and its ap- 

(5) The Anterior Cerebral is joined to its fellow by 
the anterior communicating branch, which is about two 
inches long. 

(6) The Middle Cerebral divides into the anterior, 
median, and posterior cerebral arteries. 

(7) The Anterior Choroid supplies the choroid plexus, 
corpus fimbriatum, etc. 

(8) The Posterior Communicating anastomoses with 
the posterior cerebral, a branch of the basilar. 

The Circle of Willis is an anastomosis at the base of 
the brain, between the branches of the internal carotid 
and vertebral arteries, to equalize the cerebral circulation. 
The two vertebral arteries join to form the basilar, which 
ends in the two posterior cerebral. These are connected 
with the internal carotid by the two posterior communi- 
cating. The circle is completed by the connection of the 
two anterior cerebral branches of the internal carotid 
through the short anterior communicating artery. 

The Subclavian Artery arises on the right side from 
the innominate, and on the left from the arch of the aorta, 
and is divided into three portions by the scalenus anticus. 


the parts being internal, posterior, and external, to that 
muscle. At the outer border of the first rib, the sub- 
clavian becomes the axillary artery. Its branches are 
about all given off from its first portion. 

The Vertebral Artery passes up the neck, through the 
foramen in the transverse processes of six cervical vertebrae, 
and enters the skull by the foramen magnum, where it joins 
its fellow to form the basilar artery. The branches of the 
vertebral artery supply the tissues of the back part of the 
neck and spine. 

The Thyroid Axis divides into three branches : 

(1) The Inferior Thyroid, supplying the thyroid gland, 
the larynx, the trachea, the esophageal, and the ascending 
cervical branch. 

(2) The Transversalis Colli and 

(3) Suprascapular, supplying the superficial tissue 
of the neck, the back of the scapula, and the shoulder 

The Internal Mammary Artery descends along the 
costal cartilages to the sixth interspace, where it divides 
into the musculo-phrenic and superior epigastric, the latter 
anastomosing with the deep epigastric branch of the ex- 
ternal iliac. It gives off branches to the diaphragm, me- 
diastinum, pericardium, sternum, intercostal spaces, etc. 

The Superior Intercostal Artery gives off branches 
to the intercostal spaces, to the posterior spinal muscles, 
and to the spinal cord. 

The Axillary Artery is the continuation of the sub- 
clavian, extending from the outer border of ther first rib to 
the lower margin of the axillary space (armpit), where it 
becomes the brachial. Its seven branches supply all the 
tissues of the thorax, shoulder, and mammary gland. 

The Brachial Artery is the continuation of the ax- 
illary from the lower border of the armpit to where it 


divides into the radial and ulnar, which is usually about 
one half inch below the bend of the elbow. Its branches 
are the : 

Superior profunda, nutrient, inferior profunda, anasto- 
matica magna, and muscular branches, supplying the 
tissues of the arm, and forming important anastomoses 
with branches above and below the arm. 

The Radial Artery is one of the divisions of the 
brachial, extending from the bifurcation to the deep palmar 
arch, on the radial side of the forearm, and terminates by 
anastomosing with the superficial palmar arch. Its 
branches supply the tissues of the radial side of the forearm, 
wrist and hand, and inosculate with the branches from the 
brachial artery. 

The Ulnar Artery is the other division of the brachial, 
along the ulnar side of the forearm. Its branches supply 
the tissues on the ulnar side of the forearm, wrist, and 
hand, and anastomose freely with branches of the ulnar and 
brachial arteries. 

The Superficial Arch is that part of the ulnar artery 
lying in the palm of the hand, and anastomosing with the 
superficialis volas from the radial, and a branch from the 
radialis indicis, at the root of the thumb. It gives off the 
digital branches, four in number, to the sides of the 
fingers, except the inside of the index finger, which is 
supplied by the radialis indicis. 

The Deep Palmar Arch is formed by the palmar por- 
tion of the radial artery anastomosing with the deep or 
communicating branch of the ulna. It gives off the 
radialis indicis, palmar interosseous, perforating and re- 
current branches. 

The Thoracic Aorta begins at the lower border of the 
third dorsal vertebra, and descends along the left side of the 
spine to the aortic opening in the diaphragm, where it 


ends directly in front of the last dorsal vertebra. Its 
branches are : 

(1) The Pericardiac Branches vary in number and 

(2) The Bronchial Arteries supply all the tissues of 
the lungs. They vary in number and origin, being usually 
one on the right side and two on the left side. 

(3) The Esophageal Branches supply the esophagus. 

(4) The Posterior Mediastinals supply the medias- 

(5) The Inter costals, usually ten in number on each 
side, divide into anterior and posterior branches, supplying 
the upper spaces and the spinal cord and tissues of the 

The Abdominal Aorta descends along the spinal 
column from the diaphragm to the fourth dorsal vertebra, 
where it divides into the right and left common iliac 
arteries. It diminishes in size rapidly on account of the 
many large branches given off in its course. Its branches 

(1) The Phrenic, supplying the under surface of the 

(2) The Coeliac Axis, arising near the diaphragm, 
running forwards for half an inch and dividing into the 
gastric, hepatic and splenic arteries. 

(a) The Gastric, supplying the liver and gall bladder, 
the pyloric end of the stomach, duodenum and pancreas. 

(b) The Hepatic, supplying the liver. 

(c) The Splenic, supplying the spleen and giving off 
branches to the pancreas and to the left or cardiac end of 
the stomach. 

(3) The Superior Mesenteric, supplying the small 
intestine, caecum, ascending and transverse colon. It 
arises about one fourth of an inch below the coeliac axis, 


arching forwards and downwards, to the left, and gives off 
branches: inferior pancreatico-duodenal, vasa intestini 
tenuis, ileo-colic, and right and middle colic. 

(4) The Inferior Mesenteric, supplying the descend- 
ing colon, sigmoid flexure, and most of the rectum, giving 
off the following branches : the left colic, sigmoid, and su- 
perior hemorrhoidal. 

(5) The Suprarenal, supplying the suprarenal capsules. 

(6) The Spermatids, supplying the testes in the male, 
and the ovaries, uterus, and the skin of the labia and 
groins in the female. 

(7) The Renal, one on each side, supplying the kidneys. 

(8) The Lumbar, usually four on each side, supplying 
the lumbar vertebras. 

(9) The Sacra Media, arising at the division of the 
aorta and supplying the sacrum and coccyx. 

The Common Iliac Arteries extend from the division 
of the aorta at the fourth lumbar vertebra, to the margin of 
the pelvis, where they each divide into the external and in- 
ternal iliac arteries. The common iliacs are about two 
inches long, the right being somewhat larger than the left. 

The Internal Iliac is about one and a half inches long. 
It divides into an anterior and a posterior trunk, which 
give off many branches to supply the walls and viscera of 
the pelvis, and the inner side of the thigh. 

The External Iliac Artery extends to and beneath 
the centre of Poupart's ligament, where it enters the thigh 
and becomes the femoral artery. Its branches are : 

(1) The Epigastric, usually arising a few lines above 
Poupart's ligament, passes between the peritoneum and 
the transversalis fascia, to the sheath of the rectus which 
it perforates, and ascends behind that muscle, to anasto- 
mose by numerous branches with the terminal branches of 
the internal mammary and inferior intercostal. 


(2) The Circumflex Iliac passes along the crest of the 
ilium to anastomose with the ilio-lumbar, gluteal, lumbar 
and epigastric arteries. 

The Femoral Artery extends from Poupart's ligament 
to the opening in the adductor magnus muscle, where it be- 
comes the popliteal artery. Its course corresponds to a line 
drawn from the center of Poupart's ligament to the inner 
side of the inner condyle of the femur. It lies in a strong 
fibrous sheath with the femoral vein on the inside and the an- 
terior crural nerve on the outside. In Scarpa's triangle it lies 
superficial, in the upper third of its course. Its branches are : 

(1) The Superficial Epigastric, supplying the super- 
ficial fascia of the abdomen. 

(2) The Superficial Circumflex Iliac, to the skin 
over the iliac crest. 

(3) The Superficial External Pudic, to the skin of 
the lower abdomen, penis, and scrotum. 

(4) The Deep External Pudic, to the skin of the 
scrotum and perinseum. 

(5) The Profunda Femoris arises posteriorly about 
one or two inches below Poupart's ligament, and descends 
to the lower third of the back of the thigh, giving off the 
following branches: external circumflex, internal circum- 
flex, and three perforating. 

(6) The Muscular Branches, to the sartorius and 
vastus internus muscles. 

(7) The Anastomotica Magna, arising in Hunter's 
canal, divides into a superficial and a deep branch, the 
latter anastomosing around the knee joint with the artic- 
ular arteries and the recurrent tibial. 

The Popliteal Artery extends downwards through 
the popliteal space behind the knee, dividing into the 
anterior and posterior tibial artery, which supply the 
knee joint and tissues around the knee. 


The Anterior Tibial Artery extends from the divi- 
sion of the popliteal to the front of the ankle-joint, where 
it becomes the dorsalis pedis. It is superficial in its lower 
third, lying on the anterior surface of the tibia. Its 
branches supply the tissues in its course and it gives off 
the internal and external malleolar at its lower part. 

The Dorsalis Pedis Artery extends from the front 
of the ankle to the first interosseous space, where it ter- 
minates in the dorsalis hallucis and the communicating. 
It gives off branches to the outer and front part of the 
foot and the toes. 

The Posterior Tibial Artery extends from the di- 
vision of the popliteal along the back of the tibia to the 
fossa below the internal malleolus, where it divides into 
the internal and external plantar. Its branches supply 
the tissues of the leg, heel and sole of the foot. 

The Internal Plantar passes along the inner side of 
the foot and great toe. 

The External Plantar passes along outwards and 
forwards, and at the base of the metatarsal bones it 
inosculates with the communicating branches from the 
dorsalis pedis, forming the plantar arch. Its branches 
supply the muscles on the outer part of the foot, inter- 
osseous tissues, the three outer toes and the outer side of 
the second toe. 


The Pulmonary Artery is the only artery that car- 
ries venous blood, which it conveys from the right ven- 
tricle of the heart to the lungs. It is about two inches 
long, passes upward and backward to the under surface of 
the aorta, where it divides and is connected to the aorta 
by a fibrous cord, the remains of the ductus arteriosus of 
the foetus. Its terminal branches are: 



The Bight and Left Pulmonary Arteries which, 
passing outward to the roots of their respective lungs, 
divide and subdivide to ramify throughout the lung tissue 
and end in the capillaries of those organs. 


The Veins are the vessels that carry the blood towards 
the heart. They have three coats: an internal, serous; a 
middle, muscular ; and an external, fibrous. They all 
carry carbonized or venous blood to the right side of the 
heart, except the pulmonary veins, which convey oxy- 
genated blood to the left side of the heart. The deep 
veins accompany the arteries, usually in the same sheath, 
and are given the same names. The secondary arteries, 
as the radial, ulna, brachial, etc., have each two veins, 
called venae comites. The superficial veins are usually 
unaccompanied by arteries, and lie, as a rule, 
between the layers of the superficial fascia, ter- 
minating in the deep veins. The veins all anas- 
tomose with each other much more freely than 
do the arteries. 

Venous Valves. — In the veins are numerous 
valves arranged to allow the blood to flow through 
them only in the direction of the heart. 

The Sinuses are venous channels, differing 
from veins in structure, but serving the same 
purpose. The sinuses of the cranium are formed 
by the separation of the layers of the dura 

The Veins are Divided into the pulmonary, 
systemic, and portal systems. The veins which have no 
valves are the venae cavae, hepatic, portal, renal, uterine, 
ovarian, cerebral, spinal, pulmonary, umbilical, and the 
very small veins. 

E.— 5 

Fig. 11. 


Veins of the Head. — The principal veins of the head 
and neck, are : 

(1) The External Veins : 


Superior Longitudinal Sinus. 




Inferior Longitudinal Sinus. 




Straight Sinus. 


Internal Maxillary. 


Circular Sinus. 




Transverse Sinus. 


Posterior Auricular. 


Cavernous Sinus. 




Occipital Sinus. 

( 2 ) Veins of the Diploe and Cranium : 


Superior Petrosal Sinus. 


Veins of the Diploe. 


Inferior Petrosal Sinus. 


Cerebral and Cerebellar. 


Lateral Sinus. 

Veins of the Neck, draining the above named, are the : 

(1) External Jugular, terminating in the subclavian 

(2) Posterior External Jugular runs down the back 
part of the neck, opening into the external jugular, just 
below the middle of its course. 

(3) Anterior Jugular enters the subclavian vein near 
the external jugular. 

(4) Internal Jugular collects the blood from the in- 
terior of the cranium, from the superficial parts of the face, 
and from the neck. It is formed by the junction of the 
lateral and the inferior petrosal sinuses, descending and 
uniting with the subclavian vein at the root of the neck 
to form the innominate. It receives in its course the 
facial, lingual, pharyngeal, superior and middle thyroid, 
and the occipital veins. 

(5) The Vertebral empties into the innominate vein. 
The Veins of the Upper Extremity are superficial 

and deep. The deep veins accompany the arteries, usually 
as vense comites. Beginning in the hand as digital, inter- 
osseous, and palmar veins, they unite in the deep radial 
and ulnar, which unite to form the venae comites of the 
brachial artery at the elbow. The superficial veins lie in 
the superficial fascia. Those of the forearm are the radial, 


cephalic, median, anterior and posterior ulna. The two 
latter form the basilic at the inner side of the elbow, and, 
receiving the median basilic, passes upwards on the inner 
side of the arm, pierces the deep fascia and ascends in 
the course of the brachial artery, terminating either in one 
of the venae comites of that vessel or in the axillary vein. 

The Radial Vein terminates at the outer side of the 

The Cephalic Vein ascends on the outer border of the 
biceps muscle, receives the median cephalic, and termi- 
nates in the axillary vein just below the clavicle. 

The Median Vein forms the median basilic and the 
median cephalic just below the elbow. 

The Principal Veins of the Thorax are : 

Internal Mammary Bronchial. Right Azygos ( Major). 

Inferior Thyroid. Mediastinal. Left Lower Azygos (Minor). 

Intercostal. Pericardiac. Left Upper Azygos (Minimus). 

The Azygos Veins supply the place of the venae cavse 
in the region where these trunks are deficient, being con- 
nected with the heart. 

The Right Azygos begins by a branch from the right 
lumbar veins, passes through the aorta opening in the dia- 
phragm, and ends in the superior vena cava, having 
drained nine or ten of the right lower intercostals, the 
vena azygos minor, the right bronchial esophageal, medi- 
astinal, and vertebral veins. 

The Left Lower Azygos begins by a branch from the 
left lumbar or renal, passes the left crus of the diaphragm, 
crosses the vertebral column and ends in the right azygos, 
having drained four or five lower intercostals. 

The Left Upper Azygos is often wanting. 

The Spinal Veins empty into the vertebral, inter- 
costal, and others. 

The Subclavian Vein is the continuation of the 
axillary, extending from the outer margin of the first rib 


to the sterno-clavicular articulation, where it unites with 
the internal jugular to form the innominate vein. At the 
angle of this junction the thoracic duct enters on the left 
side, and the right lymphatic duct enters on the right side. 
It receives the external and anterior jugular, and a branch 
from the cephalic, in its course. 

The Innominate Veins are each formed by the sub- 
clavian and internal jugular, and unite below the first costal 
cartilage to form the superior vena cava. The right is one 
and a half inches long and the left is about three inches long. 

The Superior Vena Cava is about three inches long, 
receives all the blood from the upper half of the body, and 
terminates in the right auricle of the heart. It is partly 
covered by the pericardium, and receives the vena azygos 
major and small pericardiac and mediastinal veins. 

The Veins of the Lower Extremity are superficial 
and deep. The deep veins are the venae comites of the an- 
terior and posterior tibial and peroneal arteries, which col- 
lect the blood from the deep parts of the foot and leg, and 
unite in the popliteal, which becomes the femoral and 
the external iliac in the same manner as the respectively 
named arteries. ^ 

The Superficial Veins of the lower extremities are : 

The Internal or Long* Saphenous, on the inside of 
the leg and thigh, enters the femoral at the saphenous 
opening, one and a half inches below Poupart's ligament. 
In its course it receives the blood from the superficial 
branches of the leg. 

The External or Short Saphenous is formed by the 
branches from the dorsum and outer side of the foot, and 
ascends behind the outer malleolus up the middle of the 
back of the leg, and empties into the popliteal vein. 

The Internal Iliac Vein is formed by the venae comites 
of the branches of the internal iliac artery, except the urn- 


bilical. It terminates with the external iliac to form the 
common iliac vein. It receives the gluteal, sciatic, in- 
ternal pudic, obturator, hemorrhoidal, and vesico-prostatic, 
in the male, and uterine and vaginal plexuses, in the female. 

The Common Iliac Veins are each formed by the 
junction of two iliac veins, and unite between the fourth 
and fifth lumbar vertebras to form the inferior vena cava, 
the right common iliac being the shorter of the two. 

The Inferior Vena Cava extends from the junction 
of the two common iliac arteries and passes along the front 
of the spine, through the tendinous center of the dia- 
phragm, to its termination in the right auricle of the 
heart. It receives in its course the lumbar, right sperm- 
atic, renal, suprarenal, phrenic and hepatic veins. 


The Portal System is an appendage of the systemic. 
It is formed by the superior and inferior mesenteric, splenic, 
and gastric veins, which collect the blood from the digestive 
viscera, and, by their junction behind the head of the pan- 
creas, form the portal vein, which enters the liver, where 
it divides into two branches, and these again subdivide, 
ramifying throughout that organ, therein receiving blood 
from the branches of the hepatic artery. 

The Hepatic Vein collects the blood from the liver 
and carries it to the inferior vena cava. 

The Portal Vein is about four inches in length. 

The Cardiac Veins return the blood from the tissues 
of the heart into the right auricle. They are the posterior 
and anterior and great cardiac veins, venae Thebesii and 
the coronary sinus. 


The Pulmonary Veins are the only veins that carry 
arterial blood. They originate in the capillaries of the 


lungs, forming a single trunk for each lobe, which unite 
to form two main trunks from each lung that open sepa- 
rately into the left auricle of the heart. The three lobe 
trunks of the right lung sometimes remain separate to 
their termination in the left auricle. Occasionally the 
two left pulmonary veins enter the auricle by a common 


The Capillaries are a minute network of vessels 
formed throughout the tissues of the body between the ter- 
minating arteries and the commencing veins. They so 
blend, however, with the extremities of these two systems, 
that it is not easy to tell just where any artery ends and a 
vein begins. Their diameter is from one three-thousandths 
to one six-thousandths of an inch. They exist in every 
part of the tissues of the body and are so closely packed 
together that it is impossible to prick the skin with the 
point of a needle without injuring many of 
them. In many instances they are smaller 
than the blood corpuscles. These bodies 
must move in a single line and must be 
changed in form to pass through the small- 
est vessels. By union with each other the 
capillaries form a true plexus of vessels of 
nearly uniform diameter, branching and 
Fig. 12.— capillaries, inosculating in every direction, distributing 
blood to all parts as their necessities demand. They receive 
the blood from the smallest subdivisions of the arteries and 
carry on the work of nourishing and rebuilding the body. 
They also begin the process by removing the waste matter 
from the worn-out portions of the tissues, turning it over 
to the veins. Their walls consist of a transparent, homo- 
geneous membrane, continuous with the innermost layer 
of the arterial and venous walls. 



The foetal circulation is the circulation of the unborn 
child. It is carried on somewhat different from that of 
the adult circulation. In the adult the right and left sides 
of the heart are divided by a solid partition, a muscular 
septum. In the fetal circulation there is a communica- 
tion, the foramen ovale, between the right and left auricle. 
By this arrangement the blood passes directly from the 
right auricle, guided by the eustachian valve, through the 
foramen ovale, to the left auricle, thence to the left ven- 
tricle. From the left ventricle the blood is sent through 
the circulation into the tissues, the principal part going 
to the upper extremities and the head ; very little going 
to the lower extremities. From the head and upper ex- 
tremities the blood is returned through the superior vena 
cava to the right auricle, passing over the eustachian valve 
into the right ventricle, from which it passes into the pul- 
monary artery. The lungs being solid, only a small quan- 
tity of the blood is distributed to them, which is returned 
by the pulmonary veins to the left auricle, the greater 
part passing through the ductus arteriosus into the com- 
mencement of the descending aorta. Along this vessel 
the blood descends to supply the lower extremities, the 
viscera of the abdomen, and the pelvis. The principal 
portion, however, is conveyed by the umbilical arteries to 
the placenta, where it is purified and returned again through 
the umbilical veins to the lower portion of the liver, where 
the vessel divides into two branches, the larger entering, 
and passing through, the liver, becoming the hepatic veins. 
The blood is not purified in the lungs during fcetal life, 
because respiration is not established and no air comes 
into the lungs, it being wholly dependent upon the mother ; 
hence purification takes place in the placenta. 




The eye is the organ of sight, and is situated in a bony 
cavity of the skull, protected by the overhanging brow. 
The eyeball is spherical in shape and about one inch in 
diameter. It is covered with three membranes ; the scle- 
rotic, the choroid, and the retina. 

The Membranes. — ( 1 ) The sclerotic, the outer mem- 
brane, is tough and hard, giving form and shape to the 
eye. This comprises what is known as the white of the 
eye, and completely surrounds the eyeball, the small, 
transparent portion in front being called the cornea. (2) 
The choroid, the middle membrane, lies immediately with- 
in the sclerotic, contains numerous blood vessels, and is of 
a dark color — its purpose being to absorb the superfluous 
light. (3) The retina, the inner and last membrane, is of 
a delicate structure, and contains a complicated arrange- 
ment of nervous tissue, given off from the optic nerve. It 
is the retina which gives rise to the sensation of sight. 

Chambers of the Eye. —The interior of the eyeball is 
filled with a translucent, glutinous substance, called the 
vitreous humor. Between this and the cornea in front is 
situated a small, transparent body, the crystalline lens, 
which brings the rays of light to a focus in the retina. 
The lens is kept in place by the ciliary processes, which 



are arranged like the rays in the disk of a passion flower. 
In front of the crystalline lens is a muscular, curtain-like 
arrangement called the iris (rainbow). In this curtain is 
a circular opening, which forms the pupil of the eye. A 
clear, limpid fluid, called aqueous humor, fills the space 
between the crystalline lens and the cornea. 

The Retina never exceeds one eightieth of an inch in 
thickness. A lining membrance covers the inner surface. 
About one fourth of the outer thickness of the retina is 
composed of a multitude of colorless, transparent rods, 
packed side by side, like the seeds in the disk of a sunflower. 
These rods are interspersed with cones. From the ends of 
the rods and cones delicate nerve fibers emanate, expanding 
into glandular bodies. A layer of fine nerve fibers and gray 
ganglions, much like the gray matter of the brain, consti- 
tutes the interior portion of the retina. From these gan- 
glions emanate filaments which unite with the fibers of the 
optic nerve. The rods and cones are to the eye what the 
bristles, otoliths and Cortian fibers are to the ear. 

The Iris is, as has been said, a curtain with a round 
opening in the middle, provided with circular and radiat- 
ing, unstriped, muscular fibers, by the action of which the 
central aperture may be enlarged or diminished. This is an 
important use of the iris, for by its contractions and ex- 
pansions the amount of light admitted into the eye is reg- 
ulated, as all the light entering the eye enters through the 
pupil. Too much light irritates the retina. To prevent 
this the iris contracts and the pupil becomes smaller. If 
too little light is received, more light is allowed to enter 
by the iris relaxing and thus allowing the pupil to become 
larger. The contraction of these fibers, unlike the action 
% of unstriped, muscular fibers generally, on account of their 
peculiar arrangement, is very rapid. The admission of 
the rays of light through the pupil, which is immediately 


in front of the crystalline lens, prevents the image, which 
falls upon the retina, from being blurred, as would other- 
wise be the case. The color of the eye is also determined 
by the iris, being different in different persons. 

The Eyelids are folds of skin which may be drawn 
over the eyeball, serving as a screen to protect it. It is 
lined on its inner surface with an exceedingly sensitive, 
mucous membrane, which aids in preventing injury to the 
eye from any irritating substances. The eyelashes, which 
fringe the eyelids on their free edges, serve as a kind of 
sieve to exclude dust and other foreign bodies, and also 
shield the eye from too strong light. An oily substance is 
secreted by a series of small glands, called the Meibomian, 
located on the inner surface of the eyelids, which acts as 
a lubricator. This substance, covering the edge of the 
lids, prevents the lids from adhering to each other, and 
also intercepts the overflow of tears upon the cheek. 

The Lachrymal Gland is situated in a depression of 
the bony wall of the orbit, at its outer angle. It is of an 
oval form, of about the size of an almond, and its office is 
to secrete the tears, which flow through small ducts and 
are spread out upon the eyeball. This secretion is con- 
stantly being formed, keeping the eyeball moist, and 
further assisting in preventing friction between the ball 
and lids, and also in washing out dust, or other foreign mat- 
ter, which find their way into the eye. At the inner 
angle of the eye is a small basin, called the lachrymal res- 
ervoir, which receives the overflow. At either side of this 
basin are two small canals through which the overplus 
passes into the nasal duct, which empties into the nose. 


The ear, the organ of hearing, is a very complicated 
and important portion of the human anatomy. It consists 


of three parts : (1) The external ear; (2) the middle ear; 
and (3) the internal ear. 

The External Ear is too conspicuous and well known 
to need much description. It is composed of a curiously 
folded sheet of cartilage, covered with skin, arranged to 
catch sound. Attached to it are three small muscles, 
scarcely more than rudimentary in man, but fully devel- 
oped in many animals, so that the ear can be freely moved. 
From the outer ear a tube, or canal, called the auditory 
canal, or external auditory meatus, extends inward about 
an inch or an inch and a quarter. A thin membrane, 
called the drum, or membrane of the tympanum, is 
stretched across the inner end. This membrane is kept 
soft and elastic by the secretion of a waxy substance, 
called the ear wax, or cerumen. Short, stiff hairs spring 
from the walls of the canal, preventing the entrance of 
insects and foreign bodies. 

The Middle Ear is located just within the drum of the 
ear, and is a small, irregularly-shaped chamber, or cavity, 
called the tympanum. Across this chamber hangs a chain 
of three tiny bones, the auditory ossicles, named respec- 
tively ; (1) stapes (stirrup) ; (2) malleus (hammer) ; and (3) 
incus (anvil). These bones are so very small that they 
weigh together but a few grains, yet they are covered by 
periosteum, are supplied with blood vessels, and articulate 
with each other with perfect joints, and the joints in turn 
have synovial membranes, cartilages, ligaments and 
muscles. The malleus is attached to the drum of the ear 
and the stapes to a membrane of the internal ear, while 
the incus lies between the other two. A thin, delicate 
membrane separates the middle from the internal ear. 
Opening into the middle ear is a small canal, called the 
eustachian tube, which leads to the upper part of the 


The Internal Ear is a cavity, very irregular in shape 
and complicated in structure, hollowed out of the solid 
bone. From its complex character it is sometimes called 
the labyrinth. It is made up, in large part, of spiral 
tubes, which open in front into a sort of court, or ante 
chamber, about the size of a grain of wheat, called the 
vestibule. These spiral tubes consist of three semicircu- 
lar canals and the winding stair of the cochlea, or snail 
shell, which coils around two and one half times. In the 
walls of the internal ear are expanded the delicate fibrils 
of the auditory nerve. The labyrinth is filled with watery 
fluid, in which floats a little bag containing hair-like 
bristles, fine sand, and two earstones, called otoliths. 
Within the cochlea are minute tendrils, termed the fibers 
of Corti, which are regularly arranged, the longest at the 
bottom and the shortest at the top. 


The Nose, the organ of smell, is the most conspicuous 
feature of the face. The nasal passages, or chambers, are 
lined with mucous membrane, in wmich are distributed 
the fine branches, or filaments, of the olfactory nerve. 
These enter through a sieve-like, bony plate at the roof 
of the nose. The nostrils open at the back into the 

The Tongue, the organ of taste, has already been fully 
described under kt The Digestive Organs" (Chapter V). 

Touch, the remaining "special sense," has no special 
organ, its nerves being spread over the entire body. 




The weight of the different parts of the human body of 
average size is about as follows: 


The Skeleton, 21 8 

Muscles and Tendons, 77 8 

Skin and Subcutaneous Fat, .... 16 5 

Brain, 3 2]/ 2 

Eyes, % 

Spinal Cord, 1)^ 

Tongue and Hyoid Bone 3 

Esophagus \% 

Stomach, 7 

Small Intestine 1 \l% 

Large Intestine, 1 1% 

Salivary Glands, 2% 

Liver, 4 \% 

Pancreas, 3 

Spleen, %% 

Thyroid Gland and remains of Thymus, % 

Blood {% weight of Body), about ... 17 

Heart, 10^ 

Kidneys, 10^4 

Larynx, Trachea and Large Bronchi, 2% 

Lungs, 2 10^ 

Unweighed Parts, 1 12% 

Total, . . ... 150 00 




The chief, inorganic, proximate constituent of the body 
is water, which amounts to about sixty- one per cent. 
Next in quantity are calcium phosphate, calcium car- 
bonate, sodium chlorid, potassium chlorid, phosphates, 
sulphates and carbonates of soda and potash, phosphates 
and carbonates of magnesium, fluoride of calcium, and 
certain compounds containing iron, silica and manganese, 
besides traces of probably accidental substances — such as 
copper, lead and aluminum. To these we must add am- 
monium, which exists in combination with the urine, and 
likewise carbonic acid, oxygen and hydrogen gases. 

The percentage of proportions of the ultimate elements 
are as follows: 

Oxygen, 72. 

Hydrogen, 9.1 

Nitrogen, 2.5 

Chlorin, .085 

Fluorine, .08 

Carbon, 13.5 

Phosphorus 1.15 

Calcium, 1.3 

Sulphur, .1476 

Sodium, .1 

Potassium, . .026 

Iron, .01 

Magnesium, .0012 

Silica, .0002 

Total, 100.0000 

The entire body, with its natural moisture, is therefore 
composed of about eighty-four parts of gaseous elements, 
to sixteen parts of solid elements. The greater part of the 
oxygen and hydrogen exists in the state of water, but the 
dried residue still contains some of the gaseous as well as 
solid elements. 


(After Huxley.) 

Based on an average weight of 154 pounds for a full grown man. 

General Statistics. — Make-up of the average body: 
Muscles and their appurtenances, 64 pounds ; skeleton, 24 
pounds ; skin, 10J pounds ; fat, 28 pounds ; brain, 3 
pounds ; thoracic viscera, 2J pounds ; abdominal viscera, 
11 pounds; total, 147 pounds. Add 7 pounds for blood, 
which will readily drain away from a body, equals 154 
pounds. Or, of water, 88 pounds ; solid matter, 66 pounds. 

Elements making up the solids : Oxygen, hydrogen, 
carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, silicon, chlorin, 
fluorine, potassium, sodium, calcium (lithium), magnesium, 
and iron (mangenese, copper, lead). 

Amount lost daily (in grains) : Water, 40,000, or 6 
pounds ; other matters, 14,500 ; carbon, 4,000 ; nitrogen, 
300 ; mineral matters, 400. 

Organs through which the losses would occur, and 
amounts (in grains) : By lungs— water, 5,000 ; other mat- 
ters, 12,000; carbon, 3,300. By kidneys— water, 23,000; 
other matter, 1,000; nitrogen, 250; carbon, 140. By the 
skin — water, 10,000; other matters, 700; nitrogen, 10; 
carbon, 100. By faeces — water, 2,000 ; other matters, 800 ; 
nitrogen, 40 ; carbon, 460. 

Gains to the body: Solid, dry food, 8,400; oxygen, 
10,000 ; water, 36,100 ; total, 54,500. Losses : Water, 40,- 
000 ; other matters, 14,500 ; total, 54,500. 

Digestion.— Daily food required: Carbon, 4,000 grains; 
nitrogen, 300 grains. These might be obtained as follows: 
Proteids, 2,000 grains, containing 300 grains nitrogen and 
1,000 grains carbon; carbo-hydrates, 4,500 grains, contain- 
ing 1,800 grains carbon; fats, 1,500 grains, containing 1,200 
grains carbon; minerals, 400 grains; water, 36,100 grains; 


total, 44,500 grains, containing 300 grains nitrogen and 
4,000 grains carbon. 

Circulation. — Heart beats per minute, 75; amount of 
blood driven out from each ventricle at each stroke, 5 or 6 
cubic inches, or 1,500 grains; rate of movement of blood 
in the great arteries, 12 inches per second; in the capil- 
laries, 1 to 11 inches per minute; time required to perforin 
the whole circuit, about 30 seconds; pressure exerted by 
the left ventricle on the aorta equal to the pressure on a 
square inch of a column of blood 9 feet high, or of a 
column of mercury 9 J inches high. 

Respiration. — Breathing per minute, about 17 times ; 
residual air contained in the lungs, 100 cubic inches ; sup- 
plemental or reserve air, about 100 cubic inches ; tidal 
air, 20 or 30 cubic inches ; complemental air, 100 cubic 
inches ; vital capacity of chest ( i. e., greatest quantity of 
air which can be inspired or expired), 230 cubic inches. 
Quantity of air to pass through the lungs per diem, 350 
cubic feet ; loss of oxygen in passing through the lungs, 4 
to 6 per cent, of volume ; gain of carbonic acid, 4 to 5 per 
cent.; amount of oxygen consumed in 24 hours, 10,000 
grains ; amount of carbonic acid gas produced, 12,000 
grains, corresponding to about 3,300 grains of carbon ; 
amount of water exhaled from the respiratory organs, 
about 5,000 grains, or 9 ounces. 

Amount of pure air vitiated to the extent of 1 per cent, 
in each 24 hours, 1,750 cubic feet, or 17,500 cubic feet of 
pure air to the extent of 1 per 1,000. Taking the amount 
of carbonic acid in the atmosphere at three parts, and in 
expired air at 470 parts in 10,000, 23,000 cubic feet of 
ordinary air would be required in order that the surround- 
ing atmosphere might not contain more than 1 per 1,000 
of carbonic acid. Consequently at least 800 cubic feet of 
well-ventilated space is needed for a man of this weight. 







We are so accustomed to plume ourselves upon the 
achievements of the nineteenth century, its discoveries and 
inventions, and its progress in the arts and sciences, that 
we are often prone to forget its indebtedness to all preced- 
ing ages and generations. St. Paul, the great and learned 
apostle, declared that he was " debtor both to the Greeks 
and to the Barbarians ; both to the wise, and to the un- 
wise." So, likewise, are we of to-day — 

" We the heirs of all the ages, in the foremost files of time." 

For every age is the inheritor of the wisdom conveyed 
through the successes and failures of all its predecessors, 
and is enabled, by the proper application of such wisdom, 
to further its own advancement. Forward is the watch- 
word of Time. The earth does not 

"Stand at gaze like Joshua's moon in Ajalon." 

Nevertheless, its inhabitants, in their accomplishments, 
crept before they walked, and walked before they began 
their grand triumphal march toward great material and 
intellectual victories — for which march, in these latter 
days, the music of the spheres themselves seem furnishing 
the lively quickstep. 

In the pride that swells our hearts at the knowledge 
that we "live and move and have our being," in this age 



par excellence of all the aeons yet emanated from the 
Deity, this reflection may beget within us a seemly humil- 
ity. The present age, that contributes to the world such 
triumphs of the electrician, bacteriologist, and general 
scientist, to say nothing of corresponding conquests in 
numberless other fields and pursuits ; that, having found 
the X ray,proposes to subjugate, therewith, the microbe; 
that sets no limit to its ambition, and whose bright lexicon 
contains no such word as "impossible:" has accomplished 
only that which its forerunners have rendered feasible, 
when it ceases to speak of "first principles" and presses 
on to perfection. 

In nothing is this tendency to press on toward perfec- 
tion more clearly demonstrated than the progress which 
has been made in the art of embalming. What was, in 
ancient times, a labor attended with much ceremony, de- 
lay and many drawbacks, becomes, to the thoroughly- 
equipped, scientific operator of to-day, a simple task, 
accomplished in a brief space of time, by the use of a 
comparatively small quantity of preservative fluid. 

The embalmer does not enter our houses heavily laden 
with hundred-pound weights of myrrh, aloes, saffron and 
cassia. He is not burdened with opobalsamum — the resi- 
nous exudation called balm of Gilead, yielded by terebin- 
thine evergreens of Asia and Africa — ; his assistants are 
not loaded down with gypsum, or bitumen. 

Among the distinctive characteristics of the work of 
our times are skilled, scientific methods and simplicity of 
detail, which enable us effectually to discard a majority 
of the cumbersome requisites indispensable to the laborers 
of bygone ages. 

Still, to the forerunner in any field of meritorious per- 
formance, is due, of right, that acknowledgment belong- 
ing to the pioneer, however convincingly he who comes 


afterward may be able to say, " And yet show I unto you a 
more excellent way." 


It seems peculiarly appropriate that Egypt — that land 
of mystery — should have been the first, so far as we have 
knowledge, to embalm the human body after death. 
Egypt, with its hieroglyphed, cartouched monoliths, 
mighty pyramidal stairways ascending toward the sky, 
and grove-shaded temples approached through massive 
gateways and avenues of sphinxes! Egypt, the land of 
beauty, bearing olives, dates and citron trees; glowing 
pomegranates and ruddy-hued guavas; perennially green 
acacias, papyrus reeds that fringe the stream, and gardens 
sweet with rose and heliotrope! 

The men who reared Luxor and 'graved pictorial his- 
tory on Karnac's walls and lofty pillars, with so lasting 
yet so delicate a stroke, must have been beings deeply 
imbued with sentiments and sympathies of a religious 
nature. To these feelings, doubtless, may be ascribed 
their reason for making such an elaborate disposition of 
the remains of their departed friends. Other assumptions 
as to the causes from which this custom took its rise have 
been made, but their credibility fades into insignificance 
when compared with this. One of these other assumptions 
is based on the assertion that sanitary expediency was the 
prompting motive; another, that the periodical overflow of 
the Nile furnished hindrances to the ordinary form of 
interment. Still, we cannot but be firmly persuaded that 
a deeply-rooted, religious belief or superstition promoted 
this endeavor; their aim being to make the best possible 
provision lying in their power to secure a happy future for 
those whom they loved. 

Herodotus, the Grreek historian, tells us the Egyptians 
were the first people to believe that the soul is immortal. 


In addition to this faith they held that this immortal 
tenant of the human frame would never fully abandon its 
place of habitation so long as the body withstood the rav- 
ages of corruption. Embalming but emphasized their idea 
that if the body be kept free from putrefaction, its imma- 
terial tenant would revisit it from time to time, and 
return to take up its abode once more at the expiration of 
a certain period. It was a tenet of their faith, that, after 
death, the soul was compelled to make the circuit of all 
forms of animal life — bird, beast, and reptile — until it had 
dwelt for a time in each of them. It then passed through 
earth, air and water, and after the " circle of necessity " 
had been completed, returned to its long-empty tenement 
and entered in. This journey could not be traveled under 
3,000 years, and the embalmer's aim was so to preserve the 
body, that, when such a period should have elapsed, the 
home-coming soul would find all things in readiness for 
its reception. 

The lengthy and painstaking preparation bestowed 
upon the body in the embalming of that day speaks well 
for the estimate of worth the Egyptians placed on the im- 
mortal part of man. 

It is probable that the embalmers of that period be- 
longed to the medical fraternity, as we read in the fiftieth 
chapter of Genesis that "the physicians embalmed Israel," 
the father of Joseph, who died in Egypt. Some writers 
have objected to this statement on the ground that em- 
balmers were, according to Herodotus, simply persons 
appointed by law " to exercise this art as their peculiar 
business." Also, it is claimed, for the reason that such 
persons were drawn from the ranks of the priesthood. It 
is easy to reconcile these objections with the Bible state- 
ment when it is remembered that Egyptian physicians 
were a body of specialists. " So wisely," says Herodotus, 


"was medicine managed by them, that no doctor was per- 
mitted to practice any but his own peculiar branch." The 
embalmer, even though from priestly ranks, must origin- 
ally have been compelled to acquire some knowledge of 
the action of drugs and essences employed in the embalm- 
ing of the body, upon its organs and tissues. Knowledge 
of this character may have given him a right to the title 
of "physician," and license to practice in "his own 
peculiar branch," as an embalmer. 

Immediately after death the body of the deceased was 
brought to the embalmers by his friends. To these friends 
were displayed wooden models and painted representa- 
tions of different forms in which mummies were, so to 
speak, "done up." A favorite style was that of likeness 
to the god Osiris, who, in addition to other peculiarities, 
had the beard cut and arranged in a form belonging exclu- 
sively to the gods. All who had lived virtuous lives and 
were accounted worthy of being finally reunited after 
death with the god from whom they emanated, were en- 
titled to have their bodies preserved in this likeness and 
to be called by this holy name. When the pattern was 
finally agreed upon and the price to be paid for the service 
about to be rendered determined, the friends withdrew, 
leaving the subject in the embalmers , hands. Herodotus 
says the work was begun by removing the brain, through 
the nostrils, with a curved iron hook or probe, and that 
the cavity from which the brain was extracted, was then 
cleansed by an injection of certain astringent drugs with 
which the skull was filled. 

Diodorus does not mention, in his account of the proc- 
ess, the extraction of the brain in this manner ; and this 
statement has met with dissent, on the ground that extrac- 
tion of the brain through the nostrils would be an exceed- 
ingly difficult, if not absolutely impossible, undertaking. 


That even if it could have been done, the nose must 
by this means necessarily have been mutilated and the 
likeness destroyed ; whereas we are informed that "so per- 
fectly were all the members preserved, that even the hairs 
of the eyelids and eyebrows remained undisturbed, and the 
whole appearance of the person was so unaltered that 
every feature might be recognized." Gryphius suggests 
that the brain might have been extracted through a fora- 
men, or orifice, in the back part of the head, near the 
upper vertebra of the neck. But, as heads indicating this 
disposition of the brain have not generally been found in 
mummies, it gives room for still another theory— that of 
the injection of cedar oil, or some similar tissue-destroy- 
ing substance, through the nostrils or ear-passages, by way 
of an artificial canal prepared for it, and the subsequent 
coming away of the brain in a state of dissolution. The in- 
jection of spirituous or aromatic wines could then have acted 
as cleansing agents, followed by the final injection of melted 
bitumen, or sweet balsam, which becomes a solid mass, filling 
the skull, when cold. Many mummy skulls have been found 
to be full of earthy matter, in place of either of the above, 
and some to have been prepared with wax and tannin. 

While the care of the head was in process in the hands 
of one embalmer. other necessary features of the work- 
were assigned to his assistants. 

Diodorus says : u First one, who is denominated the 
scribe, marks upon the left side of the body, as it lies upon 
the ground, the extent of the incision which is to be made; 
then another, who is called paraschistes (the dissector), cuts 
open as much of the flesh as the law permits, with an 
Ethiopian stone, and immediately runs away, pursued by 
those who are present, throwing stones at him. amid bitter 
execrations, as if to cast upon him all the odium of this 
necessary act." 


The stone thus made use of was undoubtedly in the 
form of a flint knife. It may have been called Ethiopian, 
on account of its black color. Stones used in Egypt for 
the purpose of cutting were invariably of flint, and were 
commonly employed by the people. The stone knives 
found in excavations and tombs, at Thebes and elsewhere, 
and exhibited in museums of Europe, are of two kinds. 
One is broad and flat, usually set into some kind of a han- 
dle ; the other, which is without doubt the knife of the 
embalmer, is short, pointed, and of razor-like sharpness. 

The pursuit of the paraschistes already mentioned was 
probably a religious formality, the people having no real 
desire to harm him, and he entertaining no actual fear. 
It indicates, however, that the delicate sentiment which 
leads modern embalmers to practice their art without 
spectators, was utterly lacking among these ancient prac- 
titioners. In contradistinction to the odium cast upon 
this knife- user, was the high esteem in which the em- 
balmers themselves were held. They were associates of 
the priests, and were permitted free access to the temple, 
as sacred persons. 

Through the hole cut in the side of the dead, the lungs, 
liver, stomach, spleen, and all the organs except the kid- 
neys and the heart, were removed from the body. The 
latter may have been left as the principal organ and 
source of vital heat, but it is a matter of uncertainty why 
the kidneys were not removed. Perhaps some religious 
superstition determined their being left. The body was 
likewise divested of the entrails. These, and the cavity 
from which the organs had been removed, were then 
washed with Phoenician or palm wine and other binding 
drugs. The entrails were afterward returned to the body, 
if not otherwise disposed of, which was sometimes the 
case, through the sacred eye of Osiris, which was placed 


above the incision. This being done, the body was repeat- 
edly anointed with oil of cedar. Myrrh, cassia, aloes and 
saffron — all fragrant gums and odoriferous spices, with 
the exception of frankincense, which was consecrated to 
the worship of their gods — were introduced into the cavity 
and the body was sewn up. 

"After a certain time, the body was swathed in lawn 
fillets, which were glued together with a kind of very 
thin gum, and then crusted over with the most exquisite 

Some historians make no reference to any further pre- 
servative process between the use of the aromatics and 
the binding up of the body in anointed and perfumed 
linen ; but, from others we learn that after the application 
of the drugs and spices and sewing up of the ventral inci- 
sion, came the salting of the body. It was kept in natron 
or anatron, known to chemistry as potassium nitrate, or 
salt of nitre, and to people in general as saltpetre, an anti- 
septic used in the curing of meat, for seventy or seventy- 
two days. This was an arbitrary period to which the 
embalmers were strictly confined. Upon the expiration 
of these days, the body was washed and wrapped in linen 
bandages dipped in oil of myrrh. 

Diodorus, who speaks of the actual face of the body 
being left exposed after restoration, in cartonnage and case, 
to relatives and friends, is contradicted by Herodotus, who 
says the features and the whole body were enveloped in 
wrappings and entirely concealed. 

The head was swathed in cloths made fast with flaxen 
filaments, sometimes of a delicate color. If the body were 
that of a Pharaoh, or other sacred person, under these fila- 
ments were sometimes pushed the steins of lotus buds. 
The lotus, a name applying to several kinds of water lilies, 
was a favorite and a sacred flower in Egypt, and was 


used in religious ceremonies. It appears in hieroglyphics 
on Egyptian monuments, and entered into their works 
of art. 

Honorable women of high rank were kept for three or 
four days after death before being delivered to the em- 

In passing, it may be interesting to some to learn the 
exact nature of the mummy wrappings. The words byssus 
and linon, used in describing them, indicate that they were 
linen, not cotton, although cotton cloth was manufactured 
in Egypt, and dresses of that material were commonly 
worn. Sometimes, however, these cerecloths were of 
finely-wrought silk, and have been known to be over one 
thousand yards in length. 

The above was one of the most magnificent styles of 
embalming, and was used for persons of quality. Its ex- 
pense amounted to £250, or about $1,250 in American 
money. When the usual routine work of embalming had 
been finished, the mummy was enclosed in a first case, 
called a cartonnage. This cartonnage was made of paste- 
board cut according to exact measurements of the mum- 
mied body, and made to conform exactly to its shape, by 
being fitted upon it when damp, and retaining the bent 
lines imparted in this way, while in the process of drying. 
It was richly ornamented with a network of bugles, beads, 
etc., and the pictured face directly over the mummy's face 
was sometimes overlaid with gold leaf. Three or four 
other cases, likewise ornamented and gilded, were super- 
imposed upon this cartonnage, and the whole was then 
inclosed in a sarcophagus of wood or stone, embellished 
with painting or sculpture. These sarcophagi were often 
of cedar or a rot-proof wood called gimmis wood. They 
were of many different shapes, and the shapes of those 
fashioned in wood differed from those of stone. 


The intestines of all persons embalmed by the most ex- 
pensive process — for none of the first quality were em- 
balmed without the removal of the intestines — were 
deposited in four vases of alabaster, hard stone, glass, porce- 
lain or bronze, and these were placed with them in the 
sarcophagus or tomb. These vases were variously orna- 
mented, usually with the heads of the genii of Amenti. 
Herodotus does not inform us with reference to what 
became of the intestines of persons not embalmed as above 
mentioned. Porphyry says they were thrown into the 
river. Plutarch gives a similar account and explains the 
reason for such disposal. He speaks of them as being the 
cause of all the faults committed by man. The intestines 
were embalmed in spices, and a separate portion allotted 
to each of the four vases. In one was contained the large 
intestine in company with the stomach. In another the 
small intestine was placed. The lungs and heart, and the 
gall-bladder and iiver, were among the contents of the re- 
maining two. 

The most costly of these vases were of oriental ala- 
baster, from ten to twenty inches high, and about one 
third of the height in diameter. Each bore an inscription 
embracing the name of the god the likeness of whose head 
it bore. 

In those instances where the intestines were returned 
to the body, images in wax of these four genii of Amenti 
were put into the cavity with them, as guardians of those 
parts subject to their influence. Sometimes, instead, a 
metal plate, usually of lead, bearing their images, was sub- 
stituted. The sacred eye of Osiris was placed over the 
incision whether the entrails w r ere returned to the body or 
placed in the vases. 

Sometimes in the higher grade of embalming, the skin 
of the face itself, as well as, or instead of, the semblance 


on the cartonnage, was covered with a mask of gold leaf. 
In other instances, the entire body was so overlaid. Some- 
times merely the eyelids or the finger nails alone. 

Egyptian embalming may be classified under two gen- 
eral heads; those bodies embalmed with the ventral incision, 
and those without. Under those embalmed with the inci- 
sion, are classed bodies prepared with balsamic matter and 
those preserved by natron only. Balsamic embalming was 
performed with a mixture of resin and aromatics, or 
asphaltum and pure bitumen. The first named of these 
bodies — those filled with resinous matter — became of an 
olive color, the skin dry and flexible, as if tanned, and ad- 
hering to the bones. The features remained as in life. 
The features of those preserved in natron — simply salted 
and dried — were completely destroyed, and they became 
unrecognizable. The hair also fell out and the head be- 
came bald. But little care was exercised in the bandaging, 
which scarcely separated the bodies from the earth in 
which they were interred. 

An intermediate grade of embalming, between the most 
costly and the revolting form above indicated, was the in- 
jecting of cedar oil into the abdomen, through the funda- 
ment, by means of a syringe. This was done without 
making a ventral incision, or removing the bowels. 

Cedar oil, which possesses heating and drying qualities, 
also corroded and consumed the substance of the bowels 
on which it acted. It consumed as well the surplus humid- 
ity of the body which brings about putrefaction. Care 
was taken to prevent this oil's escape while the body was 
kept in natron during the appointed time. It was then 
drawn off, bringing with it the bowels upon which it had 
acted destructively, in a state of dissolution. The natron 
dissolved the flesh and caused the skin to cling to the bones. 
The body was then restored to the friends without further 


attention. This manner of preserving the dead cost about 
£60, or $300. 

When the dead left no estate and the friends were very 
poor, the body was simply cleansed with an injection of 
syrmcea, and afterward kept salted in the customary man- 
ner for the usual seventy days. 

If a stranger were found dead in Egypt, the law re- 
quired that he should be mummified in the most magnifi- 
cent and expensive manner. 

It is not positively known when the custom of 
embalming ceased in Egypt. It has been suggested that 
it may have been when that land became a Roman 
province. It is probable that after this time embalming 
became less universal and gradually fell into disuse, rather 
than that it was suddenly abandoned. After the sixth 
century, interest in this disposition of human bodies de- 
clined so sensibly that only a few of the more studious 
and scholarly were informed of the real secret of the art. 

A description of Egyptian tombs, with their artistic 
adornments, the mummy pits with which Egypt is honey- 
combed, and the funeral customs there observed, would 
be of interest to the curious inquirer concerning Egyptian 
antiquities, but such description would form a lengthy 
article of itself, and does not, strictly speaking, come 
within the province of this article. 


The Jews adopted the custom of embalming to some 
extent, the "manner of the Jews" being to employ "linen 
clothes with spices" in winding the body. When Lazarus 
was resurrected by the Savior's command, "Come forth," 
he appeared at the aperture of the tomb, "bound hand 
and foot with grave clothes, and his face was bound about 
with a napkin." But by whatever process his body may 


have been prepared for the sepulture, it is evident that his 
sister Martha did not believe it sufficient to preserve it 
effectually and with thoroughness; for, when Jesus had 
said to the bystanders, "Take ye away the stone" that 
obstructed the mouth of the cave, she had protested, declar- 
ing, "Lord, by this time he stinketh, for he hath been dead 
four days." So hampered was Lazarus by the wrappings 
in which he was swathed, that, though life had returned to 
him, he was unable to make use of his renewed vitality 
until the authoritative mandate, " Loose him, and let him 
go," had been obeyed. 

Jacob, who died in Egypt, was probably embalmed 
after the Egyptians' most expensive and elaborate man- 
ner, for Joseph, who " commanded the physicians to em- 
balm his father," was high in the royal favor — "the man 
whom the king delighted to honor." When Joseph went 
up to the land of Canaan to bury his father, "with him 
went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his 
house, and all the elders of the land of Egypt." 

Probably this same form of embalming was used with 
Joseph, when "he died being an hundred and ten years 
old; and they embalmed him and he was put in a coffin 
in Egypt." Before dying, he "took an oath of the children 
of Israel saying, God will surely visit you, and ye shall 
carry up my bones from hence." 

Wherever the body of Joseph was kept, whether in 
an apartment of a house, according to the usage of some 
of the Egyptians, or in a tomb prepared for it, this oath 
was strictly fulfilled by the descendants of those who made 
it, nearly two centuries afterward, when the Israelites 
returned to their own land. 

This custom, here referred to, of keeping the mummied 
body, for a long time, in a place set apart for it in the 
former home of the person deceased, was sometimes 


permitted ; but some specious reason was usually assigned 
in excuse for it, as it was considered a very grave thing to 
deprive one entitled to it of the right of burial. No grief 
and shame could be more terrible to surviving friends than 
to have departed dear ones, by a verdict rendered after 
post-mortem judgment, which was common in Egypt, ac- 
counted unworthy of burial. 

The poor among the Jews, those known as the "com- 
mon people," were embalmed with bitumen, which was a 
cheap material, easily procured. It was a mineral pitch 
found in large quantities on the shores of the Dead Sea, 
which for this reason was also called the Asphaltic Lake. 
This lake was located in Palestine, about one hundred 
miles from Damiata in Egypt, and the bitumen used by the 
Egyptians came from this place. The body and its envel- 
opes were smeared with this substance "with more or less 
care and diligence." This bitumen must, however, have 
possessed considerable preservative power, as sepulchres 
have been opened in which thousands of bodies deposited 
in rows, one above another, without coffins, have been 
kept from decay for centuries, by its use. Coal tar, petro- 
leum, and naphtha are of the same derivation. Mummies 
prepared by this substance are, of course, black, hard and 
shining. The skin appears as if varnished. They are dry, 
heavy, and without odor. But the more usual form of em- 
balming, among the Jews, appears to have been made use 
of more to perfume the body and keep at a distance as 
long as possible, the disagreeable odor which belongs to 
death, than with the expectation that it would for any 
great length of time ward off putrefaction. It was simply 
the binding of spices upon the limbs and body with the 
usual linen bandages. 

In this manner, at the near approach of the Jewish 
Sabbath, which must not be defiled by the presence of the 


unburied victims of the law, Jesus, when taken down from 
the cross where he had suffered for the sins of the whole 
world, was ministered unto by Joseph of Arimathea, a 
secret disciple, and Nicodemus, who "brought a mixture 
of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred-pound weight." 
When the Sabbath was over, very early on the first day of 
the week, came the faithful women who had loved and 
followed him, with spices and ointment they had prepared 
wherewith to anoint him, not knowing that, already, this 
loving service had been performed by the hand of pious 

But even in this simple style, embalming was not, it 
appears, a prevalent mode of disposing of the dead, among 
the Jews. 


The funeral rites of the Romans and many other nations 
embraced embalming in some form. The deceased after 
being washed in hot water, sometimes varied with oil, 
every day for seven days, to revive him in case he was 
simply in a condition of suspended animation, was "dressed 
and embalmed with the performance of a variety of singu- 
lar ceremonies." After this his body was placed on a 
funeral pile and burnt. The ashes were then gathered 
into a vase or urn, and deposited in the tomb. 

The Babylonians made use of honey in anointing their 
dead, or immersed them in this viscid fluid. The Scyth- 
ians immured the body in a coating of wax. The Ethio- 
pians washed it over with a sort of plastering called 
parget. Embalming also was practiced among the Per- 
sians, Assyrians, and many other ancient nations. The 
Greeks acquired the art through their conquests. 

The Guanches, the original inhabitants of the Canary 
Islands, probably obtained the custom of embalming their 
dead from the Atlanteans who inhabited the famous " lost 
e— 7 


Atlantis," an antediluvian island or continent which the 
ancients asserted was overwhelmed and swallowed by the 
" great deep." These islanders coated the body with a 
liquid composed of a solution of resinous matter in an oil 
or volatile liquid — a sort of varnish — , after which they 
wrapped it in goat skin and placed it in a wooden case. 


Without doubt, the aborigines of the Western Conti- 
nent were familiar with the practice of this art. The 
early Peruvians, we learn from accounts contained in 
Prescott's " Conquest of Peru," preserved the dead body of 
the royal Incas by some marvelous process which did not 
give evidence of foreign applications, and secreted them 
under mounds of earth and in the interiors of their tem- 
ples. He presents an ancient picture of these embalmed 
Peruvian monarchs sitting " natural as life, in chairs of 
gold," in the temples of the sun, at Cuzco. They were 
clothed in their accustomed princely attire. The raven- 
black or silver-gray of the hair on their bowed heads was 
still unchanged, and their hands were crossed upon their 
bosoms in the grim dignity of death. 

The Aztecs, a highly civilized race, and one of the most 
interesting and powerful of the indigenous tribes of Amer- 
ica, inhabiting the plateau of Anahuac — later known as 
Mexico — , who were conquered by Cortez in 1519, and 
whose history has been traced back to the twelfth century, 
made careful preservation of the bodies of their dead, es- 
pecially those who could lay claim to royal descent. 

Aztec legends relate how, after the deluge, seven per- 
sons issued from the tomb to which their mummied bodies 
had been committed, and, in renewed existence, repeopled 
the earth. 

The art was not unknown among the early North 
American Indians. Mummies remarkably well preserved 


have been found among the Flatheads, Dakotas, and Chi- 
nooks; and the Florida and Virginia Indians so preserved 
the bodies of their kings. Quite a number of good mum- 
mies have been found in Kentucky caves. 


The early Christians, for a time, embalmed their dead, 
according to those forms with which they were familiar in 
Palestine. No special reason, so far as we have been able 
to determine, has been given for their abandonment of this 
ceremony. It may be inferred that they feared, by its 
continuance, to cast discredit upon the power of God to 
call together the scattered dust of the body which had 
returned to its native element, and present it like unto 
Christ's "own glorious body" on the morning of the resur- 
rection. But, if so, in this they erred. 

When the Creator stated to Adam, "For dust thou art, 
and unto dust shalt thou return," he put forth a simple 
statement of fact; it was not the issuance of a command. 

No word was ever spoken by Jesus indicating his dis- 
approval of attempts, with which, as a Jew, he was fully 
familiar, to preserve the body from decay after death. St. 
Paul, the greatest of the Christian apostles, inquired of the 
Corinthians: "What! know ye not that your body is a 
temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which we have 
of God and ye are not your own?" Men preserve with 
care, in original grandeur and dignity, the palace where 
an earthly king has dwelt, and the inn where some mighty 
man has tarried for a night. Shall they let this temple of 
the "King of Kings" become dishonored so long as pres- 
ervation is a possibility? Shall they willingly give it 
over to decay and corruption? 

No; let us care for the body, made in God's own image, 
while we live; and let our friends, in recognition of the 


temple it has been — of the soul and its Creator — , give to 
it all the deference they can offer, when we shall have 
passed on to dwell in it no more, 

11 Until the morning's happier light 
Its glory shall restore, 
And eyelids that are sealed in death 
Shall wake to close no more." 



Great progress has been made in embalming during 
the present century, and earlier methods have given way 
to more modern and enlightened ones. Which one of the 
early modern embalmers justly merits the title of father 
of the present system, matters but little, for like every 
form of advancement it has had growth and development, 
and the methods of none of these forerunners have sur- 
vived, at least in this country ; only their investigations led 
in new channels, resulting ultimately in the prevailing 

The processes explained in this chapter are exclusively 

Dr. Frederic Ruysch, who occupied the chair of an- 
atomy at Amsterdam, Holland, during the closing third of 
the seventeenth, and early years of the eighteenth, century 
(1665-1717), was probably the first to practice a successful 
system of arterial injection, which, however, he used only 
in preparing specimens for his anatomical work. He did 
not stop with a simple injection of the arteries, but, after 
permitting the body to remain for some hours to allow a 
diffusion of the fluid through the structures, he proceeded 
to lay open the body as in making a post mortem exami- 
nation. The viscera of the chest and abdomen were re- 
moved, and the fluid in them sponged out. The organs 
were then steeped in spirits of wine, replaced, and covered 



with a preservative solution. He brought his method of 
preserving dead bodies to such extreme perfection that his 
specimens were the wonder of his generation, and indeed 
of later ones. Peter the Great, who was among the distin- 
guished personages to inspect his work, possibly paid the 
highest compliment to his art, by kissing the life-like lips 
of a child, preserved by the great anatomist, without at first 
discovering the fact that the lips were those of the dead. 
Dr Ruysch's method is said to have preserved the natural 
color of the body, as well as the form and suppleness of the 
limbs. He left behind him at his death a large assortment 
of injected portions of the human body, but no specimen 
of the body entire. Peter the Great secured a large por- 
tion of these specimens, which he carried to St. Petersburg. 
Whether or not the Ruyschian method was as perfect as 
claimed for it, or whether some of the statements concern- 
ing it should be largely discounted, the brilliant anatomist 
was the first known arterial injector, as well as one of the 
most skillful of any age. However, he neglected to take 
the world, or other scientists, into his confidence ; hence, 
but little if anything is known as to the chemicals used 
by him, or the manner of their injection. His discoveries 
were, consequently, lost to science. For this reason, others, 
whose methods were published to the world, have been 
considered by many as better entitled to the honor natu- 
rally accruing from a great discovery. 

Dr. William Hunter, an eminent Scottish physician, 
anatomist and physiologist of the last century (1718-1783), 
is by many given the credit of being the original inventor 
of the injection method. Unlike Dr. Ruysch he published 
his plan of injection in minute detail. The artery usually 
selected by him was the femoral. His solution was com- 
posed of oil of turpentine, five pints ; Venice turpentine, 
one fluid pint ; oil of lavender, two fluid ounces ; oil of rose- 


mary, two fluid ounces; and vermillion. This was forced 
into the vessels until it reached over the whole body, giving 
the skin a general reddish appearance. As in Dr. Ruysch's 
method, complete diffusion of the fluid, through the 
minute vessels of the body, was secured by leaving the 
body untouched for a time. The body was then opened, 
the thoracic and abdominal organs were removed, emptied, 
and cleaned, their vessels injected with the fluid, and the 
organs steeped in camphorated spirits of wine. The cav- 
ities were washed with the camphorated spirits, the viscera 
were replaced, and the intervening spaces were filled with 
a powder composed of camphor, rosin and niter. This 
powder was also placed in the mouth, nostrils and other 
external cavities, and the body was rubbed over with essen- 
tial oils of rosemary and lavender. The final operation 
consisted in placing the body thus prepared in a coffin 
upon a bed of dry plaster of Paris, placed there to extract 
all moisture from the body. The coffin was then closed 
for four years, when it was opened. Another bed of the 
plaster was added at that time, in case desiccation had not 
been complete. 

John Hunter, a younger brother of William, was but 
little less renowned along the same lines, and also helped 
greatly to advance the science of embalming, devoting 
much attention to experiments with various preparations. 

Some of the most perfect specimens of modern em- 
balming to be seen to-day are Hunterian, and are found in 
the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, London. 
One is the body of the wife of the eccentric Martin Van 
Butchell, preserved, some authorities say, by Dr. John 
Hunter, by the injection of camphorated spirits of wine, 
etc., into the arteries and veins. Other, and probably 
more creditable, authorities, ascribe the work of preserva- 
tion to the older brother, and declare that the method 


used was the same as the one so fully outlined above. 
Another body preserved in this museum was that of a 
young woman, who died about 1780, in the Lock Hospital, 
of consumption. 

The Hunterian Method was practiced with or with- 
out modification by many succeeding British anatomists. 
Dr. Matthew Baillic, instead of removing the intestines or 
other viscera, injected the preserving fluid into the 
stomach, rectum and lungs, after having made a complete 
injection of the arterial system. Dr. Sheldon used as his 
preservative fluid, camphor dissolved in spirits, in the pro- 
portion of one ounce of camphor to six of spirits. Here- 
moved the viscera and coated them and the visceral 
cavities with tar, enveloping the body with a tarred sheet. 
His method is said to have been successful. Joshua 
Brooks, the last of the great English anatomists having 
a distinctive school of anatomy of his own, practiced the 
Hunterian method with but slight if any modifications. 

M. Boudet's process was a modification of the Egyp- 
tian, he being one of the last to follow ancient methods 
as well as the first to use corrosive sublimate as a preserv- 
ative. He embalmed with tan, salt, asphalt, and Peru- 
vian bark, camphor, cinnamon, and other aromatics, and 
corrosive sublimate. He also completely enveloped the 
body in bandages, varnish being coated over the body and 
cavities and outer bandage. 

M. Franchini's process consisted of injecting the ar- 
teries through the common carotid artery with a solution 
consisting of eight decigrams of arsenious acid combined 
with a small quantity of cinnabar, dissolved in nine kilo- 
grams of spirits of wine. By this method bodies could be 
kept odorless and natural in color for sixty days, after which 
they began to desiccate, and would mummify so as to 
last for all time. He had previously used a substance 


which had to be reduced to a fluid by heat and which be- 
came hard when cooled. This was given up for the simpler 
method outlined above. 

Jean Nicholas Gannel (1791-1852), a shrewd and 
progressive French chemist, introduced a new system of 
merit in the 30's of this century. Indeed several methods 
bear his name, for he used different preparations at differ- 
ent times. He claimed to be able to preserve a body for 
five or six months by using acetate of alumina, which he 
obtained by decomposing the sulphate of alumina and 
potassa by the action of acetate of lead, using five or six 
liters of this acetate of alumina of a density of 18° 
(Beaumi's areometer) to a body. He was also able to pre- 
serve a body thirty to sixty days by using a solution of 
one kilogram of sulphate of alumina to five liters of 
water. In injecting he used one of carotids, injecting 
downwards. Later he found it necessary to open the 
abdomen, in order to relieve the stomach and bowels of 
gas. M. Gannal's secret formula, which he claimed 
contained no arsenic, on being analyzed by a govern- 
mental commission, was found to contain that substance. 
Embalming with arsenious solutions having become com- 
mon in France in Louis Philippic time, the government 
interfered and prohibited the sale of arsenic and all 
compositions containing it for embalming bodies, as well 
as for several other uses. The further use of M. Gannal's 
solution was therefore stopped. This prohibited solution 
was formed by saturating forty liters of water with five 
hundred grains of arsenious acid, and dissolving therein 
by heat equal parts of sulphate and acetate of alumina, 
until the liquid attained a density of 20° (Beaumi's 

M. Sucquet, in a contest before a board of prominent 
French physicians, in which MM. Gannal, Dupre and others 


participated, won a signal victory for his method, using 
a nonarsenic preparation. His solution was composed 
chiefly of chlorid of zinc, which he injected arterially. 
M. Dupre made use of carbonic and sulphurous gases and 
M. Gannal injected a solution composed of equal parts of 
the sulphate and the chlorid of alumina, at a density of 
34°. Bodies prepared according to these processes, in 
the presence of the body of physicians mentioned, were 
buried for fourteen months, when they were disinterred in 
the presence of the same commission. M. Gannal's subject 
was found to have undergone putrefaction, while the one 
prepared by M. Sucquet was in an excellent state of pres- 
ervation. The latter body, on exposure to the air, without 
showing any signs of putrefaction, dried to a state of 
hardness, little short of that of wood or stone. In conse- 
quence of the remarkable success of M. Sucquet's method, 
it came into extensive use on the continent of Europe and 
to a considerable extent in this country. 

M. Falcony had a desiccatory process which mummi- 
fied the body, gave it a yellow appearance, but well pre- 
served it, without any mutilation or injection, by simply 
placing the body in a bed of dry sawdust to which pow- 
dered zinc sulphate had been added. In a paper read before 
the French academy, he said he found, after careful tests 
with different salts, that zinc sulphate of different degrees 
of strength, according to the condition of the body, 
weather, etc., to be the best preservative material; that a 
gallon would perfectly preserve a body. Bodies so pre- 
served remained flexible for forty days, after which they 
began to dry up, though still retaining their natural color. 
Others practiced this system with remarkable success. 

Dr. Chaussier's method, as given in Thenard's Chem- 
istry was in brief, as follows: The body completely 
emptied and thoroughly washed, was kept constantly 


saturated with corrosive sublimate. The salt gradually 
combined with the flesh, giving it firmness and rendering 
it imputrescible and incapable of being injured by insects 
or worms. The author states that he has seen a head pre- 
pared in this manner which had been exposed for several 
years to the alternation of sun and rain without suffering 
change, and was easily recognized, though the flesh had 
become hard as wood. 

Franciolla's method was not greatly different from 
some of the others given. The formula used by him 
was as follows: Arsenious acid, four ounces; carbonate 
of potash, two ounces; powdered alum, eight ounces. 
The acid and potash were dissolved by boiling in three 
quarts of water, the alum added, and the whole diluted 
by the addition of water until it made one gallon of 
the preparation. He opened the abdomen, emptied the 
stomach and other organs, washed, dried and injected 
them; then injected the bronchial tubes by puncturing 
the trachea. For arterial injection the right common 
carotid artery was selected, the blood being removed 
from the veins by puncturing the inferior vena cava, a little 
below the renal vein, and the jugular vein. The blood 
was let out of the vena cava before the abdomen was 
cleansed, and was removed by a sponge or pump. After 
injecting the head and neck, Franciolla turned the injector 
downward and continued the injection until completed. 
Later in his practice he selected the splenic artery for 
injecting. He poured a solution over the bowels before 
replacing them; a strong solution of bichromate of potash 
being sometimes used, though not with the best of satis- 
faction. He also advocated filling the abdominal and 
thoracic cavities with a liquid preparation of cornstarch, 
water, alcohol and corrosive sublimate, which, after hard- 
ening, would prevent the sinking of the parts. 


Brunetti, another Italian, used a method, which, it is 
claimed, preserved bodies so that they resisted decay for 
hundreds of years, but they became hard as stone and 
were of course useless for anatomical study. They, how- 
ever, retained their form and size in a remarkable degree. 
By this process the circulatory system was thoroughly 
cleansed by washing for from two to five hours with cold 
water, until it issued from the body looking clear. Alcohol 
was then injected to remove the water, and sulphuric ether 
to carry out of the system all fatty and greasy substances, 
these operations occupying five to ten hours. Equal time 
was spent in injecting a strong solution of tannin, after 
which the body was dried by means of a current of warm 
air which had been passed over heated chlorid of calcium. 

A Method in Vogue in Belgium has proven quite 
successful, though the process is tedious and requires 
considerable time for the preparation of the body. The 
preserving fluid is composed of the following ingredients: 
One-half pound each of alumina and sulphate of alumina 
and one ounce of corrosive sublimate, dissolved in one gal- 
lon of water. The body is firs?-, thoroughly washed with 
soap and tepid water to remove every particle which 
might obstruct the pores of the skin, for the process de- 
pends largely upon absorption of the solution through the 
pores. After the body has been thoroughly dried by the 
vigorous use of clean towels, the solution is applied exter- 
nally, keeping the body moist. The application must be 
renewed from time to time as jtbsorption and evaporation 
lessen the supply. The theory of this part of the process 
is to keep the body as nearly as possible completely im- 
mersed. The stomach and intestines are removed through 
an incision in the abdomen and thoroughly cleaned. Blood 
is withdrawn from the system by opening the inferior 
vena cava, and the arteries are injected through the 


abdominal cavity. The diaphragm is punctured and the 
pleural cavities are filled with a solution of arsenite of 

Dr. Tscheirnoff *s method was as interesting as it was 
thorough, but its necessary expensiveness was fatal to its 
general use. The mutilation of the body, incident to this 
method, also detracted from its popularity. He first opened 
the abdomen by making an incision extending from the 
sternum to the umbilical region, with a short cross incision 
about midway. This gave a diamond-shaped opening ex- 
posing the abdominal viscera. Entrance to the thoracic 
cavity was gained by carefully cutting the ribs loose from 
the sternum and turning the latter back over the face. 
This exposed to view the heart, lungs and aortal arch. 
The next step was to displace the bowels and sponge out 
all fluid or serum found around the intestines. The intes- 
tines and other internal organs, whose contents were liable 
to putrefaction, were emptied, the bladder being vacated 
through the urinary canal by means of a catheter; after 
which they were injected with fluid. He then injected 
the arteries through the descending aorta, which was 
exposed by moving the small intestine to the right, to be 
replaced on completion of the operation. 

This did not complete the surgical part of the process, 
for the back of the skull was trepanned, making a two- 
inch circular hole, through which the brain, or as much of 
it as could be reached, was removed by means of a long- 
handled, slender, specially-made spoon. This cavity was 
filled with a thin paste made by fully saturating a half 
gallon of water with alum, and thickening to the proper 
consistency by the addition of plaster of Paris ; the wound 
was then carefully closed and sewed up. The thoracic 
and abdominal cavities and their contents were washed 
and dried and the viscera surrounded with tannic acid. 


The sternum was then replaced and the wound tempora- 
rily closed, and the body completely enveloped in a sheet 
saturated with fluid, in which condition it was left for 
twelve hours. The envelop was then removed, the cav- 
ities of the thorax and abdomen reopened, and the plaster 
of Paris and alum paste, mentioned above, was poured over 
and around the viscera, filling all the space to the level of 
the ribs. After the paste set tannic acid was sprinkled 
over the top, the sternum was replaced and the wound 
permanently and carefully sewed up. The inside of the 
mouth was filled with cotton saturated with embalming 
fluid in order that the face should retain its fullness ; the 
nose cavity was also filled with paste. The entire body 
was finally coated with a preparation of Canada balsam 
and turpentine, which is transparent and excludes the air. 

The Florentine Process of embalming, used chiefly 
for the preservation of subjects for the dissecting table, 
as described by Dr. Venali, an Italian authority on the 
subject, was somewhat like Dr. Tscheirnoff 's. The abdo- 
men was opened by a transverse incision across the body, 
the stomach and intestines emptied of any gaseous, liquid 
or solid contents, and then injected; the cavity cleaned, 
sponged, and sprinkled with tannic acid. The thoracic 
cavity was entered from the abdomen, through the dia- 
phragm and similarly treated. Arterial injection was made 
through the femoral artery, the opening being made about 
eight inches from and below Poupart's ligament. 

A German Process of preservation, which, when 
properly followed, has kept bodies so perfectly that they 
retained their form, color and flexibility, so that, after a 
period of several years even, they made good subjects for 
purposes of dissection, and were free from offensive smells. 
The formula for the preserving fluid is as follows: In 3000 
grams of boiling water, dissolve alum, 100 grams; sodium 


chlorid, 25 grams ; potash, 60 grams ; arsenic acid, 10 
grams. This solution is then cooled and filtered to 10 
liters, when 4 liters of glycerine and one liter of mythylic 
alcohol is added. Bodies are injected arterially and sat- 
urated with the liquid, 8 or 10 liters being used to a body, 
according to the size and condition. 

Embalming" but Little Practiced To-day in Eng- 
land. — Singularly enough, while the English, in the later 
portion of the last, and first of this, century, made such 
wonderful progress in embalming, the art is but little prac- 
ticed to-day in that country; and then generally for others 
than natives of Great Britain — especially Americans. The 
late Dr. Benjamin Ward Richardson, F. R. C. S., in his 
work on "The Art of Embalming/' said: 

Embalming at the present day is, in England, an exceptional proc- 
ess, and when we are called upon to perform it here, it is, in ninety- 
nine cases out of the hundred, for some one foreign to our country. I 
have embalmed fifty bodies, but only in two or three instances the 
bodies of English people, and in these exceptional instances the de- 
ceased, although they were born and died in England, had lived the 
greater part of their life abroad, and were embalmed in order to be 
conveyed to friends at a distance, who wished to bury them. 

A recent letter from Mr. Halford Lupton Mills, Cam- 
bridge Place, Norfolk Square, Paddington, London, West, 
who is said to be the only British undertaker holding a 
diploma from an American School of Embalming, reaffirms 
this statement from both personal experience and obser- 




In the last chapter we treated wholly of European 
methods and processes; in this and succeeding chapters we 
take up the latest and most approved practices in vogue 
in this country. 

The methods of to-day, especially as practiced in Amer- 
ica, are far in advance of those of three thousand years ago, 
or indeed of any processes that have been practiced in the 
distant or more recent past. We do not eviscerate, norV 
make any indecent exposure of the remains; and we ac- 
complish in a few hours what our old friends, the Egyp- 
tians, required days and weeks to perform. Our modern 
methods, simplified by our modern instruments and appli- 
ances, place us in a position where comparisons with the 
crude work of the Egyptians would be odious. 

Prof. Charles W. McCurdy, Sc. D., Ph. D., in his recently 
published thesis on " Embalming and Embalming Fluids," 
has well said: 

In fact, the methods of embalming as taught and practiced in the 
present, demand a higher order of intelligence, a more thorough 
knowledge of the anatomy of the body, a steadier judgment, and a 
more skillful hand than was at any time required of or presented by 
the ancients who relied largely upon atmospheric influences for the 
preservation of their dead. 


Were modern embalmers so disposed. I have no doubt they could 
attain to the preservative excellence of their ancient brethern, indeed 


far surpass them, and prepare our dead for the judgment day ; but 
embalming, except for temporary convenience, as a rule, is not deemed 
desirable here or in Europe ; and, as it forms no part of the theological 
system of Christian nations, we have no ambition to rival them in 

Dr. Thomas Holmes, of Brooklyn, New York, is, with- 
out doubt, justly entitled to the honor of being called the 
" father of embalming" in this country. During our late 
war Dr. Holmes embalmed many bodies for shipment to 
their friends, to be buried in the cemeteries near their old 
homes, instead of being left to molder in the clay in 
alien soil. 

Embalming is practiced to-day chiefly for two reasons, 
viz: that of preservation and that of sanitation. Other 
minor reasons may be advanced, but these are the princi- 
pal ones. 


In performing "the last sad rites" over the dead, the 
period of mourning prior to interment usually lasts from 
two to four days, and, in case of a shipment, sometimes it 
is prolonged for months. 

Previous to the introduction of embalming as practiced 
to-day in this country, the undertaker, or whoever took 
charge of the funeral, usually had to handle a putrefying 
mass of animal tissue, sometimes in a horribly corrupt 
state, and always with more or less putrid odor. The in- 
troduction of ice modified these results to a certain extent, 
but all localities were not blessed with that precious prod- 
uct. Therefore, with the growing demand for more 
expensive funerals, came the great desire for a better and 
more general means of preserving the body until inter- 
ment could take place. In case shipment of the remains 
to some distant point is desired, embalmment is to-day 
considered absolutely essential. 

E.— 8 



Sanitation as a reason has been considered second- 
ary, but it should not be so. Every body dying from 
contagious or infectious disease should be embalmed, for 
the purpose of destroying the germs of contagion and 

The health-boards in every state, county, city or town, 
should make it incumbent on every person or persons who 
inter bodies dying from cholera, yellow fever, smallpox, 
diphtheria, typhoid fever, or any other infectious or con- 
tagious disease, to embalm them thoroughly with a fluid 
that contains the strongest disinfectants. It would lessen 
the danger in our own, and be a great safeguard to future, 
generations. Cemeteries are being changed and bodies 
are being disinterred at all times. Our w r ater supplies are 
liable to become contaminated by water running through, 
or having their origin in or under, a cemetery. The spores 
of contagion of the bacteria are not destroyed for a long 
period of time by earth or water. Consequently running 
water may take them up and convey them to any distance, 
thus spreading disease. Therefore, embalming, under the 
circumstances, would be of inestimable value as a sanitary 


The Condition, Appearance and Disease of the 
Body to be embalmed should be taken into consideration 
before commencing the operation. The disease that 
caused death; the time that has elapsed since death 
occurred ; the presence or absence of rigor mortis ; the ap- 
pearance of discoloration and the presence of gases — 
putrefactive or otherwise— in the tissues or cavities, will 
govern the operation of embalming entirely. 

If the disease has been a simple one, the length of 
time since death but a few hours, no gases nor evidence of 


putrefaction present, the operation can proceed at once, 
after placing the body on the embalming board with the 
trunk and head elevated. Next select the artery for in- 
jection and raise it as directed under the proper heading; 
withdraw the blood and inject fluid sufficient to fill the 
capillaries. Then fill the stomach, through the esopha- 
gus, and the lungs, through the trachea. Also, inject the 
chest and abdominal cavity with fluid. If rigor mortis is 
present break it up as much as possible before beginning 
the operation. Special diseases will be treated under 
separate headings. 

To Thoroughly Embalm a body fluid should be in- 
jected into every tissue of the body, through the arterial 
system, because it reaches every part of the body by way 
of the capillaries. Also, fluid should be injected into 
every subdivision of, and into and around, every visceral 
organ contained in the two great cavities of the body, and 
into the mouth, nose, gullet and trachea. Blood should be 
withdrawn from the vascular system, and the cavities re- 
lieved of gases and morbid matter. To inject fluid only 
through the arteries, in many cases, is not sufficient. The 
circulation may be obstructed by clots, calcareous deposits, 
contractions or aneurisms, thus preventing a proper distri- 
bution of the fluid. There may be more or less morbid 
material in some of the visceral organs, or effete material 
in the alimentary canal, the home of the bacteria of putre- 
faction. Fluid should be mixed with this material by 
cavity injection as well as to fill the tissues of the walls of 
the cavities containing it, by the arterial injection. One 
method should not be practiced to the exclusion of the 
other. True, some cases can be preserved by either one 
of these methods, when used alone. But this is no reason 
why the other should be excluded. If a body dying from 
typhoid fever is injected by the cavity method alone, it 


may be successfully preserved, but the infectious bacteria 
will not be destroyed in the other parts of the body. As a 
sanitary measure every body should be thoroughly em- 
balmed, and a rule should be adopted by every board of 
health to enforce it. 

Appearance of a Body After Thorough Embalm- 
ment. — Owing to the chemicals contained in the fluid 
that has been injected into the body, changes in the appear- 
ance of the surface will likely manifest themselves within 
a few hours after death. A lifelike appearance will follow 
the introduction of some fluids, while a marble-like white- 
ness, a brownish tinge, or a leadish-like tinge, will follow 
the use of others. In some bodies the above changes do 
not take place at all. 

These changes will indicate that the fluid is having an 
effect upon the rete mucosum and dermis only, and not 
that the body will keep forever — as some would have you 
believe. Neither does it indicate in those bodies where the 
changes do not take place, that a second injection should 
be resorted to, to keep them the " usual length of time. " 
The rule is that ordinary cases do not require a second in- 
jection, but an exception will occasionally occur. Very 
frequently special cases, such as septicaemia, consumption, 
typhoid fever, peritonitis, morphine cases, etc., require 
a second, or even a third, injection. Cases to be kept indefi- 
nitely such as those that are to be shipped, those to be kept 
for identification, those to be placed in family vaults, etc., 
should receive a number of injections. 



Modes of Death. — Whether death results from natural 
decay, disease, or violence, the proximate causes may be 
reduced, when fully analyzed, to two, namely, cessation of 
the circulation and cessation of respiration. On the con- 
tinuance of these functions depends the life of the whole 
body, or any part of it. Their functions may stop from 
causes operating directly on their mechanism, or by causes 
operating indirectly through the nerve centres which reg- 
ulate them. Hence it is usual to describe the latter as the 
third mode of death ; so that we speak of death being pro- 
duced by the cessation of the function of any one of the 
three organs : the heart, the lungs, or the brain. 

Signs of Death. — It is not always easy to determine 
when life is extinct. We have no single positive sign of 
death. We usually combine several signs to determine 
when the spark of life has become finally extinguished. 

Syncope, Asphyxia and Trance are the conditions 
which most resemble actual death. 

Cessation of the Heart's Action. — Proof of the ces- 
sation of the heart's action is the most reliable sign of 
death. Mere pulselessness is not proof, for the heart may 
be still beating, and resuscitation may be possible. The 
stethoscope should be used skilfully over the region of the 
heart. There should be no hurry; continue the auscultation 



for some minutes, or even a half hour, if the case is a 
doubtful one. 

In hybernating animals during the hybernating period 
the pulse is slow and feeble — only eight or ten beats per 
minute — but during activity the rate is eighty or ninety 
per minute. A similar condition may exist in man. 

The cases of Colonel Townsend and of the Indian 
fakirs, referred to as examples of the cessation of the cir- 
culation, while life still remained, were not scientifically 
investigated, and are to be set down as '"fakes." 

Magnus recommends the application of a tight ligature 
on a finger or toe. If the circulation has ceased entirely, 
there will be no change in color ; but if there is any circu- 
lation at all, it matters not how feeble, the extremity 
sooner or later assumes a bluish tint, from strangulation 
of the venous flow. 

If cessation of the heart's action is absolutely estab- 
lished, other signs may be ignored. 

Cessation of Respiration. — Respiration may appear 
to be suspended, bat still it may be going on. The test for 
moisture, by holding a cold mirror over the mouth and 
nostrils ; placing a flock of cotton wool on the lips to test 
for air currents ; and observing whether the reflection on 
the surface of a cup of water placed on the chest moves 
or remains still, are all well adapted for the detection of 
respiration. If the results are all negative the indications 
are that respiration has ceased. 

If death is present, the skin becomes ashy pale, and .the 
tissues loose their elasticity. Tension of the eye becomes 
less, and the cornea becomes opaque. The pupils fail to 
react to light. Irritants applied to the skin do not cause 
vital reaction. Certain parts may retain their independ- 
ent vitality after somatic death, though the body be dead 
as a whole. The muscles may be made to contract, by 


the application of an electrical current, two or three hours 
after death. 

The following changes in the body not only indicate 
death, but aid in fixing the probable time at which death 
occurred : 

Cooling of the Body. — After death the body dying 
from ordinary disease becomes cool gradually. If placed 
in an average temperature without clothing it will cool at 
the rate of about 1° Fahrenheit per hour. A thick coating 
of adipose tissue, as found in fat, heavy people, clothing, 
etc., retard cooling. 

The superficial coldness of collapse, which is due to 
cessation of the peripheral circulation, must not be taken 
for cadaveric coldness, for there is still considerable inter- 
nal heat which must pass off, and the body, cold to the 
touch before death, may after death rise in temperature, 
as the internal heat radiates. 

Hypostasis. — After death the blood gravitates to the 
dependent parts of the body, giving rise to livid discolora- 
tions, termed hypostasis. These discolorations are liable 
to be confounded with ecchymoses or extravasations 
of blood, but they differ from ecchymoses in the fact 
that the blood is contained in the vessels and not extrava- 
sated into the tissues, as may be shown by an incision into 
the skin. If the blood remains in a liquid state, these dis- 
colorations may be made to disappear if the position of 
the body be reversed, but they will reappear in the other 
parts that are now most dependent. They usually occur 
in from eight to ten hours after death. 

Post-Mortem Staining:. — While hypostasis is making 
its appearance, other important changes are taking place 
on the upper surface of the body. The blood undergoes 
the earliest and most rapid change. The hemoglobin 
escapes from the red corpuscles, partly by exudation, and 


partly by the destruction of the corpuscles themselves, being 
dissolved in the liquid of the blood and passing through 
into the surrounding tissue, causing a staining of the tissue, 
known as post-mortem staining. This staining is of a 
uniform pinkish-red color, and must be distinguished with 
care from the redness of hyperemia, which appears only 
in points or layers. The amount of staining is in propor- 
tion to the amount of blood and the rapidity of decompo- 

Rigor Mortis. — Arrest of nutrition is accompanied by 
a state of rigidity in the muscles, known as rigor mortis, 
or cadaveric rigidity. It is due to coagulation of the 
muscle plasma. This rigidity usually begins in the muscles 
of the neck and face, and gradually extends from above 
downwards. Putrefaction begins in the same region and 
follows in the same order, so that while the upper parts 
of the body appear flaccid, the lower extremities are rigid. 
This rigidity can be broken up and it will not return. If 
cataleptic rigidity is broken up it will return. Mobility is 
still observable at the joints to a certain degree. Not so 
in the stiffness of freezing where all parts are equally rigid 
and crackle if bent. Rigor mortis takes place in all bodies 
after death. The muscles become firm and shortened, ap- 
parently in a state of chronic contraction. It comes on at 
once after the muscles have lost their irritability. The 
time of its appearance and its intensity depends upon the 
state of muscular nutrition at the time of death. The 
greater the store of muscular energy at the time of 
death, the longer it is before rigidity sets in, and the longer 
it lasts. On the contrary, the greater the exhaustion the 
sooner rigidity sets in, and the sooner it passes off. Rigor 
mortis is longer appearing in subjects dying in vigorous 
health, as by accident, than in those dying from exhausting 
diseases, as consumption, etc. In cases of full musculo r 


vigor the rigidity will come on in from one to twenty-four 
hours and last from one to ten days, while in those of ex- 
haustion it may come on at once and last only a few 

Putrefaction is effected by micro-organisms, known 
as saprophytes, or putrefactive bacteria. When rigor mortis 
passes off, decomposition begins. The tissues undergo 
decided changes. The first external indication is a 
greenish discoloration over the right inguinal region. 
Internally the mucous membrane of the larynx and tra- 
chea is the first to change in color and consistence. The 
discolorations are due to alterations in the transuded 
hemoglobin. The less compact tissues are the first to 
putrefy, the fibrous tissue resists for some time longer, and 
the compact tissue of the womb resists putrefaction longer 
than any other. In the course of time all the soft tissues 
disintegrate entirely and the skeleton is exposed and falls 
to pieces. 

The process of putrefaction is accompanied by the gen- 
eration of gases very offensive to the smell, such as sulphu- 
reted hydrogen, ammonia, nitrogen, carbonic acid, etc. 

The time that it takes for a body to decompose depends 
partly upon the condition of the body itself, but principally 
on temperature, moisture, and exposure. A moist, high 
temperature, with free exposure, favors rapid putrefaction. 
A dry, high temperature has a tendency to dry the tissues 
and in this way produces mummification instead of putre- 
faction. Moisture alone tends to produce saponification, 
especially of the fatty tissues, with the formation of a sub- 
stance termed adipocere. Putrefaction is less rapid in 
water and least rapid in earth. Signs of putrefaction begin 
to appear on about the third day, under ordinary circum- 
stances and an average temperature, commencing with a 
greenish discoloration in the right inguinal region. Many 


months may pass before the soft tissues entirely disinte- 
grate. Judicial examination of the womb has been made 
nine months after death, where antiseptics had not been 
used. It is difficult to state how far putrefaction shall 
have advanced in a given time, for under similar condi- 
tions apparently, a very great divergence of results have 
been observed. 



Blood, Lymph and Chyle are the nutrient fluids of 
the body. Others aid in the digestion of food, and still 
others are only excrementitious. The blood is the most 
important fluid to the embalmer. It enters largely into the 
difficulties of his work, causing frequent discolorations. Its 
property of coagulation often prevents its removal entirely. 
It is a fluid : when pure, of a bright red or scarlet color 
(arterial); when impure, of a dull red or purple color 

The blood is composed of plasma, or liquor sanguinis, and 
red and white corpuscles. The red corpuscles constitute 
little less than one-half of the mass of blood, are about 3-2V0 
of an inch in diameter, and their color is due to the hemo- 
globin. Leucocytes, or white corpuscles, are much less 
abundant, existing only in the proportion of one to several 
hundred of the red corpuscles. The balance of the mass 
is plasma. 

Coagulation of the Blood. — The blood retains its flu- 
idity while it remains in the vessels and the circulation is 
not interfered with. But after death, or after it is drawn 
from the vessels, it coagulates or " sets" into a jelly-like 
mass. It coagulates after death, in the vessels, though less 
rapidly than when removed from the body. 

As a rule it coagulates in from twelve to twenty-four 
hours after death. The blood is found chiefly in the ve- 
nous system, the arteries being emptied by post-mortem 



contraction of their muscular coats. In the veins coagula- 
tion is slow and imperfect. Coagula are found in the left 
side of the heart and aorta, but they are much smaller than 
those found in the right side of the heart and large veins. 
The blood in the capillaries and smaller veins does not 
coagulate, or, if it does, it coagulates very imperfectly. It 
gravitates rapidly to the dependent parts of the body. 

Coagulation can be retarded or prevented by the addi- 
tion of certain chemicals, such as the solutions of potash 
and soda and some of their sal- \ Other conditions prevent 
or retard coagulation. The poison of venomous ser- 
pents, narcotic poisons, prussic acid, suffocation, whether 
by drowning, hanging, or poisonous gases, prevent coagula- 
tion, while lightning, electricity, blows on the abdomen, 
cholera or violent exercise retard coagulation in the vessels. 

The blood not only causes discolorations, but it decom- 
poses quickly, producing gases, and therefore should be 
removed. The proportion of the blood to the weight of 
the entire body is nearly in the ratio of one to eight ; or 
sixteen to eighteen pounds of blood in a body weighing 140 
to 150 pounds. 

Circulation of the Blood. — If reference is made to 
the anatomy of the heart, arteries and veins, in the preced- 
ing pages, a complete anatomical description will be found. 
This description should be studied until it is thoroughly 
understood and committed to memory. The circulation of 
the blood will then be easily understood. 

In the study of the circulation, first remember that all 
vessels that carry blood away from the heart are arteries, and 
all those that carry blood to the heart are veins. It mat- 
ters not whether they carry arterial (pure), or venous (im- 
pure), blood, the proposition holds good. The venous blood 
is carried by the pulmonary arteries, from the right side 
of the heart to the lungs, where it gives off carbonic 



acid gas and receives oxygen, and then, after it is 

changed into arterial blood, the pulmonary veins carry 

it back to the [Right 

left side of the (Right I Carotid 

heart. This is KSub Clavian ^ Innominate 


[EFf S</B» C\-RVIFK+J 

, Superior 
heart \Jenf\ 



called the Pulmonary 
pulmonary Veins 

then forces CA Y A 
it out through 
the aorta and 
its subdivisions 
to the capilla- 
ries, where it 
every tissue, 
gives off oxy- 
gen and re- 
ceives carbonic 
acid gas, and is 
carried back inferior 
through the Y ENA 
veins to the 

right side of the heart 
This constitutes the sys- 
temic circulation. 

Cause of Arteries Being 
Emptied After Death. — The ar 
'teries are usually found empty after 
death. This condition is due to the 
tonic contraction of the nonstriated mus- 
cular fiber in the heart and in the mus- 
cular coats of the arteries. The muscular walls of the 

Fig. 14. Cham- 
bers, Valves 
and Vessels of 
the Heart. 


ventricles and arteries are the first to lose their irri- 
tability, become rigid and contracted within an hour 
or two after death, usually remaining in that state for ten 
or twelve hours, and sometimes for twenty-four to thirty- 
six hours, then become flaccid again. The contraction 
of the arteries is so great as to produce great diminu- 
tion of the caliber. This no doubt contributes largely to 
the passage of the blood from the arteries into the veins, 
which almost invariably takes place within an hour or 
two after death. It also frequently prevents a free flow 
of- fluid through the arterial system. 


The circulation of fluid is not exactly the same as the 
circulation of the blood. It does not pass through nor into 
the heart, unless it makes the entire circuit of the systemic 
and pulmonary circulations, which it is not likely to do, un- 
less a large amount of blood is withdrawn, or one of the 
needle processes is used. For instance, if the right brachia] 
artery is raised for the purpose of injection, the fluid starts 
at the point of operation and passes through the axillary 
and subclavian to the innominate, there taking the down- 
ward course (provided the body be on the incline), into and 
through the aorta to the most dependent parts, filling them 
first and reaching each arterial branch successively, as the 
level of the fluid rises, supplying the tissues, reaching the 
upper extremities, neck and head, last. After this point is 
reached, enough fluid should be injected to cause it to pass 
through the capillaries, which will be indicated by the in- 
creasing size of the superficial veins, especially those on the 




The development and growth of embalming, especially 
arterial, has brought into existence a diverse and extended 
list of instruments and accessories, necessary or useful to 
the embalmer in the performance of his work. This 
allows of great latitude in their selection, ranging in price 
from the cheapest to the most expensive, in adaptability 
from the most primitive to the most modern, and in grade 
from the poorest to the best. One's ability as an embalmer 
may be judged by the quality, condition and appearance 
of his instruments. 

Instruments Should Be Kept Clean. — The impor- 
tance of keeping embalming instruments perfectly clean 
cannot be over-estimated, inasmuch as they may be the 
cause, if not so kept, of serious trouble to those who handle 
them, either to the operator himself or the assistant. 
There are many cases on record, some of them of recent 
date, when serious mishaps have occurred through the 
careless handling of filthy instruments. Two cases of 
positive blinding are well known, having come under the 
immediate knowledge of the authors. One of the victims, 
a bright young man, son of an undertaker in the South, is 
at the present time undergoing treatment to the end that 
his eyesight may be restored. Sore eyes and sore hands 

E.— 9 (129) 


are things of very common occurrence from accidental in- 
oculation from handling dirty instruments. 

Aseptic Instruments should be used in all cases. 
What has been said about the danger from use of dirty 
and filthy instruments being indisputable facts, every em- 
balmer should become the possessor of a set of instruments 
which can be easily and thoroughly cleaned. Aseptic is 
defined as being " free from the living germs of disease, 
fermentation or putrefaction." Only those instruments 
are aseptic which are made without visible joint, or which 
can be taken apart and every portion be cleansed. Such 
instruments, of course, cost more money than some other 
kinds; but, the embalmer can make a great point in his 
business by having his instruments of the very best and 
most approved style. 

Should Take Just Pride in His Instruments. — The 
up-to-date surgeon prides himself on his fine and perfectly- 
kept instruments, always adding the very latest and best 
improvements. So does the dentist and physician. These 
are professional men with whom the embalmer is, or cer- 
tainly should be, on a level. They guard and care for the 
instruments of their respective professions more carefully 
than anything else they possess. It is a true saying, and 
one to be cherished, that a workman is known by his tools. 

The progressive undertaker spends thousands of dollars 
for his equipment of funeral cars, hearses, carriages, and 
horses, and in his show room and its contents. Ofttimes 
one thing only is neglected. The old, well-worn cabinet, 
with its rusty set of tools, often filthy and full of septic 
matter, is still allowed to do service, when in fact this 
part of his paraphernalia should be the one which he should 
take pride in having as nearly perfect as possible. When 
called to take charge of the remains of some prominent 
citizen, where no expense is spared in all the necessary 


furnishings, how inconsistent it is not to be able to con- 
duct the embalming on an equal scale. 

Sterilizing Instruments. — To sterilize instruments is 
to render them free, by heating or otherwise, from living 
germs. The following formula for sterilizing is simple, 
cheap and effective: 

First thoroughly wash the instruments with soap and 
water; place in a tin vessel a quart of water, to which has 
been added a quarter of a pound of bicarbonate of soda; 
immerse the instruments and boil for half an hour; take 
out and wipe with a soft, woolen cloth until they are thor- 
oughly dry, when they will be positively free from all 
danger of inoculation. 

To Remove Rust from Steel Instruments. — In case 
steel instruments should become rusted they can be made 
perfectly bright by a very simple but effective process. 
First rub them over with sweet oil; then bury them over 
night in ordinary white, dry, slacked lime. In the morn- 
ing remove them from the lime bath, rub them with a soft 
cloth, and they will become bright and shining. 

Instruments Should Be Sharp. — The embalmer's in- 
struments should be sharp and keen cutting, or else the 
operations cannot be made as quickly or neatly as they 
should be. A jagged cut is always unsatisfactory, and ap- 
pears unworkman-like and unprofessional. 

The Number and Quality of instruments to be pos- 
sessed of course must be settled by the individual. As 
already intimated, the larger the number and variety of 
instruments and the better their quality, other things 
being equal, the better will the embalmer be equipped for 
his work. Any first-class, reliable manufacturer or jobber 
will furnish an illustrated and descriptive catalogue of 
instruments and supplies from which a selection can be 
made of those needed or desired. The selections should 


be made with care, especially if the. amount available for 
this purpose is anyways limited. 

The Instruments Necessary for Arterial Work are 

a scalpel, bistoury, scissors, grooved director, forceps, chain 
and hooks or automatic stretcher, aneurism needle, tenac- 
ulum, a good pump (aspirator and injector), an assortment 
of arterial tubes (different sizes and lengths), thread, 
needles, absorbent cotton, sheet lint, isinglass plaster, and 
a number of accessories. 

Instruments Used for Cavity Injection. — The oper- 
ator should select several trocars or hollow needles of 
different sizes and lengths, from the infant to the adult 
size, and from six to fifteen inches in length ; a couple 
sizes of hard rubber nasal tubes; a stomach tube, silk No. 
14 or 15; and a good aspirator. 




In the male subject convenience should govern the 
operation, unless blood is to be withdrawn. If the latter 
is necessary, then select either of the femorals, the left 
brachial, or one of the common carotids. If a female, avoid 
the femorals, on account of the necessary exposure that 
will follow in that region of the body. Avoid the common 
carotids on account of the mutilation leaving an unsightly 
scar that may interfere with the wishes of friends in regard 
to the dressing of the body. Either one of the brachials 
or radials may be raised, unless blood is to be withdrawn 
through the basilic vein ; if such is the case raise the left 
brachial artery and the left basilic vein, on account of the 
curve being more gradual in the left vein than in the right. 
If it becomes necessary to raise the femoral in the female, 
do so without any hesitancy. Undue exposure can be 
avoided by placing an old bed sheet over the body, and 
cutting a slit through it over Scarpa's triangle. The opera- 
tion should be performed through the slit in the sheet. 
When bodies are dressed the radial can be used in either 
sex. One artery is as good as another for the injection of 
fluid, if no occlusion exists in the artery. The artery can be 
raised in any part of its course, without reference to the 
collateral circulation. There is always sufficient collateral 



circulation to supply the distal end of the artery with 
plenty of fluid. 


To Raise an Artery at any point, the embalmer should 
be acquainted with the anatomy of the part as well as the 
linear and anatomical guides for making the incision. He 
should be able to distinguish between an artery, vein and 

An artery is accompanied in its course by one or more 
veins and usually by a nerve, and all are encased in a 
single sheath. 

The artery is usually empty, cylindrical in form, of a 
creamish white appearance, and somewhat firm to the 

The vein usually contains venous blood, is of a bluish 
tint, is flattened, and of a soft velvety feel. 

The nerve is white, hard, and dense in structure. 

The brachial, femoral, common carotid, radial and pos- 
terior tibial arteries are the ones most frequently operated 
upon for embalming purposes. 

In raising an artery an incision should be made in the 
skin at the proper place, of sufficient length to expose an 
inch or more of the artery when it is raised out of the 
wound ; less will do for the radial. After making the cut 
through the skin, dissect carefully down to the sheath of 
the artery; incise the sheath with the scalpel on the 
grooved director, or with the scissors, and raise the artery 
out of the wound. Make an incision through the wall 
of the artery, either diagonally or transversely. The 
sharp-pointed, straight or curved bistoury, is a good in- 
strument for incising the artery or vein. After the inci- 
sion in the artery is made, insert an arterial tube with the 
nozzle toward the heart. Tie the artery around the tube. 


When fluid appears at the distal end of the artery, it can 
be tied. The appearance of fluid indicates an intact, col- 
lateral circulation. If the fluid does not appear at the 
point of incision by the time the other parts of the body 
have received enough, remove the tube and tie the proximal 
end, and insert it into the distal end and fill that part of 
the body with fluid. 

Always inject fluid into an artery very slowly; never be 
in a hurry, but be patient, and take plenty of time, which 
is usually necessary to insure the best results. Rapid and 
careless work may destroy the circulation, or "flush the 


Location. — The brachial artery may not follow the 
regular course, but it may descend down towards the inner 
condyle of the humerus. It may divide and descend as 
two trunks — each reduced to about half the normal size — 
in the same sheath and unite again at the lower part of its 
course ; or, they may continue on through the forearm as 
the radial and ulna arteries. 

The Linear Guide. — To mark out the course of the 
brachial artery, draw a line from the middle of the axillary 
space (armpit) to the center of the elbow, provided the 
palm of the hand is supinated (turned up). If not supin- 
ated, direct the line to the center of the inner condyle of 
the humerus. 

The Anatomical Guide. — The artery is situated on 
the inner side of the arm, extending from the lower part 
of the axillary space to the middle of the elbow joint. Its 
guide is the inner border of the biceps muscle. It lies in 
the groove between the biceps and triceps muscles. It is 
superficial throughout its entire course, being covered only 
by the skin, superficial and deep fascia. 


To Raise the Artery or Vein, and inject artery, bring 
the arm out from the body to near a right angle and turn 
the palm of the hand upward. In this position the guide line 
will indicate the precise course of the artery. Make an in- 
cision through the skin, and superficial fascia on the line, 
two or three inches in length, beginning about three or four 
inches above the elbow joint ; then catch up the deep 
fascia with the forceps and divide it. This will expose the 
vessels to view and their relation can be studied. The 
artery will be seen between the vein and nerve, the 
basilic vein on the inner side and the nerve on the outer. 
The artery should be separated from the vein and nerve. 
If blood is to be withdrawn take up the vein and proceed 
as directed for opening the basilic vein. Then raise the 
artery out of the wound, make a diagonal or transverse 
incision through the wall, and insert the arterial tube with 
point towards the heart. Tie the artery around the tube; 
also, the end back of the tube (distal end). Attach the 
pump and begin the injection of fluid slowly and carefully, 
as force and rapidity may rupture the capillaries and cause 
"flushing of the face." Continue the injection until the 
fluid has passed into or through the capillaries. Always 
inject enough fluid. 


Location. — The femoral artery is situated on the an- 
terior and inner side of the thigh, extending from Poupart's 
ligament to the upper border of the popliteal space, where 
it becomes the popliteal artery. 

Linear Guide. — To locate the course of the femoral 
artery, a line should be drawn from the front of the prom- 
inence of the ilium (hip bone) to the center of the pubic 
arch. This line indicates Poupart's ligament. A second 
line should be drawn from the centre of Poupart's ligament 
to the inner side of the kneejoint, The latter line will 


indicate the course of the femoral artery, when the foot is 
turned out. 

The Anatomical Guide is the inner border of the sar- 
torius muscle, which arises from the front part of the hip 
bone and passes obliquely downwards and inwards to be in- 
serted into the upper, internal surface of the tibia just below 
the knee joint. In the upper part of its course the femoral 
artery passes through Scarpa's triangle, from its base to its 
apex. The base of the triangle is bounded by Poupart's 
ligament, inner side by the adductor longus, and the outer 
side by the sartorius muscle. 

To Raise the Artery or Vein, make an incision from 
two to three inches in length in the lower part of Scar- 
pa's triangle, or about two inches below Poupart's lig- 
ament, through the skin, fat and superficial fascia. Then 
dissect the deep fascia from the sheath containing the ves- 
sels. After this has been done, raise the sheath and place 
the handle of the bistoury beneath it. The sheath should 
now be opened and the artery and vein separated. If 
blood is to be withdrawn from the vein, lift it upon the end 
of the finger, incise the wall, insert the long silk vein 
tube and proceed to remove the blood. This accomplished, 
make a diagonal or transverse incision through the wall 
of the artery, insert the arterial tube with the point 
towards the heart and tie the artery around it; then attach 
the pump and begin the injection slowly and carefully. In- 
ject enough fluid to thoroughly fill the tissues. After suffi- 
cient fluid has been injected, the tube may be capped if there 
is a suspicion that another injection will be necessary. If 
not, remove the tube, tie the artery and sew up the incision. 


The Common Carotid Artery has no particular 
advantage over any other except in size. It is the largest 


artery used for embalming purposes. It is situated in the 
neck, and extends from the upper border of the larynx 
(Adam's apple) to the sterno-clavicular articulation. It is 
scarcely possible to raise it without leaving an unsightly 
scar, unless you incise the skin on the clavicle and draw it 
upward. Therefore it should not be used unless unavoidable. 

The Linear Guide to the location of this artery is a 
line drawn from behind the ear, downward to the joint of 
the sternum and clavicle. This will indicate the position 
of the artery. 

The Anatomical Guide is the anterior border of the 
sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle, which arises from the upper 
end of the sternum and inner end of the clavicle, or collar 
bone, crossing upward and a little backward to be inserted 
into the mastoid process of the temporal bone. 

To Raise the Artery and Vein the operator should 
begin the incision about an inch above the sternum in the 
line that indicates the course of the artery and continue it 
upward about one inch. Then dissect down carefully to 
the sheath which contains the artery, vein and pneumo- 
gastric nerve. Open the sheath and separate the artery 
from the vein and nerve. Raise the vein, insert a drainage 
tube and let the blood drain from the head and face. Then 
raise and incise the artery, insert the arterial tube with 
the point towards the heart, tie the artery around the tube 
and tie it back of the tube. Commence the injection slowly 
and carefully. Inject sufficient fluid to fill the tissues of 
the body. Remove the tube, tie the artery and carefully 
close the incision. 


To Locate and Raise the Radial Artery is very 
simple. It can be raised in a moment and it will receive 
the fluid as fast as it should be injected in any case. Its posi- 
tion makes it very convenient for that purpose when the body 


is already dressed for burial. At the point where it is usually 
raised, it lies very superficial, being covered only with the 
skin and superficial fascia. To raise the artery, make an in- 
cision along the groove on the radial side of the wrist where 
the physician takes the pulse rate, about an inch or less in 
length, through the skin and superficial fascia. This 
artery can also be raised higher up along its course, 
where it will be found somewhat deeper. Open the 
sheath, raise the artery, incise it and insert the small arte- 
rial tube with the point toward the heart ; tie the artery 
around and behind the tube. The wrist should be tied 
tightly behind the tube to prevent a great amount of fluid 
from reaching the hand, which is not desirable. Attach 
the pump and inject the fluid slowly and carefully. After 
sufficient fluid has been injected, remove the tube, tie both 
ends of the artery, sew up the incision and cover with 
isinglass plaster. 


Location. — The posterior tibial artery is found on the 
posterior surface of the leg, extending from the lower 
border of the popliteal space downward behind the inner 
malleolus (ankle), where it becomes the plantar artery. 

To Raise the Posterior Tibial Artery an incision 
should be made beginning at the upper border in the de- 
pression, and extending in a curved line around the inter- 
nal malleolus or ankle. Dissect down to, and open, the 
sheath, raise the artery, make an incision in the artery and 
insert the arterial tube wi th the nozzle toward the heart. Tie 
the artery around the tube, attach the tube and inject fluid 
sufficient to fill the tissues of the body. Then remove the 
tube, sew up the wound and cover with plaster. After the in- 
jection place the trunk and lower extremities on a level, with 
the head slightly elevated. This will prevent the fluid from 
gravitating to the lower organs and extremities. 



The Blood should be removed from the veins to relieve 
the tissues from the pressure ; to make more room for the 
fluid to pass through the capillaries and smaller vessels ; to 
relieve the congestion of the superficial or peripheral veins 
of the head, face and neck, thereby removing discoloration 
from that source; and to relieve the tissues from the 
changed and putrid blood, which decreases the chance of 
preservation, and gives rise to " post-mortem discoloration " 
and "post-mortem staining." 

The Methods of removing blood from the body are by 
aspirating the heart or veins, or by drainage. 

To Remove Blood from the Heart, a trocar, or hollow 
needle, and an aspirator, are required. Select a needle or 
trocar six inches or more in length, very sharp and of fair 
caliber. The arrow-pointed needle is an excellent instru- 
ment for the purpose. Introduce the needle between the 
third and fourth ribs (third intercostal space) on the right 
side, within half an inch of the right border of the sternum 
(breastbone), directing it downward and a little to the left, 
to the depth of about four inches, or until the point of the 
needle touches the spinal column, when it will have entered 
the right auricle of the heart. After the needle has been 
introduced, attach the aspirator, place the body in a sitting 
posture, and raise the arms above the head for the purpose 
of gravitating the blood toward the heart. To remove the 
blood from the lower extremities the position of the body 
must be reversed, as blood can only be removed from the 
body by the aid of gravitation, or while the mouth of the 
tube, or the point of the needle, is immersed in the fluid. 
The vacuum in the heart is not filled by the pressure of air, 
as in the common pump, but by the force of gravity. 

Circulation Not Destroyed by Tapping the Heart. 
— Objection has been made to this operation by some 


embalmers raising the point that the circulation is destroyed 
for arterial embalming. The point is not well taken. 
The right auricle being the only part wounded, the fluid 
would have to make the whole circuit of the circulatory 
system before it could escape. However, the heart may be 
occupying an abnormal position, as a result of effusion 
into one of the pleural sacs or some other disease ; such 
being the case, the left side of the heart or aorta may be 
injured. Even injury to the left auricle or ventricle would 
not destroy the circulation sufficiently to interfere with 
arterial embalming, unless the aortic valves were de- 

The Valves of the Heart and Veins act just the same 
after death as they do before. Before death they prevent 
the backward flow of the blood and after death they prevent 
the flow of fluid through the heart. Therefore fluid does 
not enter the left cavities of the heart at all, nor does it 
enter the right cavities unless it makes the entire circuit 
of the circulation. The coronary arteries supply the sub- 
stance of the heart with fluid. 

To Remove Blood by the Veins will require at 
least two silk vein tubes, of different sizes and lengths — 
of sufficient caliber to enter the vein and long enough to 
reach the heart — , an aspirator, and the usual instruments 
for raising an artery. In this operation it is better to 
select the most convenient vein. The one that accom- 
panies the artery that is chosen for the injection of fluid will 
be the most convenient, as it is not necessary to make more 
than one incision for the raising of both artery and vein. 

If the Basilic Vein is selected, use the left one, as the 
left vein has a more regular curve than the right and the 
tube will pass into the heart without difficulty. 

To Open the Basilic Vein. — Tie the vein on either 
side of the point of incision to prevent the blood from 


flowing, until the tube is inserted. Then raise the vein upon 
the end of the finger, make an incision through the wall, 
introduce the silken tube towards the heart as far as the 
ligature; remove the ligature, then pass the tube carefully 
towards the heart until it reaches the right auricle, and 
attach the aspirator. On removal of the tube, again tie 
the vein to prevent leakage. 

If the Femoral Vein is selected, either the right or 
left may be used, as the tube will pass through one about 
as easily as the other. It will require a larger and much 
longer tube for the femoral vein, as the point of entrance 
is at a greater distance from the heart than that of the ba- 
silic. More blood can be withdrawn from the femoral vein 
than any other, as it is more dependent and thus favored 
by gravity. 

The Internal Jugular Vein may be used in the same 
way. Also, a large, open-end, drainage tube may be intro- 
duced upward, and the blood will drain out of the head, 
neck and face. 

The basilic vein tube used should be at least eighteen 
inches long and No. 8 to 12 in caliber. The femoral vein 
tube should be thirty inches or more long and No. 8 to 12 
in caliber. They should be well oiled before introduction. 

If the blood is coagulated, or does not flow freely, inject 
through the tube a weak solution of the carbonate or sul- 
phate of soda, or common salt (chlorid of sodium), using 
a ten or twelve per cent, solution. It will likely dissolve 
the clot, and the blood will flow more readily. 

The operations, as described under the directions for 
raising the different arteries, will apply to the veins. 

The Proper Time to Withdraw the Blood. — To 
obtain the most satisfactory results, the operation of 
withdrawing the blood should be going on at the same 
time that the fluid is being injected into the arteries. The 


quantity is increased, the flow is easier, and time is saved 
as well. The greater the quantity of blood extracted from 
the body the better will be the results. 


If the case is one that will likely require a second injec- 
tion the tube should be capped and left to remain in the 
artery until the time has elapsed for the injection, when 
the cap can be removed and the injector attached. The 
interval between the different injections should be at least 
twelve hours. Sometimes as much fluid can be injected at 
the second, as at the first, operation. The arteries will be 
found empty, the fluid having passed into the surrounding 
tissues by absorption and contraction of the arterial walls, 
driving the fluid through the capillaries into the tissues 
and veins. In the course of a day or two the tissues become 
hard to the touch, that soft natural feeling of the surface 
will have disappeared, the body will be rigid, the jaws 
firmly set — an indication that it will keep, as long as it is 
retained in a dry vault or room. 


Slipping of the Skin is a result of the softening of the 
rete mucosum — the soft layer that contains the pigment or 
coloring matter of the skin. Many of the profession have 
been led to believe that the trouble is caused by certain 
fluids used for injecting the vascular system. This is an 
error and one that requires correction. Skin-slip is caused 
by the putrefactive softening of the rete mucosum. This 
early softening is almost exclusively in cases of heart, liver 
and kidney diseases, and other morbid changes that result 
in dropsy, and there is always more or less dropsical effusion 
into the subcutaneous tissues, which transudes into the rete, 
causing the putrefactive softening. The general effusion 
into the subcutaneous and other tissues prevents perfect 


capillary circulation of the fluid and thereby prevents the 
distribution of fluid to the surface. Slipping of the skin 
frequently occurs when fluid is used only in the cavities, 
none being injected into the arteries. Under such cir- 
cumstances how could fluid produce " skin-slip ?" No 
fluid that contains strong antiseptics injected into the vas- 
cular system will cause slipping of the skin. 

To Prevent Slipping of the Skin, cases that die from 
diseases that cause dropsical effusion into the subcutaneous 
(fat) tissues should be carefully handled. The skin on the 
face and hands should not be rubbed or pressed upon for a 
day or two, when the effusion will have settled to the de- 
pendent parts of the body and fluid will have reached the 
skin to harden the rete mucosum and dry the surface. 


Apply to the face and hands the following : 

Alum, Powdered, 4 ounces. Pure (grain) Alcohol, 1 pint. 

Mix ; apply by saturating a cloth (several thicknesses) and laying gently 
over the parts, keeping it moist with the mixture, and allowing it to remain 
for ten to twelve hours 


Discolorations take place in all bodies sooner or later 
after death, due to certain changes. The areas of surface 
that most concern the embalmer, are those that are exposed 
to view. They may be involved to a greater or less extent. 
Hypostasis, or congestion of the head, neck and face, may 
result from the body being left to lie with the head as the 
most dependent part for some time, the blood gravitating 
towards the head, causing a red or bluish-red color of the 
whole surface. The same condition of the surface will re- 
sult from the forming of gases, in the thoracic and abdom- 
inal cavities, in such quantities as to cause pressure 
sufficient to force the blood out of the large vessels into the 


head and face. These discolorations result from over dis- 
tension of the superficial veins and capillaries with venous 


In the former case reverse the position of the body ; in 
the latter, remove the gases. After this, follow with the 
same treatment in both conditions. Place the body on 
the incline and withdraw the blood, either through the 
veins or by tapping the heart. If the blood has become 
coagulated, make cold applications in the form of pounded 
ice mixed with salt, applied between two thicknesses of 
cloth, and exclude the air by covering. If this method of 
procedure is not successful, use the Champion Needle Proc- 
ess by injecting a few ounces of a ten per cent, solution of 
sulphate of soda through the cerebral cavity, followed in 
a little while by a first-class preservative fluid. This will 
dissolve the clot and wash the blood out of the peripheral 

Hypostasis in other parts of the body does not concern 
the embalmer, as it exists in areas that are not exposed. 

The discoloration caused by post-mortem staining does 
not require any special treatment. 

Congestion of the Peripheral Veins, caused by the 
hasty injection of fluid, is known as "flushing the face." 
To remove it resort to the needle process. 

The Brownish or Greenish Spots seen occasionally 
under the eyes, along the nose, and at the corners of the 
mouth, are usually caused by putrefactive changes in the 
blood and capillaries. The latter spots may be removed by 
injecting hypodermically a bleaching solution, using just 
enough fluid to reach the circumference of the discoloration. 

Bruised and Other Spots, as a result of blood exuda- 
tion, may be removed by the application of finely-pounded 
ice and salt. Mix the ice and salt together and apply it to 


the part as a poultice is applied. Let it remain from one 
to several hours, or until the discoloration is removed. 
Sponge with some fluid with good bleaching qualities, or a 
bleaching solution; allow the surface to dry, and cover 
with a dry cloth to exclude the air. 

Discoloration Caused by Biliverdin (the coloring 
matter of the bile). — This discoloration takes place during 
life. It is caused by the blood absorbing the biliverdin — 
when the flow of bile is seriously obstructed — and 
carrying it to the tissues of the body. It stains the skin 
and conjunctiva a yellow or brownish color. A similar 
discoloration may result from chemical changes in the pig- 
ment or tissues of the skin itself. These stainings cannot 
be removed. Light and shade must be relied on to modify 
the appearance. The color is permanent and unbleachable. 

Bleachers and fluids used on the face serve a purpose 
in many cases of discoloration. They sometimes aid in 
bleaching, and also in destroying odors. 


Formula for removing discoloration caused by the 
blood, by the application of ice : Mix thoroughly three 
parts of finely powdered ice with one of common salt. 
Place the mixture between two thicknesses of cloth and 
apply to the affected parts. Then cover with a blanket or 
thick towels to exclude the air. The application can be 
removed in about two hours, when the discoloration will 
be found to have disappeared. Sponge the surface with a 
good bleacher and cover with a dry cloth. 

A Substitute. — When ice is not available apply the 
following : Take equal parts of chlorid of sodium (com- 
mon salt), nitrate of potash (salt petre), and chlorid of 
ammonia; place in a soft rubber bag; apply to the parts 
effected, with a thin cotton cloth intervening. 



The reliance on cavity injection has been decreasing 
for the last few years. As an auxiliary to arterial embalm- 
ing it is indispensable. It has been said many times that 
" cavity work is sufficient to keep the body for the usual 
time — three or four days." The proposition is true in a 
great majority of cases. Suppose it would hold good in 
nineteen out of twenty cases. Is not the fact that one 
case in twenty fails, reason enough for it to lose favor ? 
That one in twenty, to be kept in the best possible condi- 
tion, would have to receive a thorough embalmment. 
Otherwise a failure, or what is known as "a partial failure," 
would result. Putrefaction does not usually make its ap- 
pearance, with an average temperature, until the third 
day. The time would be shortened by a high, moist tem- 
perature, and lengthened by a lower, dry temperature. 
The home of the putrefactive bacteria is in the alimentary 
canal of the body; therefore, to fill the stomach and intes- 
tines and other cavities in the soft viscera with fluid will 
extend the time of the beginning of disintegration, and 
possibly long enough for burial on the third or fourth day, 
or longer, without the evidences of putrefaction manifest- 
ing themselves. Even if the body can be preserved for " the 
usual length of time " by cavity injection alone, as a sani- 
tary measure it would be a sad failure. It would destroy 
only a part of the bacteria of infection in the body ; only 



those with which it would come in contact. To destroy 
all, a thorough arterial injection must be made in addition 
to the cavity injection. 


The student should study the anatomy of the thorax 
until he becomes familiar with the divisions of the chest 
or thoracic cavity. The chest is bounded below by the dia- 
phragm, above by the root of the neck, in front by the 
sternum, at the sides by the ribs and behind by the vertebral 
column. It is divided by the heart and mediastinum into 
the right and left cavities of the chest, or pleural cavities, 
containing the right and left lungs, and the space between 
the lungs — the mediastinal space — containing the heart, 
aorta, vense cavse, trachea, gullet and other vessels. 

The Pleurae are shut, serous sacs. One forms a cover- 
ing for the right and the other for the left lung. One side 
of the sac envelops the whole lung clear to the root and is 
then reflected onto the chest wall so that the other side of 
the sac lines the wall of the chest, forming what is known 
as the pleural cavities — right and left. 


Introduce the trocar (the infant trocar is large enough) 
through the wall of the chest in the first or second inter- 
costal space at a point about four inches from the border 
of the breastbone. After the point has passed the wall, 
tilt the needle and push it to a depth of three or four 
inches, keeping the point near the outer wall of the chest. 
Then apply the pump and commence the injection. After 
sufficient fluid has been injected, remove the needle and 
treat the other side in like manner. From one to four 
pints may be injected in this way. If the infant trocar is 
used, the mutilation will amount to almost nothing. 


The Pleural Cavities May be Injected from the open- 
ing made in the third intercostal space for the purpose of 
drawing blood from the heart. The needle may be intro- 
duced also at the median line, immediately above the 
breastbone. The skin should be drawn up before the 
puncture is made. Introduce the needle at an angle of 
45° from the median line, alternately into the right and 
left pleural cavities, keeping the point close to the collar 
bone. Never introduce the needle any deeper into the 
cavity than the lower margin of the collar bone. The 
amount of fluid to be injected depends upon the disease 
and the judgment of the operator. 

To Inject the Lung Tissue, make an incision with 
the scalpel in the median line just above the breastbone 
into the trachea between the rings of cartilage; introduce an 
aneurism hook into the opening ; pull the rings apart; then 
introduce the common hard rubber nasal tube, and pass it 
downwards into the bronchi (branches of the trachea) on 
either side, injecting into each lung as much as it will 
hold. In all cases of consumption or lung fever this method 
should be used to disinfect and preserve the lung tissues. 
The lungs can be filled in this manner without endan- 
gering the arterial circulation, when it is impossible to 
insert the nasal tube through the glottis into the windpipe. 


Insert the needle at the same point as directed in the 
removal of gases, and inject fluid around the organs and 
into every part of the cavity, being careful not to injure the 
blood vessels. From one to four quarts of fluid should be 
injected, owing to the disease and size of the body. After 
the removal of the needle the wound should be stitched 
and covered with isinglass plaster. 

To Inject the Stomach and Intestines. — The most 
successful method of filling the stomach and intestines is 


by introducing a stomach tube into the stomach through 
the nostrils or mouth. 


To Remove Gases from the Thoracic Cavity. — 

Gases may accumulate in the pleural cavities, which can 
be removed by the needle, by inserting it as directed in the 
description for injecting the pleural cavities. 0? /vv . 

To Remove Gases from the Abdominal Cavity. — 
Regional anatomy should be studied very thoroughly, 
until the student becomes familiar with the regions, loca- 
tion of the blood vessels, all organs and other viscera of 
the abdomen. As a result of the early putrefactive 
changes that take place in the soft viscera of the abdomen, 
putrefactive gases are formed — such as sulphureted hydro- 
gen, ammonia, nitrogen, carbonic acid, etc. — causing 
very offensive odors. To remove the gases, insert the 
needle at a point one inch below the ensiform cartilage, or 
point of the breastbone, and one and a half inches to the left 
of the median line, to avoid injuring the blood vessels. The 
needle should be made as sharp as a point can be made, as 
the organs cannot be punctured with a dull needle, when 
they are distended with gas to their full capacity. First 
puncture the stomach, then the intestines, being careful 
not to wound the blood vessels. If the needle is sharp, and 
the organs are properly located, a failure to remove the 
gas in this manner, if persisted in, will be impossible. Let 
the gas pass into the fluid bottle through the rubber tube. 

To Remove Liquids from the Abdominal Cavity, 
insert a large, sharp needle at the median line just above 
the pubic arch. Push it into the parts which contain the 
matter. Place the body on the incline, attach the aspi- 
rator and pump out the liquid. 




The needle process was introduced by Prof. F. A. 
Sullivan, in the fall of 1891, to the profession in this 
country. The method consisted of introducing two small 
needles into the inner corner of each eye, through one of 
the foramina at the inner end or point of the sockets to 
the base of the brain, and injecting fluid. This is known 
as the " Eye Process." 

The Operation. — The body should be placed on the 
embalming board in an elevated position. A small needle 
about six inches in length (known as the eye trocar) should 
be introduced at the inner corner of each eye, directing its 
course along the inner wall of the orbit, through the small 
foramen at the point of the socket, into the cranial cavity, 
to a distance of about four or five inches; then tilt the head 
backwards and raise the body to nearly a sitting posture. 
The injector should be attached to the needles and the 
injection should be begun very slowly and without force. 
After a few moments the rapidity can be slightly increased. 
From two to four pints can be injected in this manner in 
from twenty to thirty minutes. The only objection to this 
method is, that an accident may occur if too much force is 
used at the beginning of the operation, or, if the needle is 



withdrawn too soon, fluid may regurgitate and fill the 
loose tissues behind and push the eye forward. If this result 
should obtain, it is no serious matter, as the fluid will 
disappear after a short period of time by absorption and 
gravitation and allow the eye to settle back in its place. 
To prevent such a result, be careful to inject slowly and 
use the least force at the beginning of the injection, and 
after the injection is finished allow the needle to remain 
in position for a period of five to ten minutes before 
removal. Do not lower the body until after the needle 
is removed. This method is as scientific as any method 
ever introduced for embalming through the cerebro- 
spinal cavity. 


The introduction of the needle through the foramen 
magnum into the cerebral cavity has been recommended. 
The manner of distribution of the fluid is just the same as 
that in the eye or Champion processes. The only difference 
is the point of introduction of the needle. To introduce the 
needle through the foramen magnum, it is necessary to 
incline the head to one side and bend it downward upon 
the chest. If rigor mortis is present break it up before the 
attempt to introduce the needle is made. Then draw a 
line from the lower angle of the jaw straight around the 
neck. Then a second line from the mastoid process to 
the center of the clavicle or collar bone. The lines will 
cross just back of, and a little below, the lobe of the ear. 
Introduce the needle on the first line at a point one inch 
behind the crossing of the lines, directing the needle up- 
ward and inward toward the opposite eyebrow, when the 
needle will enter the cavity with ease. Then apply the in- 
jecting apparatus. This operation has not met with much 



This process for injecting fluid through the cranial 
cavity into the circulation is attended with the least danger. 

The Operation. — Place the body on the embalming 
board. Drill a small hole through the skull in the slight 
depression immediately in front of the occipital protuber- 
ance in the median line. Introduce a small needle, about 
four or six inches in length, to a depth of about two and a 
half to four inches, between the lateral halves of the brain. 
The needle may be inclined backward or forward but not 
to either side. It will pass through the superior and in- 
ferior longitudinal sinuses, then into the ventricles and 
subarachnoidean spaces. 

After the needle is properly introduced, place the body 
in nearly a sitting posture for the purpose of taking advan- 
tage of the force of gravity. Then attach the injector and 
commence the injection very slowly, using the least force ; 
after a few moments the flow can be increased, so that 
from three to four pints of fluid can be injected into the 
body in from twenty to thirty minutes. It may be neces- 
sary to push the needle a little deeper or to withdraw it 
partly to start the flow. In this operation the fluid gets 
into the vascular system by exudation. The drill should be 
large enough to admit the needle easily ; it does not matter 
if it is even a size larger, so as to give easy entrance. Do 
not let the drill drop through the membranes, after the 
bone is penetrated, or the fluid, if a little too much force is 
used, will appear at the opening; otherwise, not a drop o{ 
fluid will escape. The fluid reaches the ventricles and sub- 
arachnoidean spaces and is distributed to the whole surface 
of the pia mater, the vascular membrane of the brain; the 
arachnoid, the serous membrane; and the dura mater, the 
fibrous membrane. The fluid exudes through the walls of 
the smallest arteries and veins, and the capillaries of these 


membranes, and through the walls of the sinuses, and, 
assisted by the force of gravitation, is carried to every 
tissue of the body. 

This operation is not recommended to take the place 
of arterial embalming in all cases, but, when the needle 
process becomes necessary, we do recommend it as the sim- 
plest, best, and the easiest to practice. 

In infants and small children the arteries are usually 
too small for the use of distributing fluid into all the tissue 
by the usual method of injecting through the arteries. 
Also, in certain diseases, the arteries are found to be oc- 
cluded. In all such cases the Champion Needle Process 
will be found successful, and should be used. 

A smalJ rachet drill is made for the purpose of drilling 
through the skull, by the use of which the operation can 
be effected in a few seconds. 





The morbid changes which take place in the different 
organs and tissues of the body, as a result of the many 
diseases that human flesh is heir to, are scarcely understood 
by the embalmer. In many cases his knowledge of the 
real condition of the visceral organs and tissues is very 
slight indeed. There is nothing more essential, in the 
practice of embalming, than to understand which organs 
are affected and what their condition is at death. It will 
be our endeavor to place before our readers, in as plain 
terms as possible, the morbid anatomy of certain diseases, 
and their treatment. We shall be limited to only the 
most important diseases. 

Definition. — Morbid Anatomy treats of the changes 
produced by disease in the solids and fluids of the body, as 
in the blood, muscles, skin, secretions, etc. The different 
cavities contain effusions of blood serum, purulent matter, 
etc. We will show which organs and tissues are affected 
by complication and otherwise, so that the embalmer 
may know where to look for, and how to reach, all 
diseased tissues, for the purpose of destroying the bacteria 
of infection and putrefaction, and to preserve the parts 
thoroughly, and thereby have no " failures." 




Smallpox is an acute infectious disease, very conta- 
gions, produced by a specific micro-organism. 

Morbid Anatomy. — The morbid changes are observed 
on the skin and mucous surfaces. Embalming for preser- 
vation should not be considered at present at all, but 
the body should be thoroughly embalmed as a sanitary 


It is a great mistake not to inject these cases. While it 
is true that they are not exposed to view as other cases, 
and are hurriedly buried, nevertheless, as a protective 
measure, such bodies should be scientifically treated, thus 
assisting the sanitary authorities in preventing the spread 
of this loathsome disease. It is a well authenticated fact 
that years after interment the ground when opened gave 
forth the germs that caused an epidemic. Some reader 
may be placed in a position outside of large cities, where 
the authorities have not provided trained men to handle 
these bodies, leaving the disagreeable and dangerous task 
to the undertaker. If bodies dying from smallpox were 
treated as follows, it might be the means of saving many 



Wrap the body in a sheet thoroughly saturated with 
a solution of hichlorid of mercury, one ounce to a gallon 
of water. Inject the cavities through the sheet with all 
the embalming fluid it is possible to put in them. Mix 
twenty-five pounds of hardening compound with same 
amount of sawdust. Place a layer in bottom of coffin. 
Place body on top of it and cover with the remainder of 
the mixture. 

When the body is placed in a sheet saturated as di- 
rected, there is no immediate danger to the operator from 
the body — not any more than there would be in handling 
it as it is ordinarily done. The time is coming when all 
cases dying from contagious diseases, including smallpox, 
will be arterially embalmed, in addition to some such 
treatment as that just given. Epidemics will then be 
less frequent. 


Scarlatina is an infectious and contagious febrile 
disease. A scarlet flush generally appears on the fauces 
and pharynx, and in the face and neck, which spreads 
over the whole body and commonly terminates in 
scaling. The fever is accompanied with affection of the 
kidneys, often with severe disease of the throat or of some 
internal organ, sometimes followed by dropsy. As in 
other fevers the poison of scarlet fever acts on the brain 
and its membranes, causing inflammation. 


These bodies, as in other contagious diseases, are buried 
soon after death; consequently, the aim of the embalmer 
is to disinfect rather than preserve. Nevertheless, they 
should be thoroughly embalmed to make disinfection 



more effective. First wrap the body in a sheet thoroughly 
saturated with a solution of bichlorid of mercury, one 
ounce to a gallon of water. Inject arteries and cavi- 
ties with embalming fluid. The saturated sheet should be 
left on the body until it is about to be placed in the coffin 
or casket. The room should be fumigated and disinfected 
as directed elsewhere. 


Diphtheria is an acute infectious disease, caused by an 
infectious bacillus. It is highly contagious and in the 
malignant form is a very grave disease, with a high 
mortality rate. It is principally a disease of childhood, 

although no age is entirely exempt. 
Occasionally an adult becomes in- 

Morbid Anatomy. — It is char- 
acterized by a false membrane in 
the throat, nose, and other parts of 
the mucous surfaces. The fauces 
are usually the only parts found 
covered with the false membrane. 
Although a constitutional disease, 
the morbid changes are not appar- 
ently very great. 


The treatment should be similar 
to that of scarlatina or scarlet fever. 
The embalmer should be careful not to wound himself 
with any of the instruments used in embalming the 
case. The great tendency is to blood poisoning when 
wounds occur during the dissection of all infectious 
diseases. Fill the mouth and nostrils with fluid in addi- 
tion to the treatment given for scarlet fever. 

Fig. 22. 

Bacillus Diphtheria, from colony 
upon an agar plate, 24 hours old, 
X 1000. From a photomicrograph 
by Friiukel and Pfeiffer. 




Typhoid fever is an acute infectious disease, due to the 
presence of a micro-organism— the typhoid bacillus. 

Morbid Anatomy.— When death occurs early in the 
disease, the body is not greatly emaciated ; rigor mortis is 
marked ; there is hypostatic congestion in the dependent 
parts. The muscles appear very dark red, hard and dry, 
when cut through in opening 0)£x#$1lKQ&m% 

body. The bio d in the ^^mwMM^^&^p 

the body. The bio d in the 
heart and large vessels is t v 
dark in color, and contains 
small, blackish-red coag 
This dark color indicates an 
increase of blood corpuscles, 
and results from the thicken- 
ing of the blood, caused by per- 
spiration and loss of water 
by diarrhea. 

If this were the condition 
in which all bodies dying from 
typhoid fever were found, there 
would likely be no trouble, unless it were in withdrawing 
the blood. 

If death occurs later in the disease, the body is more or 
less emaciated; the skin is pale; rigor mortis moderate; 
there is less hypostatic conjestion; bed sores are usually 
present; the muscles are pale and infiltrated. 

The blood is now fluid in the heart and large vessels, 
and often contains fibrinous clots, and is easily withdrawn. 
The organs of respiration are changed more or less in all 
cases. Occasionally there is ulceration of the throat and 
trachea; congestion of the bronchi; more or less hypostatic 
congestion of the lungs and sometimes splenization. 

Fig. 23. 

Section through wall of intestine showing 
invasion by typhoid bacilli, X 950 (Baum- 


Pneumonia frequently occurs and may be complicated 
with pleurisy. The spleen is sometimes more or less en- 
larged and softened; it may be from twice to six times its 
normal size; rupture of the capsule may have occurred, 
followed by the escape of blood into the peritoneal cavity. 

The most important changes take place in the small 
intestine. The typhoid bacilli seem to attack the solitary 
and Peyer's glands in the lower part of the ileum. Owing 
to the time that death occurs, whether early or late in the 
disease, we may find these glands enlarged from the size of 
a pea to the size of a silver dollar, and in the vicinity of 
the ileo-caecal valve they may coalesce and cover a strip of 
the wall of the intestine several inches in length. The 
mesenteric glands are enlarged from the size of a hazelnut 
to the size of a hen's egg. 

Late in the disease, Peyer's and the solitary glands may 
slough, leaving an open ulcer. At this time the contents 
of the bowels are of a pea-soup-like appearance and con- 
sistency, and the large intestine is inflated with gas. 

Perforation of the intestine may have taken place, 
through which gas and fecal matter will have passed into 
the peritoneal cavity, causing peritonitis. Sometimes 
other organs are involved — the bladder, the kidneys, the 
liver, the meninges of the brain. In some cases the mus- 
cular tissues become soft and easily broken down. 


If gas is present remove it from the body. The blood 
should then be withdrawn by tapping the heart or a vein. 
If death occurs early in the disease, and the blood should 
be clotted in the heart, inject and eject a ten per cent, 
solution of common salt, until the clot is dissolved. If the 
peripheral veins of the neck and face should be congested, 
apply the ice poultice, or cold mixture, or use the Cham- 
pion Needle Process, and inject two or three quarts of fluid. 


When death occurs later, the blood is fluid. After with- 
drawing all the blood that is possible, or at the same time, 
commence the injection of fluid into the artery, gently and 
carefully, and continue until the body has received a suffi- 
cient amount to thoroughly All the tissues. Next, treat 
the cavities, being careful not to injure the blood vessels. 
Remove the contents of the pleural cavities by aspiration, 
and fill them with fluid. This should be done by intro- 
ducing the long trocar in the third intercostal space, at the 
same point used for tapping the heart; then, inject the 
lung tissues through the trachea ; the stomach shoul'd be 
filled through the stomach tube, or, by the needle, intro- 
duced into the stomach through the abdominal wall. The 
intestinal canal should be filled with fluid, as it is the res- 
ervoir of a putrid mass, containing millions of putrefactive, 
infectious bacteria. The peritoneum should be thoroughly 
injected. Each organ should be surrounded, and the whole 
abdominal cavity should be injected with all the fluid 
that it will hold. Then place the body on the level, with 
the head only elevated, so that the fluid will not gravitate 
away from the viscera in the upper part of the cavities. 
After a few hours pump out the fluid from the cavities and 
refill. Treat every case of typhoid fever very thoroughly, 
as many of them are difficult cases to preserve, and no liv- 
ing man can select those that are easy. 


Known Also as Ship Fever. 

This disease is known by the latter name, from the fact 
that it is imported in vessels bringing emigrants from 
Ireland to this country. Typhus is an acute infectious dis- 
ease, highly contagious. The percentage of mortality is 
about the same as that of typhoid fever. 




Morbid Appearances. — Emaciation is not well 
marked unless the case is protracted through the inter- 
currence of complications when it may reach an extreme 

degree. Rigor mortis is not 
well marked and usually lasts 
but a short time. Hypostasis 
occurs rapidly, and putrefac- 
tion begins very soon after 
death. The only constant 
lesion noticed in this disease 
is the profoundly changed con- 
dition of the blood, which is 
dark in color and very fluid. 
If clots exist at all they are 
large and soft and easily broken 
down. The amount of fibrin 
and the number of red cor- 
puscles are diminished, but the 
number of white corpuscles are 
increased. No doubt a specific poison of some kind exists 
in the blood. Therefore, in the 


of this disease, as much of the blood should be removed 
as possible. To do this raise the femoral artery and vein 
and proceed in the same manner as directed in the treat- 
ment of septicaemia in removing the blood and filling the 
tissues through the circulation with fluid. Treat the cavi- 
ties very thoroughly. 


Fig. 24. 

Bacillus Typhi Abdominals, from single 
gelitin colony, X 1000. From a photomicro- 
graph by Sternberg. 

Tuberculosis (consumption) is one of the most wide- 
spread and deadly diseases known. It is an acute infectious 
disease, due to the presence of the tubercular bacillus. 



Morbid Anatomy. — Morbid changes very frequently 
take place in the larynx, trachea and bronchi. Tubercles 
usually develop first in the upper part of both lungs; 
sometimes, only in one. Their development is always, in 
a greater or less degree, associated with other morbid 
changes of the lungs; such as congestion and oedema of the 
lungs, bronchial catarrh, pneumonia, etc. 

Cavities are usually found throughout the lung, from 
the size of a pea to the size of an 
orange; sometimes large enough 
to involve the whole lung. The 
pus from these cavities may have 
escaped into the pleura, or per- 
forated the diaphragm, escaping 
into the abdomen. Pleurisy is 
an invariable complication, with 
effusion of serum or suppurative 
matter into the pleural cavities. 
There may be extensive pleuritic 
adhesion. Sometimes the morbid 
changes are very great in the in- 
testines, peritoneum, mesenteries 
and other organs; such as ulcera- 
tion of the intestines, abcess of the mesenteries, general 
or circumscribed peritonitis, etc. 

Fig. 25. 

Bacillus Tuberculosus in giant 
cell, X 1000. From photomicrograph 
made at the Army Medical Museum, 
Washington, by Gray. 


It must be remembered, in the treatment of these 
cases, that fluid does not reach the lungs through the 
pulmonary circulation, but by the bronchial arteries — 
branches of the thoracic aorta. Sometimes these are closed 
in the diseased portions of the lungs, when it will be im- 
possible to supply the morbid material in that way with 
fluid. If fluid appears at the mouth or nose, it will 



indicate that fluid is finding its way into the tubercular 
cavities, and that the morbid material will receive all that 
is necessary. To stop the leakage will require the occlu- 
sion of the trachea by the use of a tampon of cotton or 
lint. When fluid does not appear, inject fluid into the 
tubercular cavities through the trachea. Then follow with 
the usual methods of cavity treatment. 


Asiatic cholera is an infectious disease produced by the 
comma bacillus, or spirillum choleras Asiatics. The 

comma bacillus was discovered, 
in 1884, by Koch, in the excreta 
of cholera patients and in the 
intestinal canals of bodies having 
recently died of cholera. The 
researches of Koch made in India 
and Egypt, and research made by 
various bacteriologists since that 
time, in different parts of the 
world, show that the comma 
bacillus is always present in the 
intestinal contents of cholera 
patients during the height of the 
disease, and that it is not found 
in the intestinal contents of 
those suffering from other dis- 
eases, nor in persons in perfect health. 

The disease is characterized by violent vomiting and 
purging, with rice-water evacuations, cramps, prostration, 
collapse and other striking symptoms. It runs a rapidly 
fatal course, and is capable of being communicated to 

Fig. 26. 

Spirillum Cholerse Asiaticse [com- 
ma bacillus]. From a culture upon 
starched linen at end of 24 hours, 
X 1000. From a photomicrograph 
by Frankel and Pfeiffer. 


others through the dejecta of patients suffering from the 
disease. These excreta are most commonly disseminated 
among a community, and taken into the system by means 
of drinking water or by anything swallowed which has 
been contaminated by the excretions from a patient suf- 
fering with cholera. In a dried state, the bacilli in cholera 
excreta may be carried in clothing to any point or distance 
where the disease may be communicated, as they retain 
their power of development for a long period of time, only 
requiring a " proper soil." 

Morbid. Anatomy. — The appearance is very char- 
acteristic after death in collapse of cholera. The whole 
body has a shrunken aspect, a grayish or leaden pallor, 
which contrasts with the livid hue of the lips, eyelids, 
ears, abdomen, back, fingers and toes. The eyes are sunken 
deeply in their sockets ; the nose is bent and sharp ; the 
temples are hollow, and the skin clings tightly to the 
bones ; the tissues of the body are hard and dry, and, owing 
to the wasting of the softer parts, the muscles stand out 
prominently ; decomposition takes place very slowly on 
account of the absence of moisture ; rigor mortis is marked 
and persistent. The occurrence of muscular contraction 
after death is a very notable phenomenon. It may occur 
spontaneously, or, it may be excited mechanically. A case 
is reported by Eichhorst in which the fibers of the biceps 
muscle were noticed to move tremulously, and then the 
entire muscle contracted, causing flexion of the forearm, 
three hours after death. Even the fingers performed move- 
ments like those made in piano-playing. The lower jaw 
moves in some cases, causing the mouth to open and shut. 

Barlow reports a case as follows : " The patient was a 
strong man ; the course of his attack was rapid, and he suf- 
fered most cruelly from cramps. Within two minutes of his 
ceasing to breathe, muscular contractions began, becoming 


more and more numerous. The lower extremities were 
first affected Not only were the sartorius, rectus, vasti 
and other muscles thrown into violent spasmodic move- 
ments, but the limbs were rotated forcibly, and the toes 
were frequently bent. The motions ceased and returned ; 
they varied also; now one muscle moved, now many. 
Quite as remarkable were the movements of the arm ; the 
deltoid and biceps were peculiarly influenced; occasionally 
the forearm was flexed upon the arm — flexed completely— 
and when I straightened it, which I did several times, its 
position was recovered instantly. The fingers and thumbs 
were now and then contracted, and at times the thumbs 
were separately moved. The fibers of the pectoral muscles 
were often in full action ; distinct bundles of them were 
seen at intervals beneath the skin. After I had taken leave 
of the body, the nurse was horrified by a movement of the 
lower jaw, which was followed by others ; and I thought 
for a moment that the man was alive. The facial muscles 
became generally affected, and at length all was still." 

These contractions vary from slight trembling to power- 
ful contraction of the muscle. Cases have been known to 
turn completely on the side by a strange and forcible com- 
bination of muscular contractions. These phenomena are 
not peculiar to cholera only. In cases of yellow fever they 
have been observed as well. In both diseases they occur 
when the cases are severe and rapidly fatal, and the patient 
is robust, with great muscular energy. 

Stilla says: "On opening the abdominal cavity of per- 
sons who have died in collapse of cholera, one is struck by 
the general pink or rose tint of the peritoneal coat of the 
intestines. It is produced by a repletion of the minute 
branches of the portal venous system. Sometimes the 
color of the peritoneum is rendered very dark by the pitchy 
blood contained in the veins. The stomach generally 


has a thin, partially transparent liquid of a greenish 
or grayish color. The intestinal canal is, in a majority 
of cases, partially filled with liquid which has the aspect 
of turbid serum, more or less mixed with the previous 
contents of the bowel, if death has taken place very 
rapidly, but otherwise it is almost colorless. In the more 
prolonged cases the contents at the upper part of the 
bowel are less liquid and are darker in color." 

The comma bacilli are found in the intestinal contents, 
especially in the lower part of the small intestine, when 
death occurs at the height of the disease, also in the 
diarrheal discharges, but when the discharges become fecal 
or more solid the bacilli disappear. 


Preservation of bodies dying from this disease should 
not be considered at all. A thorough embalment is neces- 
sary only as a sanitary measure. Disinfection of the body 
should be complete — internally as well as externally. 
First remove all clothing from the body and place it upon 
the board. Then pour a first class disinfecting fluid into 
the mouth and nostrils ; soak a sheet in the fluid and wind 
it around the body, covering every portion. Raise an artery 
and fill the circulation full of fluid, forcing all that can be 
gotten into it. Then fill the intestinal canal and cavities 
of the chest and abdomen as full as possible. By this 
means the bacilli will be destroyed in a short time, render- 
ing dissemination impossible. 

All bodies dying from infectious disease, as directed 
elsewhere, should be thoroughly embalmed, if interment is 
to take place, as the bacteria may get into our water sup- 
plies by some means, or necessary disinterment may follow 
at some future time, greatly endangering a community. 
The above measures or cremation should be enforced by 
our health boards in these cases. 



Yellow Fever is a specific, infectious disease, so named 
from the yellow color of the skin which appears in the ad- 
vanced stages of the severe forms of the disease and in the 
dead body. The infectious bacillus peculiar to this disease 
has not yet been determined, although it is supposed to 
exist in the intestinal contents. It is peculiarly a disease 

.__ . of the cities or where 

*- lk ^ there is a density of 
# Jt^ population. It does 
not originate in 
country districts. It 
prevails in cities, on 
the shores of the 
ocean, along the large 
rivers and on ships. 
It neither prevails in 
a hot, dry nor cold 
climate. It matters 
not how violent the 
disease may be at any 
place, yellow fever 
will be arrested on 
the morning of a heavy frost or freeze. It seems that a 
hot, moist temperature is essential to its existence. 

Morbid Appearances. — In cases dying from yellow 
fever the features are frequently bloated ; the skin of the 
face and upper portion of the body is of a golden-yellow 
color ; while the dependent parts present a mottled purple 
and a yellow ecchymosed appearance. On section of the 
muscle a large amount of dark fluid blood escapes, which 
on exposure becomes bright scarlet. Putrefactive changes 

Fig. 27. 
Bacillus Cadaveris. Smear preparation from liver 
of yellow fever cadaver, kept 48 hours in an antiseptic 
wrapping. From a photomicrograph (Sternberg). 


may take place early, sometimes appearing to begin before 
death. However, in some cases, especially in those stricken 
with the disease in full muscular vigor, peculiar muscular 
phenomena take place, when the disease is severe and 
rapidly fatal, similar to those in cholera. 

Dr. Dowler, of New Orleans, reports a case, as follows : 
" Not long after the cessation of respiration the left hand 
was carried by a regular motion to the throat, and then to 
the crown of the head ; the right arm followed the same 
route on the right side ; the left arm was then carried back 
to the throat, and thence to the breast, reversing all of its 
original motions, and finally the right arm did exactly the 
same thing." 

All the vital organs and other viscera of the different 
cavities are affected more or less. The blood is altered in 
color and consistency. The secretions are changed. Bile 
is always absent from the intestinal contents. There is 
extreme congestion of the dependent portions of the lungs. 


The same treatment should be followed as that given 
for cholera, and for the same purpose. 


In the exudate of cerebro-spinal meningitis, various 
micro-organisms have been found of the pathogenic type, 
which leaves little doubt that the disease is due to their 

Morbid Anatomy. — On observing the exterior of the 
body after death in the early stages there will be seen spots 
of transudation of blood into the tissues, especially in the 
dependent parts, where the patches are enlarged, and of a 
livid hue. The muscles are of darker color than natural. 


There is congestion of the brain ; its blood vessels are 
filled with dark blood, and the sinuses are usually filled 
with dark coagula. The ventricles are sometimes filled 
with purulent matter. Even all the space within the 
cranial cavity may be filled with purulent matter. Later 
in the disease the blood may become very thin. The same 
lesions will be found in the spinal cord that exist in the 


Blood should be withdrawn and fluid thoroughly mixed 
with it for the purpose of disinfection. Then, inject fluid 
by the Champion Needle Process, completely filling the 
tissues. Fill the cavities in the usual manner. 


This disease is peculiar to infantile life. It attacks 
children under two years of age. Death usually occurs 
during the second or third day. 

Post-mortem Anatomy. — Great emaciation is usually 
a result. Rigor mortis comes on quickly and passes off 
very soon. The mucous membrane of the intestines — both 
large and small — is of a dark-reddish color. There is 
more or less softening and injection of the cerebral tissues. 


As these bodies commence decomposing soon after 
death, prompt treatment should follow. Inject the tissues 
full of fluid by the Champion Needle Process. Also, fill the 
cavities in the usual manner. 




Septicaemia usually follows injuries, surgical opera- 
tions, childbirth, erysipelas, carbuncles, burns, scalds, dis- 
section wounds, etc. 

The Morbid Anatomy of septicemia has recently been 
very carefully studied, and as a result the most charac- 
teristic lesions are found in the blood and alimentary canal. 
The manifestation of blood poison is the rapid putrefac- 
tion of the body after death. 

Rigor mortis comes on and passes off instantly. It may 
not be detected at all. Davaine defines septicaemia "as 
putrefaction of the living body." 

Watson says: "It has also been observed that putre- 
faction in the human cadaver begins much sooner and 
progresses much more rapidly under similar circumstances 
when the death has been produced by this disease than 
when it has occurred from any other cause." "Further- 
more, this rapid decomposition is not limited to the in- 
ternal organs, but may be frequently strongly marked on 
the surface of the body after a lapse of a few hours." 

When septicaemia originates in an external wound, 
putrefaction goes on most rapidly in the vicinity of the 
wound after death occurs. Coagulability of the blood is 



diminished or destroyed. A few imperfect, deep-black 
colored clots of blood are found after death. The pres- 
ence of this blood greatly hastens putrefaction of the soft 
tissues. Putrefaction goes on most rapidly in the depend- 
ent portions of the body — on account of the hypostasis — 
and along the course of the large veins. 

Septicemic blood is usually acid in reaction and always 
gives off a peculiar, putrefactive odor. Microscopy has 
shown that the blood and the various organs of the body 
contain, under these circumstances, a great number of the 
rod bacteria. Intestinal catarrh is always present. 


In the treatment of septica3mic cases, it is highly im- 
portant to remove at once all of the blood that is possible. 
This is best done by raising the femoral vein. The femo- 
ral vein is the most dependent, and more blood can be 
drawn by this method than by any other. After withdraw- 
ing all of the blood that is possible, let the vein remain 
open and commence the injection of fluid through the 
femoral artery. This operation will cause the blood to 
flow more freely through the vein, and when the fluid 
makes its appearance at the opening, tie the vein, and con- 
tinue the injection until the circulation is entirely filled 
with fluid. Then fill the alimentary canal with fluid. 
This should be done by inserting the stomach tube through 
the mouth or nostrils, into the stomach ; then, attach the 
aspirator and pump into the stomach and intestines from 
one to two quarts of fluid. This can be done by elevating 
the body to the sitting posture after the tube is introduced. 
Inject fluid around the other visceral organs of the abdo- 
men and into the peritoneum ; fill the pleural cavities and 
inject the lung tissues through the trachea. Remove all 
gases before proceeding to inject the body. Pump out and 


refill the cavities; also, reinject the vascular system if 


Pyaemia is due to the entrance of septic products into 
the blood, and is characterized usually by the blocking up 
by clots, or emboli, of the arterioles of the lungs and other 
organs, and the consequent occurrence therein of scattered 
patches of congestion, hemorrhage, inflammation, suppu- 
ration, or gangrene. It results from either of the fol- 
lowing causes: injuries, surgical operations, burns, scalds, 
erysipelas, carbuncles, dissection wounds, puerperal fever, 

Morbid Anatomy. — The external appearance of the 
body varies. In some cases the skin will be found every- 
where to be of a dark orange or icteric tinge, and in others 
it will be pale, or anaemic, in appearance. Sometimes, livid 
black or yellow spots (produced by the effusion of blood 
into the areolar or fat tissues) exist on the surface of the 
body, and the edges of ulcers or wounds are generally of a 
blackish or dirty yellow color. If the disease has been 
protracted there is usually great emaciation. Rigor mortis 
is usually well marked after a few hours. There is diffuse 
suppuration in the cellular tissue, forming a thin and un- 
healthy pus, which is very liable to burrow. Sometimes 
suppuration takes place beneath the fascia of the tendons 
of muscles. Suppuration or gangrene may be found in 
any part of the body, but most frequently in the lungs and 
pleurae. The pleural cavity may contain a large amount 
of purulent matter. Abscesses may be found in the liver, 
spleen and kidneys. Pus accumulates on the surface and 
in the Haversian canals of the bones, and forms in the 
joints. The blood in pyaemia is usually normal but it may 
contain the rod bacteria. 



The treatment as given for septicaemia should be fol- 
lowed for the above disease. 


Acute, general peritonitis is an acute inflammation of 
the peritoneum. It may be primary or secondary. That 
is, the peritoneum may be attacked primarily or it may re- 
sult secondarily from some other disease ; such as inflam- 
mation or extensive ulcerations of the stomach or intes- 
tines, cancer, suppurative inflammations of the spleen, 
liver, pancreas and the pelvic viscera. 

Perforation of the peritoneum occurs frequently and is 
followed by inflammation. It may result from externa] 
wounds, ulceration of the stomach or intestines, of the gall 
bladder, abscess of the liver, spleen or kidneys, appendicitis 
or inflammation of the ovaries. 

Morbid Anatomy. — When the abdomen of a recent 
case is opened, the coils of the intestines are distended and 
glued together by lymph, and the peritoneum appears to 
be injected in patches and sometimes over the whole sur- 
face. Sometimes, there will be but little fluid present; 
only a thick exudation upon the walls. Then again, the 
intestinal coils will be covered with lymph, and there will 
be present a large amount of a yellowish, sero-fibrinous 
fluid. If the stomach or intestines be perforated, food and 
fecal matter may be mixed with the fluid. When puru- 
lent, the exudation is either thin and greenish-yellow in 
color, or opaque-white and creamy; if the material is 
putrid, the exudate is grayish-green in color, thin, and has 
a putrid odor. This usually results from perforative or 
puerperal peritonitis. If blood is present, it results in 
cases caused by wounds, cancer and tubercle. 


The amount of effusion into the peritoneal cavity varies 
from one to fifty pints. 

The different conditions are produced by some of the 
various species of micro-organisms. 

Acute inflammation of the small intestine and colon, 
obstruction of the bowels and other diseases, may be mis- 
taken for peritonitis, as their symptoms are similar. Such 
being the case, the physician's certificate may be mis- 


The treatment of cases of peritonitis should be thorough. 
After extracting the blood and injecting the arterial system, 
relieve the cavities of gas. Aspirate the contents of the 
peritoneum and other cavities and organs of the abdomen. 
Aspirate the chest cavities and fill them with fluid. After 
a few hours, withdraw the fluid from the abdomen and re- 
inject as before. Place the body in a horizontal position, 
only elevating the head. 


Puerperal fever is an infectious disease, due, usually, 
to the septic inoculation of wounds resulting from child- 
birth. Pathogenic bacteria are always present. 

Morbid Anatomy. — The morbid changes which take 
place in the inflamed peritoneum are precisely the same 
as those which attend inflammation of other serous mem- 
branes. The exudation from the surface of the peritoneum 
may form a false membrane, from one fourth to one half 
an inch or more in thickness. More or less fluid substance 
is found in the peritoneum. In many cases there is sup- 
puration, pus being found in the peritoneal cavity. Pus or 
abscesses are found in the lungs and other organs, and in 


the serous membranes, pleurae, pericardium, etc. Septi- 
caemia (blood-poisoning) may be the cause of death. Rigor 
mortis is very slight. Decomposition follows very quickly. 


There are few cases which give more trouble than 
these; consequently, they require the closest attention, 
leaving nothing undone that will assist in the preservation 
of the body. 

Gases being present in large quantities their removal 
should be the first operation. At the same time, the 
cavity of the abdomen should be filled with fluid. Next, 
make a thorough injection of the arterial system, leaving 
the tube in the artery, as a second injection may be nec- 

The blood should be withdrawn and the chest cavities 
injected. Make an incision over the pubic arch, in the 
median line, and pass the trocar into the cavity of the 
pelvis; attach aspirator, elevate the body well, and with- 
draw all the fluid previously injected into the cavity of the 
abdomen. Withdraw the trocar, sew up the opening, and 
reinject cavity of the abdomen. Have the body on the 
level while injecting, and so leave it. 

Take cotton saturated with fluid and pass it up into the 
vagina — all it will receive. A thorough injection of the 
womb, through the vagina, before packing, would be an 
advantage. This may be done with a small curved instru- 
ment made for the purpose. 


Erysipelas is usually divided into simple cutaneous, 
celluo-cutaneous, and cellular or diffuse cellulitis. 

Morbid Anatomy. — It is both infectious and con- 
tagious. The spread of erysipelas has been so frequently 


observed, both in the sick room and in the wards of hospi- 
tals, that no doubt concerning the infectiousness of this 
disease can exist. Erysipelas also spreads by fomites. In 
erysipelas, as in other diseases of the zymotic class, it is 
believed a poison is absorbed that affects the blood; that, 
after a given period of latency, it generally, but not con- 
stantly, produces the phenomenon of fever which sometimes 
terminates in inflammation of the brain. The great spe- 
cific action of the poison, however, is made manifest by 

inflammation of the skin ^^___„ c ~ ^ _ 

and subcutaneous cellular pSg^T' ^^ 

tissue, which runs a defi- **&* . " ^J 



nite course. The inflam- ] ^^^^^^§0^^S3w^ 

mation is usually of con 

siderable extent, affect 

ing very commonly the ^s- 28. 

onfirofapo Vioarl anrlnc»^lr Section from margin of an erysipelatous in- 
eiJLlieid^U, lieciu, rtliu lic^JY, flammation showing streptococci, in lymph 

Or a large portion Of the s P aces > X90 °- From a photograph by Koch. 

trunk, or one or both of the upper or lower extremities. 

In some cases the cuticle is raised into a large number 
of vesicles of greater or less size, and sometimes into large 
bladders containing transparent, yellowish serum. 

Erysipelas sometimes terminates in gangrene. The 
skin becomes livid or black, its whole texture more or less 
disorganized, while these bullae or bladders become filled 
with a bloody serum. The quantity effused is generally so 
great that the head, face, or limb is greatly and sometimes 
even hideously swollen. 


These cases should be handled with gloves. Withdraw 
the blood by tapping the heart. Inject by the needle proc- 
ess; fill the cavities with all the fluid they will hold; 
pack the head or other affected parts on the surface with 

E— 13 


hardening compound. Allow it to remain in this condition 
as long as possible. After removing the hardening com- 
pound, sponge the face over with fluid. 


Another remarkable advance in medical investigation 
has been made during the past summer, and the cause of 
sunstroke, a subject until now obscure, has at length 
been definitely discovered. To the New York State Path- 
ological Institute is due the credit of the discovery. 
These investigations show, that, instead of the sun's rays 
being the direct cause of sunstroke, as has all along been 
believed by the medical profession, as well as by the peo- 
ple at large, the fact is, the internal chemistry of the 
body and its secretions are so modified by atmospheric con- 
ditions of excessive hot weather that some of the secre- 
tions become abnormal, either in quality or quantity, and 
are absorbed by the blood and act as virulent poisons. 

On the first day of the recent heat plague, Dr. Ira T. Van 
Gieson, director of the State Pathological Institute, assisted 
by Dr. Alexander Lambert and Dr. Lewis, began investiga- 
ting. Their experiments were made with the brain fluids, 
the cerebro-spinal fluid, and the brain ventricular fluids. 
These were of acute cases immediately after death. The 
subjects had died in the hospital a few hours after being 
received there. Four rabbits died from the injection of 
these fluids within twelve hours. Other experiments were 
made with the blood of living cases just after they had 
been stricken by the sun, and there was no mistaking the 
fact that it was a deadly poison, as it killed in a very short 
time any animal into which it was injected. 

Anatomical Characters. — The heart may be found 
firmly contracted, but not always so; it may be flaccid. The 



lymph and the brain and its membranes are usually con- 
gested. The venous trunks and right side of the heart are 
too full of blood, and the pulmonary vessels may be over- 
loaded with blood. The blood itself is very dark and more 
fluid than natural. Rigor mortis comes on very rapidly. 
The face becomes dark and swollen. The body retains a 
high temperature for some time after death. Gases form 
quickly, and purging and general decomposition soon 


To insure success, prompt and energetic work is neces- 
sary. The blood must be removed quickly and thoroughly. 
It is advisable to remove the blood by the femoral vein 
(using the femoral vein tube), injecting the fluid through 
the femoral artery at the same time. On account of the 
fluid condition of the blood in these cases, the greater part 
of the blood in the body may be forced out by the above 
operation. When all the blood possible has been removed, 
tie up the vein and continue the injection of the arteries 
as long as they will receive the fluid. 

Then, make the cranial injection, putting in as much 
fluid as will pass in easily; after which, inject the lungs 
through the trachea, using about a pint of fluid. A thor- 
ough injection of the cavities should follow, putting in all 
the fluid they will hold. Allow the body to remain on a 
level as long as possible. The application, for a short time, 
of cloths saturated with fluid would assist in lowering the 
heat of the body. 


This is a form of necrosis which especially attacks the 
lower extremities of old people, and is the result of several 


Morbid Anatomy. — Arterial degeneration may, in 
itself, be sufficient to cause the arrest of the circulation, 
and the formation of thrombi or clots in the vessels of the 
limbs, thus causing gangrene. The supervention of the 
gangrene, however, is usually determined by some inju- 
rious stimulation of the tissues, as a slight abrasion of the 
foot, a bruise, injury to a corn, and excess of heat or cold, 
which sets up inflammation in the already weakened part. 
These, by still further obstructing the circulation therein, 
and impairing its vitality, cause death. 

In a limb, for example, decomposition proceeds as fol- 
lows : gases are generated in the part, principally sulphu- 
reted hydrogen, ammonia, nitrogen, and carbonic acid. 
The tissues, at the same time, undergo process of softening 
or liquefaction, the limb becomes exceedingly offensive, and, 
owing to alterations in the transuded coloring of the blood, 
changes from a reddish color to a brownish or greenish 
black. This is known as moist gangrene. It occurs only 
in external parts, and those internal organs to which the 
air is freely accessible, as the lungs. When met with in 
other situations, it is due to infection with septic matter. 


The part should be washed with a four per cent, 
solution of carbolic acid, then thoroughly bandaged with 
hardening compound. The result w T ill be a thorough dis- 
infectiing, deodorizing and hardening of the parts, so that 
under no circumstances will there be any unpleasantness. 
There is no treatment known to science that will produce 
such satisfactory results as will the above. 

The injection of fluid, arterially, and by the cavities, 
should be done as in ordinary cases ; as also should be the 
withdrawal of the blood. 



For the ordinary length of time that bodies are usually 
kept, a case may be treated successfully in the following 
manner : After thoroughly drying out the cavity, fill with 
hardening compound, completely surrounding the muti- 
lated organs and viscera. When the body is to be shipped 
or kept for a length of time, if the brain has not been re- 
moved, inject the carotid arteries, tying the severed ends. 
The arms may be injected through the subclavian, right 
and left. The legs can be injected from the iliacs, right 
and left. If organs in the pelvic cavity have been muti- 
lated, the femorals must be used. If the skull cap has 
been removed and the brain mutilated, fill the cavity sur- 
rounding the brain with hardening compound. 

In case there should be cancerous tumors in the abdo- 
men, do not remove but inject them with fluid and cover 
with hardening compound, when they will become hard- 
ened, as will also the viscera of this cavity. Sew up inci- 
sions carefully, and bandage. 




Acute or Croupous. 
Pneumonia (lung fever) is an infectious disease, to 
which the human family at all ages is subject. Children 
~ "■*=**-- are equally susceptible to it with 

adults. It is the special enemy 
of old age. It attacks males more 
frequently than females. Weak- 
ened or debilitated persons are 
especially liable. 

Morbid Anatomy. — If death 
occurs early in the disease, during 
the stage of engorgement, the 
lung tissue is a deep red in color, 
and firm to the touch. On section, 
the surface is bathed with blood 
and serum and still contains air. 
Later, during the stage of red 
hepatization, the lung is solid, 
firm, and without air. It is much larger, and has in- 
dentations of the ribs on the surface, when an entire 
lobe is involved. On section, the surface is drv. reddish 


Fig. 29. 

Micrococcus pneumoniae crouposae 
in sputum of a patient with pneu- 
monia, X 1000. From photomicro- 
graph by Frankel and Pfeiffer. 


brown in color, and readily broken down by the finger. 
The air cells are filled with fibrinous plugs; this is also 
often the case with the smaller bronchi. Very frequently 
the blood vessels are filled with solid molds of blood clots. 

Still later, in the stage of gray hepatization, the tissue 
has changed from a reddish brown to a grayish white in 
color. On section, the surface is more moist, the exuda- 
tion more turbid, and the tissue more easily broken down. 
In a more advanced stage of gray hepatization, there is 
purulent infiltration. The lung tissue is softened and 
bathed with purulent fluid. As a rule, the bronchi, at 
death, contain a frothy, serous fluid. 

The smaller bronchi in the affected areas often contain 
fibrinous plugs which may extend into the larger tubes, 
forming perfect casts. 

The pleural surface of the inflamed lung is nearly 
always involved. The exudation into the pleura may be 

The bronchi containing frothy, serous material, results 
often in a purging of the same from the mouth and nostrils. 
Decomposition of the diseased por- 
tion of the lung is going on, even 
while rigor mortis is present, not to 
a great extent, but still enough to 
form sufficient gas for the driving 
out of this bloody, frothy matter. 
If we stop decomposition of the 
lung, and check the formation of 
gas, w T e shall have stopped this flow, 
or purging, of frothy matter. BJ , , Rg * ^°* . 

x ° ° 7 J Single colony of micrococcus 

In pneumonia, the heart is dis- JJBB^^WEWK 
tended with firm, tenacious clots. and pfeiffer -> 
The distention of the right chambers of the heart is par- 
ticularly marked. In no other acute disease do we meet 


with such solid and firm coagula. It can be removed only 
by dissolving. 

Inflammation of the pericardium (heart sac) frequently 
occurs, especially when the left lung is involved. The 
hepatic veins are often extremely engorged with blood. 


The discoloration and purging, which are nearly always 
present in this disease, make these cases disagreeable, and 
sometimes difficult ones to handle satisfactorily. 

First inject the arteries. As purging may come from the 
stomach as well as the lungs, it must be stopped by either 
of the following processes: 

Pass a stomach tube into the stomach through the 
mouth or nostrils, and inject a small quantity of fluid. 
Attach aspirator and withdraw contents of the stomach, 
refilling with fluid; or, pass the trocar into the stomach 
from a point on the abdomen over the stomach, when the 
gases of the stomach will pass out, instantly stopping 
purging from that organ. Draw the skin up tightly and 
make an incision into the trachea, between the rings, at a 
point immediately above the breast bone ; separate the 
rings with the tenaculum and introduce an ordinary curved 
nasal tube, and pass it down into the lungs. Attach syringe 
and inject about a half pint of fluid, first into one lung, then 
into the other. This may have the effect of forcing matter 
out into the mouth and nostrils. After having injected the 
lungs, attach aspirator to nasal tube and remove all the 
fluid matter possible. Reinject fresh fluid, and the chances 
are very much in favor of your having no further trouble 
in this direction. 

If, however, there is still purging, insert the trocar at 
the point used for tapping the heart, and force it in dif- 
ferent directions upwards and through the lungs as far as 


the upper end or apex, when all danger of purging will be 

You may possibly have some trouble in drawing blood, 
on account of its coagulated condition in the heart. If so, 
inject into the right auricle a small quantity of a salt solu- 
tion ; then aspirate. 

The pleural cavities may be injected from the same 
point as used for tapping the heart. In a great many cases 
but a small quantity of fluid can be injected into these 
cavities, as the lungs become greatly distended, completely 
filling the cavities. 

The cavity of the abdomen should receive thorough 
treatment, as very often the viscera in this cavity is in- 

Inexperienced embalmers, writing on the treatment of 
pneumonia cases, advise the tying of the trachea and gul- 
let with tape, in order to stop purging from lungs and 
stomach. None but the merest tyros would pay any 
attention to such advice. 


Upon post-mortem examination, the morbid changes 
will consist of a cavity, irregular in outline, with ragged 
walls, sometimes containing loose fragments of lung tissue, 
or a dirty greenish or brownish mass of material with the 
regular gangrene odor. The cavity is usually in the middle 
or lower lobe of the right lung. 


In the treatment of a case of this kind fluid should be 
injected into the lung through the windpipe several times, 
at intervals of two or three hours. Treat the arteries and 
cavities in the usual way. 



Primary Pleurisy. 

Primary pleurisy does not often produce death. We 
usually have pleurisy to deal with as a complication of 
some other disease. 

Morbid Anatomy.— But where death does occur from 
primary pleurisy, there will be found a large amount of 
effusion in the pleural cavity or cavities, having the ap- 
pearance of diluted blood, which coagulates when it comes 
in contact with the air. Sometimes the lung is collapsed, 
and the heart is pushed to one side; even the face and 
surface of the body will appear as if death had been caused 
by asphyxia. 

Purulent Pleurisy ; Sometimes Called: Pyothorax, Em- 
py/emia, Suppurative Pleurisy, or Chronic Pleurisy. 

This is a disease of the pleura which secretes pus instead 
of the bloody-like appearing fluid as described above. 

Morbid Anatomy. — This disease is usually found 
accompanying wounds of the chest, fractures of ribs, 
abcesses of the walls of the chest, and gangrene of the 
lungs. It is also frequently found in measles, smallpox, 
scarlet fever and all diseases of the lungs. Therefore, 
when death occurs from either of the above diseases, the 
pleural cavities must be carefully examined and treated. 
Under these circumstances the liquid is either thin or 
thick pus. It will become putrid in a very short space of 
time, gases forming quickly, causing putrefaction of the 
surrounding tissues. Children as well as adults are 


Treatment should be prompt and vigorous. The pus 
and liquid contained in the pleural cavities should be 


withdrawn with the aspirator at once. This is very im- 
portant and under no consideration should it be neglected. 
Introduce the trocar at the same point as that in tapping 
the heart, passing it down into the lower part of each 
pleural cavity, aspirate their contents and fill with fluid. 
Then follow with the usual treatment, filling the arteries 
and withdrawing the blood and filling the cavities. 


Inflammation of the Pericardium. 

Morbid Anatomy. — The morbid appearances result- 
ing from inflammation of the pericardium are essentially 
the same as those seen in other serous sacs. Exudation of 
fibrin or lymph has taken place in more or less abund- 
ance and is deposited in layers on the parietal and visceral 
surface of the membrane. More or less liquid effusion of 
serum, turbid from the admixture of lymph, is found in the 
sac, sometimes in enormous quantities amounting to eight 
or ten pints. Sometimes the walls are partially adhered 
to each other, and at others the amount of effusion is so 
great as to fill the greater part of the thoracic cavity and 
push the diaphragm downwards. 


The effusion must be aspirated as well as the blood. 
The cavity of the sac must then be filled with fluid. The 
arteries and cavities should be filled with fluid as in ordi- 
nary cases. 


This name denotes the presence of air or gas within the 
pericardial sac in cases of pericarditis. Air or gas may find 
its wav into this situation through a wound of the chest 


walls, or of the esophagus, and through a fistulous commu- 
nication between the lungs or the stomach and the peri- 
cardial cavity. It is possible that gas may be generated 
quickly by putrefaction of inflammatory products within 
the cavity. 


It matters not what the cause may be that produced 
the gas, it should be removed and the sac filled with 
fluid. Otheiwise, the case should be treated as indications 


Morbid Anatomy. — Valvular lesions of the heart are 
situated, in the great majority of cases, in the left side of 
the heart at the mitral and aortic openings. Lesions on 
the right side are comparatively rare. The valves are fre- 
quently thickened and contracted ; or, they may simply be 
encumbered with vegetations of greater or less size, with- 
out being incapacitated for the performance of their func- 
tion. They are sometimes rendered more or less rigid by 
the deposit of calcareous matter. The aortic and mitral 
valves may become enlarged and thickened sufficiently to 
almost close the orifices, or they may become atrophied, 
rendering them liable to rupture or perforation. Enlarge- 
ment of the heart follows either of the above conditions. 
When the aortic valves are diseased sufficiently to interfere 
or prevent perfect closure of the aortic orifice, fluid, when 
injected through the arteries, will enter the left side of the 
heart, and if, in tapping the heart, the left side be perforated 
by the trocar, a partial destruction of the circulation will 
result and the fluid fail to permeate a part at least of the 
tissues. The lungs may become involved, resulting in 
oedema, hemorrhages, or pulmonary apoplexy. Dropsy of 


the serous sacs or general dropsy may be present. Death 
may have been caused by heart failure or apoplexy. The 
face and upper surface of the body is congested and edem- 
atous, rendering the removal of blood necessary. 


In tapping the heart care should be taken not to wound 
the left side as it may interfere with the circulation of the 
fluid, but such cases are not frequent. It is only when the 
semilunar valves at the aortic orifice are diseased that 
trouble will result. Mitral disease will not affect the circu- 
lation of fluid. The patient may have died from asphyxia, 
as a result of oedema of the glottis, hydro-pericardium, or 
pulmonary congestion. Congestion of the face and neck 
will be produced. The blood must be removed at once. 
The water must be taken from the cavities and subcutane- 
ous tissues. Treat the lung tissues through the trachea; fill 
the thoracic and abdominal cavities with fluid. The arte- 
ries should be filled by a thorough injection. Handle the 
body with care for a time, until the skin hardens. The 
alimentary canal should not be neglected. Chemical and 
putrefactive changes take place early in these cases, there- 
fore, prompt and heroic treatment should be given, in every 



Such as Laryngitis, Bronchitis, Etc., 

Should be treated as all other ordinary cases, except 
that fluid should be injected into the throat and trachea. 





This is caused by intussusception, torsion or knotting 
of the bowels, foreign bodies, or stricture. 

Morbid Anatomy. — The skin usually has an icteric or 
sallow appearance. The color of the contents — half di- 
gested food, as partly altered milk, meat, or vegetable mat- 
ter — of the intestinal canal and stomach, is brown, black, 
dark green or yellow. The colon is distended sometimes 
as to almost fill the abdomen. Ulceration of the mucous 
membrane and perforation of the wall of the gut some- 
times follow with extravasation into the abdominal cavity. 
Peritonitis may result. Abscesses may form in the cellu- 
lar tissues around the rectum. The accumulation of fecal 
matter in the sigmoid flexure may be very excessive. 
Peacock reports a case where fifteen quarts of semi-solid, 
greenish-colored, fecal matter were removed at the autopsy. 
Samazurier reports one of thirteen and a half pounds, 
and Chelins one of twenty-six pounds. Bristowe reports 
one where the whole length of the colon, from the anus to 
the caecum, was filled with semi-solid, olive-green colored 
feces, and the small intestine was filled throughout with 
semi-fluid, olive-green contents. In composition the mass 



consists of fecal matter with unaltered vegetable fiber. 
They may be partly composed of the skin of grapes, cherry- 
stones, biliary calculi, hair, woody fiber, magnesia or 
other foreign substances. 


After removing the gases, withdraw the blood and fill 
the tissues through the arteries. Then treat the viscera 
very thoroughly. If the colon is filled with semi-fluid and 
semi-solid matter, remove if possible by aspiration. The 
matter should be removed at all hazard, even if an incision 
has to be made in the median line above the pubic arch 
for its complete removal. After aspiration, fill the stom- 
ach and intestines and inject fluid around the organs and 
fill the abdominal cavity. Then place the body on the 
level, elevating the head. 


Dysentery is inflammation of the large intestine, at- 
tended with mucous and bloody dejections. 

Morbid Anatomy. — In severe cases, the inflammation 
is very extensive, involving not only the rectum, but the 
greater part of the colon. The affected membrane, on ex- 
amination after death, is found to be reddened, congested, 
swollen, softened, pulpy, presenting, in different cases, ec- 
chymoses, excoriations, from pealing off of the epithelium, 
abrasions, and ulcerations in greater or less numbers, the 
latter being sometimes small and sometimes of consider- 
able size. The ulcers may or may not be seated in the in- 
ternal glands. The swelling of the membrane is due to 
submucous infiltration, and the latter is sometimes so 
great, at certain points, as to give rise to protuberances 
resembling warty growths. The protuberances may be 


more or less numerous, and sometimes coalesce, giving 
to the surface a lobulated appearance. Patches of exuded 
fibrin are frequently adherent to the inflamed membrane, 
presenting a greenish or brownish color. The intestine 
contains more or less morbid life, consisting of mucous, 
pus, fibrinous flakes and bloody serous liquid. The intes- 
tine may present a dark, almost black, appearance from 
congestion. Sloughing and ulceration is present. As a 
rule, the appearances denote progressively a greater 
amount of disease in passing from the upper part of the 
large intestine downward to the anus; the greater amount 
being in the rectum and sigmoid flexure of the colon. 

The mesenteric glands are sometimes considerably en- 
larged, and in some instances contain pus. 


This disease seems, generally, to be confined to the 
large intestine. Sometimes, when the mesenteries become 
involved and ulcerations take place higher up in the colon, 
peritonitis results. If the latter condition is present, 
the peritoneum must be treated as directed in the general 
treatment of peritonitis. Gases must be removed from the 
large intestine, which should be filled with fluid. Other 
visceral organs must be treated as usual. A thorough 
arterial injection should be made. 


Inflammation of the Appendix Vermiformis. 

Appendicitis is an inflammation of the vermiform 
appendix. It is located in the right iliac region. 

Morbid Anatomy. — Ulceration may occur and result 
in perforation into the surrounding tissues, including the 


peritoneum. Violent suppurative peritonitis will follow 
perforation of the peritoneum. Pus may pass into the 
tissues behind the peritoneum and form a large perine- 
phritic abscess; or pus may pass downward along the psoas 
muscle, forming abscesses in the gluteal region. A large 
amount of tissue may be involved in the lower part of the 
abdominal cavity and frequently requires heroic treatment. 


Give the body a thorough arterial injection. Treat the 
organs of the chest in the usual manner. The abdominal 
organs should be treated very carefully, especially the 
region of the right lower part, and the pelvic cavity. Be- 
fore injecting the abdominal cavity aspirate the pus and 
blood, if any be present, from the peritoneum and the 
region of the caecum. 


The morbid changes in hernia or rupture are similar 
to those in Appendicitis, and similar treatment is required. 


This is an affection of the mucous membrance of the 
stomach and intestines, characterized by violent pain in the 
abdomen, nausea, violent and incessant vomiting, and by 
purging of watery fluid. This disease rarely proves fatal, 
although a state approaching collapse sometimes occurs, 
but is usually followed by reaction. It is not contagious. 

Morbid Appearances. — Even when the symptons are 
the most severe during life, we do not always find morbid 
changes sufficient to account for the cause of death. There 

E— 14 


are, however, usually evidences of gastro-intestinal catarrh; 
the mucous membrane is congested throughout. The soli- 
tary gland and Pyer's patches are swollen and prominent. 
The blood is dark and thickened. The appearance may 
resemble that of Asiatic cholera. The kidneys are con- 
gested and enlarged. 


The treatment should be thorough. The blood should 
be removed and the tissues filled with fluid. The cavities 
should be filled in the usual manner. Pay especial atten- 
tion to the stomach and intestines. 



Such as Gastritis; Enteritis, Colitis and Entero-Col- 

itis, usually known as inflammation of 

the Bowels, etc., etc. 

The morbid changes are confined to the parts affected, 
except when perforation or extensive and deep inflamma- 
tion exists, usually involving the peritoneum, causing peri- 
tonitis, as in inflammation of the stomach and intestines, 
both large and small. Cancer may involve the liver, 
spleen, pancreas, kidneys and bladder. 


In all such cases treat the abdominal cavity very 
thoroughly, besides the usual general treatment of the 
vascular system. The stomach and intestines should be 
filled with fluid. 




Bright's disease of the kidneys is of three forms: 
inflammatory (acute and chronic), waxy or amaloid, and 
cirrhotic or gouty. 

Morbid Anatomy. — As a result we have atrophy, fatty 
degeneration, hypertrophy, diminution of urine, albumi- 
nuria, hematuria, dropsy, etc.; also, later changes in the 
heart and blood vessels and other organs, waxy disease of 
the liver, spleen and intestinal canal, hypertrophy of the 
heart, oedema of the lungs, etc. The kidney may reach 
twelve ounces in weight, or it may be reduced in weight 
and size to one and a half ounces. In addition to the 
above, other organs become affected. There is usually 
great pallor of the surface. (Edema of the surface in gen- 
eral dropsy is present; also, oedema of the lungs and glot- 
tis, pleural effusion, mitral regurgitation (disease of the 
mitral valves of the heart), abdominal dropsy. Dropsy is 
always present to a greater or less degree. The serous 
cavities and subcutaneous tissues may be filled with water 
to the greatest distension, or, there may be only a slight 
effusion in the tissues, sufficient to cause softening of the 
rete mucosum and resulting in " skin-slip." Pneumonia, 
pleurisy, gastritis, etc.. may accompany this disease. 




The treatment should be thorough. Remove all of the 
water as directed in the treatment of dropsies. The ulti- 
mate cause of death may have been asphyxia, resulting 
from oedema of the glottis. If such is the case there will 
be congestion of the peripheral veins. The blood must be 
withdrawn and fluid injected slowly into the arterial sys- 
tem ; fluid should also be injected into the cranial cavity. 
Treat the lung tissues through the trachea, and inject the 
pleural cavities. The alimentary canal and other viscera 
of the abdomen should receive careful and thorough treat- 
ment. Water may be present in the tissues sufficient to 
cause the skin to slip, but not enough to cause oedema of 
the surface. If the skin is inclined to slip, handle the case 
carefully and after the water has evaporated and settled 
to the dependent parts of the body, it will harden and 
become firm in a few hours. After treatment, place the 
body on a level with only the head elevated. 


Inflammation of the Kidney. 

Dropsy is always present. May be slight or excessive. 
Otherwise the body will be in a similar condition as in 
Bright's disease, and will require similar treatment. 


Sugar in the Urine. 

Diabetes is not a disease of the kidneys as was formerly 
supposed. These organs merely excrete sugar contained 
in the blood brought to them by the renal arteries. The 
sugar in the blood increases the functional activity of the 


kidneys, acting like a diuretic, and hence the quantity of 
urine is greatly increased. 

Morbid Anatomy. — This disease has no constant ana- 
tomical characters, aside from lesions belonging to con- 
comitant or consecutive affections. The kidneys are often 
enlarged or hypertrophied, atrophied, or contain abscesses. 
The blood contains sugar. It has been found in the saliva, 
in the infusions, in the serous cavities, in the humors of 
the eye, and in the spermatic fluid. Pulmonary affections 
are frequent complications, such as pneumonia or tuber- 
culosis. Desquamation of the cuticle often occurs. Boils 
and sometimes large abscesses are found in different parts 
of the body; also, gangrene, or ulceration without gangrene, 
of the lower extremities. (Edema of the legs often occur. 


The treatment in these cases depends entirely upon the 
amount of tissues involved by complication. Inject the 
vascular system and cavities thoroughly in every case. If 
dropsy is present, which is frequently the case, adopt the 
usual means of removing the water from the tissues. If 
abscesses or gangrene are present, use hardening compound, 
as directed under the head of gangrene. These cases 
should be handled carefully. The tissues being filled more 
or less with water there is a liability to " skin-slip." 


The bladder may be the seat of the following morbid 
conditions: inflammation and acute or chronic abcess; 
atrophy or hypertrophy; mechanical distension with 
chronic engorgement; the retention of urine; tumors or 
growths; epithelioma and carcinoma; tubercular disease; 
ulceration; vesico-vaginal or vesicointestinal fistule. It 
mar contain blood or purulent material. 



The trocar should be introduced immediately above 
the pubic bone in the median line, directing it inward and 
downward to reach into the bladder. Withdraw all liquid 
matter and inject fluid, mixing it thoroughly with the 
contents; then, withdraw the same and inject fresh fluid, 
tilling the organ as full as possible. Otherwise, the body 
should be treated in the usual manner. 



This is the loss of the power of motion, or ot sensation, 
or of both motion and sensation. The different forms of 
paralysis of common occurrence are due : 

(1) To disease of the brain, in which form the muscles 
may be rigid or relaxed, the disease of the brain being the 
result of syphilitic poison, the epileptic or chronic state. 

(2) To pressure upon or injury to a nerve. 

(3) To diseases of the spine. 

(4) To the influence of poison, such as have arsenic and 

Morbid Anatomy. — Paralysis having its origin in one 
side of the brain is characterized by a very prominent 
feature, namely, one-sidedness. This phenomenon con- 
stitutes that form of paralysis called hemiplegia, or paraly- 
sis of one side of the body, from disease of the opposite half 
of the brain. 

Lesions which give rise to hemiplegia are : 
(1) Softening. If a clot or abscess in the corpus striatum, 
or optic thalamus, or in the immediate vicinity of these 
parts, produces pressure upon these central ganglia, or 
centres of volition, or if the fibers be otherwise inter- 
fered with, paralysis will result. The center of volition 



reaches from the corpora striata in the brain down the 
entire length of the anterior horns of the gray matter of 
the spinal cord, and includes the locus rigor in the crus 
cerebri of the mesocephalin and of the medulla oblongata. 
Disease of any part of this center, or range of structures^ 
is capable of producing paralysis. 

(2) The intra-cranial portion of the above range exer- 
cises the greatest and most extended and complete paraly- 
sis, and takes place from disease of the intra-cranial portion. 

(3) In cases of central disease, it must be observed and 
remembered that the intra-cranial portion of the center of 
volition for the left side of the body is situated on the 
right side, and that for tho right side is situated on the left 
side of the cranium, while the intra-spinal portions main- 
tain, relatively, their respective sides. These two portions 
are connected by the oblique fibers from the anterior pyr- 
amidal column of the medulla oblongata, which crossing 
from right to left, decussate with similar fibers proceeding 
from left to right. 

(4) Exudations, which are the result of inflammatory or 
other diseased state of the membranes of the brain, which, 
as they increase and cause pressure on the surface, trans- 
mit the effects of pressure downwards to the corpus stria- 
tum and optic thalamus, and thus cause paralysis. 

(5) Morbid states, which affect or destroy fibers of deeper 
seated parts, such as the crura cerebri, or of the cerebellum 
in its crura (because a connection exists between the hem- 
isphere of the cerebellum and the fibers of the pyramids 
in the pons Varolii), cause paralysis. 

Of the different forms of paralysis of motion, those 
known as paraplegia and hemiplegia require more promi- 
nent illustrations. 

Paraplegia is a form of paralysis affecting the lower 
half of the body only, in which both legs and perhaps also 


some of the muscles of the bladder and rectum are para- 

Hemiplegia is a form of paralysis affecting one lateral 
half of the body. It is that form of paralysis to which the 
name of paralytic stroke is commonly applied. Either 
half of the body may be affected, and the parts which are 
actually involved are generally the upper and lower ex- 
tremities of one side, the muscles of mastication, including 
the buccinator, and the muscles of the tongue on one side. 
The paralysis may be either complete or incomplete, as 
regards motion power. 

The special lesions of the brain, causing hemiplegia are: 

(1) Obstruction of a principal, central artery by a plug 
of fibrin, detached from an excrescence on one of the 
aortic or other valves of the heart, the result of a former 

(2) A coagulum formed in an artery, resulting from 
some altered nutrition of its wall, and connected in 
general with rheumatic or other morbid state of the blood. 

(3) A softened state of the brain, such as the condition 
known as white softening, which follows the retardation 
and diminution of cerebral circulation by diseased ar- 
teries, or by the complete stoppage of an artery by a plug. 

Anaesthesia, or paralysis of the nerves of sensation, may 
result from disease: 

(1) Of the cerebrum, where the fifth nerve takes its 

(2) Of the nerve within the cranium. 

(3) Of the nerve after it has emerged from the cranium, 
and ascended to the seat. The symptoms vary. 

The disease may be in consequence of some injury, 
such as the extraction of a tooth. Dissections show that con- 
densation, atrophy, softening, and the pressure of tumors, are 
the morbid conditions out of which the anaesthesia springs. 




Paralytic cases being invariably very much emaciated, 
the operator often makes the mistake of using only a small 
quantity of fluid. It is at times difficult to inject into the 
arteries very much fluid on account of the obstructions in 
the vessels. If any trouble is experienced in injecting an 
artery on one side, allow the incision in the artery to re- 
main open and operate on an artery on the opposite side. 
For instance, if the right radial or brachial were opened 
and a successful injection did not result, open the same 
vessel on the left side. If fluid did not pass out of the first 
opening by the injection of the second, that would be evi- 
dence that there was no circulation in the vessels in the 
right arm. If the vessels of the face were not distended 
by the injection of the artery in the arm, that would indi- 
cate the fact that there was no fluid going to these parts. 
An injection through one of the carotids would then be in 
order; inject very slowly upwards until the vessels show 
distention; then reverse the tube and inject towards the 
heart, putting in all the fluid the vessels will receive with- 
out much pressure. The Champion Needle Process should 
then be used, injecting slowly, with the body in an elevated 
position, as much fluid as will pass in easily. Careful 
attention must be given the parts that it is thought have 
not received the fluid (hand and arm first operated on). 
The lungs and cavities of the chest should be treated, and a 
thorough treatment of the abdominal cavity is necessary. 
Inject into it all the fluid it will hold, keeping the body on 
the level as long as possible. When bodies of this kind are to 
be kept for a long time, or shipped to a distance, a complete 
bandaging with hardening compound would be advisable, as 
seldom if ever is the fluid brought to the surface by arterial 
injection; hence, the softened condition of the exterior, 
which may be prevented by the use of hardening compound. 



The liability to apoplexy has a manifest relation to 
age. The liability increases from the age of twenty years 
upwards, and in the majority of cases, the age of those 
attacked is over sixty. Males are more subject to this affec- 
tion than females. 

Morbid Anatomy. — In fatal cases of apoplexy, the 
most frequent pathological condition is hemorrhage within 
the cranium. An examination, when death has followed 
in a few hours after extravasation, shows a clot with bloody 
serum contained in a cavity produced by laceration of the 
substance of the brain. 

Microscopical research has appeared to show that hem- 
orrhage into the substance of the brain is generally the 
result of either fatty or calcareous degeneration of the 
coats of the smaller cerebral arteries. Owing to their 
weakness or brittleness, rupture or fracture is liable to occur. 


Owing to the discoloration of the face, ears and neck, 
always existing in these cases, and the tendency of the 
blood to coagulate quickly, the first operation should Mr 
the withdrawal of the blood by the most convenient 
method. If discoloration remains, apply the ice poultice 
as directed elsewhere. 

There is no advantage over that of arterial injection 
to be gained by any of the needle processes. The injec- 
tion at any point should be made very carefully, using 
as little force as possible; take time, and work slowly. In 
ordinary cases a quart or two of fluid, injected arterially, 
is usually sufficient. If more should be necessary, as in 
preparing for shipment, make a second injection, allowing 
some hours to intervene between the first and second. 
Treat cavities in the usual manner. 




The experienced inquiry and pathological observations, 
on the bodies of known drunkards, by Dr. Roesch and Dr. 
Francis Ogston, are contributions which have placed on a 
surer foundation our previous theoretical information re- 
garding the morbid status, which follows the persistent use 
of alcohol. The term alcoholism is used to denote various 
symptoms of disease attending morbid processes of various 
kinds, which are capable of being traced to the use of stim- 
ulants containing alcohol. The immediate effects of in- 
temperance — as it is commonly called — , the nature of 
delirium tremens and of spontaneous combustions, may be 
embraced under the general designation of alcoholism. 
The pernicious effects of alcoholic stimuli in excess on the 
organs and tissues of the body have been deduced from a 
careful study of the morbid appearances of a chronic kind, 
met with in the bodies of individuals known to have lived 
intemperate lives, and who had perished suddenly from 
the effects of accident, suicide or homicide, and while 
apparently in ordinary health and activity. The extent of 
such chronic change in the various organs of such indi- 
viduals are found to have been far in excess of what could 
have been usually looked for in a like number of persons 



of the same age and of temperate habits, suddenly cut off, 
while apparently in average health and vigor. 

The cumulative effects of long-continued intemperance 
have been clearly proved by Dr. Ogston's observations ; 
and the results of his post-mortem inspections, on the 
whole, support the conclusions which have been arrived at. 
The following statements contain a summary of these re- 
sults : 

(1) The nervous centers present the greatest amount of 
morbid changes, the morbid appearances within the heart 
extending over ninety-two per cent, of those examined. 
By this observation the theoretical remarks of Drs. Craigie 
and Carpenter are clearly established. 

(2) The change in the respiratory organs succeed in 
frequency those of the nervous centers, yielding a per cent- 
age of 63.24 of those examined. 

(3) Morbid changes in the liver are most in order of 
frequency and are due to enlargement or granular degen- 
eration. The nutmeg-like congestion comes next, and 
lastly the fatty state. 

(4) Next to changes in the liver come those in the heart 
and large arteries. 

(5) Least frequent of all are morbid changes in the ali- 
mentary canal. 

Two orders of changes may be observed to result from 
intemperance in the use of alcoholic fluids: namely, one set 
of long duration, or which at least must have taken some 
considerable time before they could be completed ; another 
set of shorter duration, and which probably are more 
closely connected with the immediate symptoms which 
precede the fatal event. The abnormal changes in the 
cranium, the substance of the brain, its convolutions, and 
cerebral ventricles, all indicate the prolonged action of a 
morbid poison. The prolonged action of the alcoholic 


poison on the cranial contents is to produce induration of 
the cerebral and cerebellar substance in by far the greatest 
number of cases coincident with an increased amount of 
subarachnoid serum ; and the steatomatous degeneration 
of the small arteries leads to atrophy of the convolutions 
and oedema of the brain. 

When spirituous liquors are introduced into the stomach, 
they tend to coagulate in the first instance all albuminous 
articles of food or fluid with which they come in contact ; 
as an irritant they stimulate the glandular secretions from 
the mucous membrane and ultimately lead to permanent 
congestion of the vessels, to spurious, melanotic deposit in 
the mucous tissue, and to the thickening of the gastric 
substance. By the veins and absorbents of the stomach, 
the alcohol mixes with the blood, and immediately acts as 
a stimulant to all the viscera with which it is brought in 
contact. The functions of the brain are at once stimu- 
lated and ideas follow in more rapid succession ; the liver 
is excited to secrete an excess of sugar by the immediate 
action of the stimulant on its tissues. The flow of urine is 
excited in a similar manner, and in these effects it is im- 
possible not to recognize the operation of an agent most 
pernicious in its results. The mere coagulation of the 
albuminous articles of food and fluid is very different from 
that effected by the gastric juice. 

Positive irritation very soon succeeds the intemperate 
use of alcohol. It is manifested in a variety of ways; some- 
times by an unnaturally voracious appetite, and those who 
over-indulge in the use of such stimuli subsequently suffer 
a total disrelish for food. They become unable to eat, and 
dyspeptic symptoms of various kinds betray the irritated 
state of the alimentary canal, such as stomach ache, vomit- 
ing, frequent generation of gases, waterbrash, heartburn, 
syncope and palpitations, a constipated condition of 


the intestines, attended with deficient secretions of bile, 
which is known not to be secreted in due quantity. If one 
follows the course of alcoholic absorption through the 
vascular and pulmonary systems, it is found unquestionably 
to retard the motion of the blood, while it produces a 
temporary increase in the action of the heart and a con- 
gestion of the whole system of the pulmonary capillary 
vessels. In the case of habitual spirit drinkers there is thus 
constantly going on a temporary stimulus and quickened 
motion of the blood through the vessels, especially mani- 
fested by cerebral, thoracic and hemorrhoidal phenomena, 
followed by a corresponding depression and tendency to 
stagnation of the blood in the capillaries of all the internal 
organs, especially in the membranous tissues and the lax 
areolar tissues of dependent parts. The most common 
form of alcholism is that about to be noticed, namely, 


This disease has only been known and described since 
the beginning of the century. The essential nature of the 
affliction is associated with the loss of the cerebral power 
in the control of thoughts, emotions and muscular action, 
consequent to an over-excitement by alcoholic stimuli, and 
sometimes immediately dependent upon the diminution of 
the degree of excitement to which the brain has been 
accustomed. With this form of deliriums, there is always 
associated more or less derangement in several other 
functions. The patient is generally void of all appetite, or 
may even be squeamish and vomit at intervals; sometimes, 
he is thirsty and calls loudly for liquor. In some cases, 
great aversion and even dread of food and drink is evinced 
and it is impossible to persuade the patient to partake 
of either. There is generally fulness or distension and 


not unfrequently tenderness and pain in the epigastric, urn- 
-bilical and right hypochondriac regions. The skin is bathed 
about the head and neck with a clammy, unctuous, cold 
moisture. The pulse varies from 96 to 120, or more. The 
carotid and temporal arteries beat more violently, the ac- 
tion of the heart is unusually violent, and the cardiac beat 
is diffused over the entire chest. After symptoms of rest- 
lessness and sleeplessness have continued for three or four 
days, the patient may either fall into a sound sleep, which 
lasts for hours and proves a crisis; or, on the other hand, 
the symptoms may pass into a state of coma rigor, the 
pupil becomes contracted, the muscles of the face and jaw 
are moved incessantly, and death may ensue from prolonged 
coma or convulsions. The duration of the disease varies 
from three or four to seven days, and a favorable or fatal 
termination may result in from three to four. The great- 
est mortality is between the ages of twenty-five and fifty. 

The apparent cause of death in sixty cases was as fol- 
lows : Thirty-three by exhaustion (often with coma) ; six- 
teen by coma; ten by fits (sometimes apoplectic); one 
found dead in bed. 

Convulsions occurred in at least twenty-four of the 
above cases. 


These cases are to be distinguished from typhoid fever 
and from paralysis agitans by the previous history of the 
case. When the case is one that has been a habitual 
drunkard, the conditions are similar to typhoid fever and 
require very thorough treatment. The conditions of the 
arteries are very often such as to prevent a successful in- 
jection of the vascular system, and, as all the organs con- 
tained in the cavities of the abdomen and chest, as well as 
the brain, are involved, a most thorough treatment of 


them is absolutely necessary. The Champion Needle Proc- 
ess should be used for the purpose of introducing tte 
embalming fluid into the brain tissues; as much fluid as- 
the arteries will receive should be introduced into them; 
The blood should be withdrawn by one of the processes 
given. The lungs should be filled by the injection of the 
trachea. Sometimes there is an effusion in the lung cav- 
ities ; aspirate to determine that fact : then, fill the cavities 
with fluid. The stomach should be injected by the esoph- 
agus with a stomach tube. The cavity of the abdomen 
should be injected to distention, allowing the body to re- 
remain perfectly level as long as possible, that the fluid 
may be kept in contact with the liver, spleen, pancreas 
and kidneys. A second injection after six or eight hours 
would be advisable, after aspirating the fluid first injected 
into the abdominal cavity. 


Dropsy is always the result of some other morbid con- 
dition, as heart disease, liver disease, kidney disease, etc. 
It is not a disease per se, but only a symptom of disease. 

Morbid Anatomy. — Dropsies receive their names 
from their situations. If seated in serous cavities they are 
designated by prefixing " hydro " to the name of the serous 
membrane. Dropsy of the areolar tissue is called oedema, 
as oedema of the glottis, or oedema of the legs, arms, face, 
etc. An effusion into the air cells is called oedema of the 
lungs. An effusion of the abdomen is ascites, or abdom- 
inal dropsy. When oedema is general over the surface of 
the body, it is called anasarca. When an effusion is found 
in all parts of the body, it is called general dropsy. 

Frequently death is caused by asphyxia, as from 
cedema of the glottis, hydro-thorax, etc. 

E.— 15 


When death is caused by asphyxia, the peripheral veins 
will be congested, with extensive discolorations of the face 
and neck. In general dropsy, the cavities and subcutaneous 
and areolar (fat) tissues are all filled with fluid, more or 
less, in every part of the body. The cavities sometimes will 
be filled to great distention, especially the abdominal cav- 
ity. It may contain many quarts of water. From disten- 
tion of the pleural sacs, the lungs may be collapsed and 
the heart pushed out of position. The forearms, hands, 
legs, feet, and other parts, may be distended to an enormous 
size. The cuticle will have a tendency to loosen and slip, 
on account of the softening of the rete mucosum, the pig- 
ment layer between the cuticle and the true skin. 

A case of general dropsy, of the severe type, is one 
which frequently tries the skill of the embalmer and 
should be thoroughly treated. 


Place the body on an embalming board, well elevated, 
over which has been placed a rubber cover. Roll up the 
sides of this to prevent fluid matter from soiling the car- 
pet. Bring the lower end corners of the cover together so 
as to form a spout, underneath which place a vessel to 
receive the water from the body. 

The most common kind of dropsy is that of the abdo- 
men. To relieve the body of water, in this instance, make 
an incision in the lower part of the abdomen, immediately 
over the pubic bone. Insert trocar, pointing upwards, and 
into the space containing the water. Attach pump and 
aspirate contents. 

It may be, the case is one where water also may be 
located in the cavity of the abdomen, floating the intes- 
tines and stomach. To relieve this condition, pass the 
trocar directly down into the cavity of the pelvis, at the 


same point of incision used in the foregoing case. Give 
the body a good elevation, and aspirate. When the water 
is located in the limbs, the rubber bandage will be of great 
assistance in removing it. 

To remove water from the hands and arms, first make 
an incision at the point of the elbow, passing the trocar 
underneath the skin, towards the shoulder, in different 
directions, and then in the same manner towards the 
hands. Afterwards apply bandage, wrapping from the 
shoulder to the elbow, then from the hand to the elbow. 
The pressure will force the water out of the incision at 
the elbow, when it will find its way along the rubber cover 
into the vessel ready to receive it. 

To remove the water from the lower limbs, make an 
incision on either side of the knee, passing the trocar up- 
wards; also, make incisions on either side of the ankles, 
directing the trocar towards the knee. Apply the band- 
age, commencing with the upper parts and working down. 

The operation of drawing blood, in dropsy, is one of 
the greatest importance, as discoloration of the face and 
neck invariably are present. A large quantity of bloody 
water can be easily aspirated from the heart and vessels 
above, it being in a very liquid condition. 

As a rule, in these cases, a second arterial injection is 
necessary, as is also a pumping out and reinjection of the 

It is never necessary, under any circumstances, to open 
the body for the purpose of removing water. When the 
water is located in the pleural cavities, an incision should 
be made at the lower parts of the cavities, on both sides, 
between the seventh and eighth ribs, passing trocar im- 
mediately through the wall of the chest, when it will be in 
the sac of water. The water will pass out by gravitation, 
or may be aspirated. Then sew up the incision. 


As this operation necessitates two incisions, it is not as 
desirable as that of passing the trocar, from the same 
point used in tapping the heart, down into each cavity, and 
aspirating. By operating at this point water can be re- 
moved from the heart sac. Very often water is located in 
different parts of the face. By passing a needle under the 
skin, at a point behind the ears, the water can be easily 
removed, and the mutilation will not be observable. In 
case of shipment, it would be wise to bandage dropsical 
cases, using the improved process given elsewhere. 


Jaundice is never strictly an individual disease. It is 
merely an effect or a symptom of disease. Thus, jaundice 
occurs in certain cases of all the hepatic affections, such 
as hepatitis, cirrhosis, phlebitis, cancer, etc. It occurs also 
in several general or constitutional diseases, namely, septi- 
caemia, and puerperal, remittent, and relapsing fever. 

The presence of bile pigment in the blood is due to the 
reabsorption of bile within the liver after its secretion. 
The biliverdin and the biliary salts are found within the 
liver; that is, they do not preexist in the blood. The re- 
absorption of bile within the liver, in the great majority of 
cases, is due to obstruction to its passage into the intestine. 
It may proceed from other causes. Yellowness of the con- 
junctiva and skin takes place after a certain amount of 
bile has been reabsorbed. The discoloration of the surface 
depends mainly on the presence of the bile pigment in the 
transuded liquid which infiltrates the tissues. 


There is no method of embalming that will remove 
the discoloration peculiar to jaundice. It will depend on 


circumstances with regard to other conditions of the body, 
as to how difficult its preservation will be. In all cases 
give the body a thorough arterial and cavity treatment, 
always tapping the heart. 


The great majority of cases of acute rheumatism ulti- 
mately end in recovery, the proportion of death as the 
immediate result of an attack being only four per cent. 
On the other hand, a large number of persons suffer from 
remote effects of the disease, many of which are not only 
distressing, but likely to lead to death. Of the immedi- 
ately fatal cases, the larger proportion are associated with, 
if not actually due to, acute diseases of the respiratory 
organs. The fatal cases w T hich present cardiac diseases, 
especially acute pericarditis, are scarcely less numerous. 
Altogether, it may be said that from one half to three 
fourths of all cases of death during acute rheumatism are 
referable to acute cardiac and pulmonary diseases, either 
separately or combined. It is doubtful whether acute 
rheumatism ever proves fatal ; that is, whether any patient 
dies from excessive pain, sweating, and consequent ex- 
haustion. Hyperpyrexia is the most common cause of 
death, next to pulmonary and cardiac complications. In a 
small number of cases, acute alcoholism and other compli- 
cations, mentioned elsewhere, lead to fatal termination. A 
most common effect is valvular diseases of the heart, 
which, in the majority of cases, are referable to acute en- 
docarditis occurring as a complication of rheumatism. 
It is impossible to estimate the number of diseases of the 
lungs, vessels, brain, kidneys and other organs, which, in 
their turn, are caused by such heart diseases. The vessels 
suffer directly from the effects of rheumatism, and when. 


in addition, the remote effects of pneumonia and pleurisy 
and the other less common complications of rheumatism 
are considered, the ultimate changes are very extensive. 

Some of the complications in rheumatism are inflam- 
mation of the heart and pericardium, hyperemia, and 
inflammation of the lungs, trachea, and larynx, inflamma- 
tion of the various serous membranes, various nervous 
affections, such as meningitis and mental derangement, 
erythema, nodisum, and scarlatina, albumiuria, hyper- 
pyrexia, hemorrhage, and lastly venous or intercurrent 
conditions. Cardiac complications are by far the most 
frequent, being present in no fewer than fifty per cent, of 
all cases. Inflammation of the heart and pericardium are 
fully described under their appropriate headings. 


The treatment of these cases is indicated by the 
complicating diseases from which the patient dies. It is 
necessary to know the disease to understand the morbid 
anatomy. If the case is one of cardiac disease, or disease 
of the respiratory organs, the treatment should be the 
same as that given under these several heads. 


By a tumor is meant a more or less circumscribed mass 
growing in some tissue or organ of the body, and depend- 
ent on a morbid excess of, or deviation from, the normal 
nutrition of the part. Tumors are of many varieties, and 
may be found in any portion of the body. Cystic tumors 
of the ovary, which sometimes attain an enormous mag- 
nitude, are the kind that most requires our attention. 
They vary in size from a very small affair to a tumor 


weighing many pounds. As they grow, their walls some- 
times become very thick and firm, and often of great tough- 
ness. The contents may be thin and slightly colored, or, 
thick and of a dark color ; sometimes, of a yellowish hue. 
The quantity will vary from pints to many gallons. En- 
cysted tumors, containing hair and fatty matter, will be 
met with occasionally. The fatty matter may be in a 
somewhat fluid condition. 


Introduce the trocar into the abdomen at a point im- 
mediately below the navel, passing it downwards and in- 
wards into the tumor. Attach aspirator and draw off the 
contents. It may be necessary to move the trocar in dif- 
ferent directions inside the tumor, as there may be divisions 
or cells which will have to be broken in order to reach the 
liquid substance. Always inject fluid into the mass after 

When the tumor is on the surface of the body, it should 
be pierced with the trocar and liquid contents removed if 
there be any. It should then be injected with fluid. 

There is no necessity of removing tumors from the 
cavity of the abdomen if they are treated in this way and 
injected with a first class fluid. In other respects, the treat- 
ment of such cases is similar to that of ordinary cases. 


Cancers are internal or external, soft or hard. The 
surface of the external cancer may be entirely covered 
with skin, or it may be open and in a sloughing condition, 
emitting a very offensive odor. When located on the face, 
the features may be more or less destroyed. 



If cancers are internal, or covered with an unbroken 
skin, they should be treated with the trocar; that is, they 
should be emptied of their contents and fluid pumped into 
the tumor. If they are external, and the skin is broken 
and in a sloughing condition, wash the surface with hot 
water and apply hardening compound. If sloughing has 
resulted in the destruction of the features, apply hardening 
compound to destroy the odor and absorb the moisture, 
leaving it remain for an hour or two, then cleanse the sur- 
face and build up with plaster of Paris, coloring with 
pencil tints. Treat the arteries and cavities in the usual 


This is a specific, contagious disease — communicable by 
contact of the poison with a breach of the surface, or by 
hereditary transmission. 

Morbid Anatomy. — Syphilis is characterized by a 
period of incubation, and (except in cases of inheritance) 
by certain changes in the seat of contagion, and in the 
proximate lymphatic glands. These are followed by erup- 
tions on the skin and mucous membrane, and sometimes by 
lesions of the deeper tissues and viscera. Frequently bur- 
rowing abscesses, involving much tissue, are found in the 
peritoneum, groins, neck, and other parts of the body. 
Septicaemia may be the cause of death. The visceral 
organs may become a putrid mass. The sources of conta- 
gion are very numerous. Wherever the poison comes in 
contact with a broken surface, it may be absorbed and gen- 
eral infection follow. 

Instances of syphilis being conveyed quite independ- 
ently of sexual relations are very common. The disease 


may be spread by kissing, contagious syphilitic lesions be- 
ing quite common around the lips and in the mouth. 
Medical men not infrequently contract it by examining or 
operating on syphilitic cases. 


In the handling of these cases, the care of one's hands 
is of the greatest importance. Before touching the body, 
thoroughly rub the hands, and under the finger-nails, 
with hand protector. Gloves should be worn as much 
as possible. The arterial injection should be made with 
the greatest care; in fact, should only be made when 
it cannot be avoided. The injection by the needle process 
is less dangerous to the operator, and is advised in these 
cases. Tap the heart, removing all the blood possible, 
which should be handled with the greatest caution. Fill 
the cavities with as much fluid as they will receive. 
Sponge the body thoroughly with a good disinfecting fluid, 
and apply hardening compound to all sores on its surface. 


The condition of the child and surrounding tissues will 
depend largely upon the cause of death, at what time 
during pregnancy it occurred, and whether the child died 
several days previous or at the same time. 

Morbid Anatomy. — If death has occurred early in 
pregnancy, the morbid changes will not be very great, nor 
will the case give much trouble. But if at the full period, 
and the child has been dead for some days, the morbid 
changes will likely be considerable. There may be a putre- 
fying mass of soft tissue, surrounded by a putrid fluid 


filled with the putrefactive bacteria. If the child dies at 
the same time, only the liquor amnii (water) may be 


Make an incision about two inches below the umbilicus 
or navel, on the median line. Pass the trocar into the 
womb allowing gases to escape. Move point of trocar to 
the lower part of the womb and attach aspirator; then re- 
move all the liquid matter possible, which, as a rule, is 
considerable. Then inject fluid into the child and sur- 
round it with fluid; fill the womb with all it will take. 
After injecting arteries and treating the other cavities, 
remove the fluid from the womb, and inject fresh fluid. 




It will depend upon the length of time that the body has 
been in the water, and the condition of the body before 
drowning, as to how difficult it will be to preserve it. 


Treat cases which have been in the water twenty-four 
hours or less, as follows : 

Cover the face and hands immediately, so as to exclude 
air and light. Inject arteries and cavities thoroughly. 
Remove all the blood possible ; also, empty the lungs 
and stomach of the water contained in them, which 
may be easily accomplished by placing the body face 
downward, elevating the lower parts, and pressing in the 
region of the stomach and lungs. A drawing out of the 
tongue at times will facilitate the operation. Keep face 
and hands covered with a bleaching fluid for several hours. 


When the body has been in the water sufficiently long 
to cause it to bloat, or, when it is in the condition known 
as a " floater," the following treatment will leave it in a 
state in which it may be placed in any kind of a casket. 

(235 J 


and a funeral service at home or church is possible, with- 
out causing any inconvenience whatever to any person 
present : 

Remove the water from the stomach and lungs as above 
directed. Insert long trocar into the cavities, allowing the 
gases to escape, and thoroughly fill the cavities with fluid. 
Insert needle at various parts of the face and body, imme- 
diately under the skin, passing it around to every possible 
point, when the gases will escape. The opening should be 
made with the point of the needle pointing downward, as 
gases rise, and are more easily extracted from the body 
than if the instrument were reversed. After removing 
gases, inject fluid w^herever gases existed. Several gallons 
of fluid may be injected in this way, w r hich will have the 
effect of arresting putrefaction of the surface and parts 

If there is time to give (take it if possible), in addition 
to following the treatment prescribed above, success be- 
yond a doubt will be the result. Take of Champion Hard- 
ening Compound about fifteen pounds. Mix with about 
twenty-five pounds of sawdust. Place a layer of a few 
inches in the bottom of a box, place the body upon it and 
cover with the remainder of the mixture, allowing a layer 
to intervene between the air and the body. In twenty-four 
hours the body will be in a satisfactory condition for the 

The peculiar discoloration existing in a floater cannot 
be removed by any process known to science, but the de- 
odorizing, disinfecting, and hardening of the body is a just 
source of gratification to the friends and relatives of the 
deceased, whose great wish is to give the unfortunate one 
the benefit of the church service. Of course, to produce a 
natural appearance of such bodies is out of the question 
and should not be expected. 



Death produced from these causes may show, in a 
post-mortem examination, an entirely different condition 
in different bodies. Some may exhibit no lesion whatever, 
the manner of death in these instances being shock to the 
brain and general nervous system. On the other hand the 
electricity may, in its passage through the body, produce a 
number of mechanical effects. Wounds like those inflicted 
by a blunt stabbing instrument may mark the point of 
entry and departure. Bones have been broken, internal 
viscera torn, and arteries and veins ruptured. Rigor mortis 
is not apparent as a rule, and the blood remains in a liquid 
condition. Decomposition commences very soon after 


Remove the blood as quickly as possible by opening the 
femoral vein. Inject fluid into the femoral artery. An 
injection of fluid by the Champion Needle Process will be 
of great advantage. As the entire viscera becomes putrid 
in a very short time, the cavities should be thoroughly 
treated. Withdrawing the fluid and reinjecting them with 
fresh fluid, is also an advantage. 


As in Railroad and Other Accidents. 

In death from railroad and other similar accidents 
great mutilation of the body often results. The extremities 
may be torn from the body; the trunk itself severed in 
twain; the head mashed, the brains oozing from the 
wounds; vessels torn, rendering the circulation of fluid 
through the arteries impossible. 



The treatment of these cases will vary from the ordi- 
nary. The vessels, if possible, should be tied and injected; 
but, where it is impossible to do so, fluid should be freely 
injected into the subcutaneous tissues. Hardening com- 
pound should be used over the surface of the body and of 
all mutilated parts, and over and in the cavities. When 
the walls of the cavities are intact fluid should be injected 
freely into them and into all of the soft viscera. All 
gashes and cuts should be neatly sewed up and covered 
with hardening compound. Bruises and discolorations 
upon the face should be treated with the ice poultice. If 
the nose, lips and other parts of the face should be torn 
away they should be built up with plaster of Paris, and 
tinted sufficiently to produce the natural color as nearly 
as possible. All severed members should, if possible, be 
neatly sewed on. 

If a body is torn to pieces in such a manner that coap- 
tation of the parts is impossible, the following treatment 
may be used: take 15 pounds of hardening compound and 
25 pounds of sawdust; thoroughly mix; cover the bottom 
of the box to a depth of two inches or more; place the 
parts therein, and cover with the remainder, allowing 
them to remain for twenty-four to forty-eight hours. 
This will thoroughly deodorize, harden and preserve the 
parts for shipment. 


If the wounds are in the head, they will interfere with 
the injection of the arteries, as the fluid will pass out 
through the ruptured vessels and escape through the open- 
ings made by the bullet. However, the injection should be 
made through some convenient artery, allowing the fluid 


to ooze out through the wounds. With it, will pass out 
considerable blood which has escaped into the cavity. 
When the fluid which escapes commences to come clear, 
pack the opening tightly and inject about a quart of 
fluid. Allow the body to remain in an elevated position 
for several hours, in which time much of the fluid in 
the cavity of the cranium will have been absorbed by 
the tissues, or descended by gravitation to the lower 
parts. Remove the plugs from the wounds and force 
all the hardening compound you can possibly make use of 
into the cavity, backed up with some absorbent cotton. 
Mix a small quantity of plaster of Paris with water, putting 
into the mixture a little salt, filling the hole with the mix- 
ture. Putty made of a proper consistency, may be used 
instead. The part can be tinted, with flesh tints, to re- 
semble the color of the surrounding parts. Treat cavities 
as usual. 


Asphyxia is understood to mean that condition that 
results from the interruption or cessation of the function 
of respiration. 

Causes. — Disease of, or injury to, the medulla oblongata, 
producing paralysis of there spiratary nerve centers ; par- 
alysis of the nerves or muscles of respiration ; collapse or 
disease of the lungs ; closing of the air passages by tumors 
or spasms of the glottis ; by foreign bodies, suffocation, 
strangulation, hanging, drowning, etc. 

Anatomical Characters. — Dr. Ferrier says: " The blood 
is of a dark color, owing to complete reduction of the hemo- 
globin, and the proportion of carbonic acid is greatly in- 
creased. " The blood coagulates slowly or imperfectly, 
remaining fluid a long time, or forming only a few soft 


coagula. The right side of the heart, large venous trunks, 
and the pulmonary artery, are distended with dark blood. 
Sometimes the left side and large arteries are full, but 
more frequently they are empty or contain only a small 
quantity of dark blood. The capillaries of the face and 
neck may be more or less congested. The lungs may be 
congested, but more frequently are pale and anaemic. 
Hypostasis is present. The viscera of the abdomen are 
usually congested. 


In the treatment of asphyxia first ascertain whether 
death is present. When that is determined, place the 
body on the incline and remove the blood by tapping the 
heart. If discolorations remain in the face and neck apply 
the "ice poultice." Then inject the vascular system by 
the Champion Needle Process, or by raising an artery. 
Treat the cavities thoroughly and place the body on the 


In consequence of the extent to which opium and its 
preparations, including morphia, are used for the relief of 
pain, and the readiness with which the drug is procurable, 
poisoning by opium is of frequent occurrence; doubtless 
great numbers of infants perish every year in this country 
through the improper use of quack remedies containing 

Anatomical Characters. — The post mortem changes 
may be very slight. Generally the brain is congested, 
the puncta cruenta being especially marked; and the 
lungs and right side of the heart may exhibit an engorge- 
ment, as if from a modified asphyxia. This condition 
however is variable. 



The body should be placed on the incline and the blood 
withdrawn by tapping the heart. The arterial system 
should then be injected with all the fluid that it will re- 
ceive; also, fill the cavities very thoroughly. Inject fluid 
into the lungs through the trachea. Place the body on 
the level with the head only elevated. If trouble should 
supervene in the course of a few hours, such as the cellu- 
lar and other tissues of the body softening and filling with 
gas, place the body high on the incline, and remove the 
gas by inserting the trocar from above downward into the 
subcutaneous tissue. Before removing the trocar inject 
fluid. Repeat this in all parts of the body, injecting fluid 
at each point. A gallon or more may be injected in this 
manner. Also, reinject arteries; pump out and reinject 
the cavities; then replace the body on the level. If the 
body is treated in this manner the results will be satis- 



To inhale carbonic acid will produce fatal results sooner 
or later, owing to the degree of concentration. It accumu- 
lates in a very concentrated degree in pits, cellars, mines, 
old wells, lime kilns, fermenting vats, etc. When it is 
undiluted it is very rapidly fatal, as is seen when persons 
incautiously descend into an old well, or where miners 
enter a part of an old mine, or certain parts of a mine 
after an explosion. Death in these cases results very 

Morbid Anatomy. — The morbid condition is similar 
to that of asphyxia, viz. : a general engorgement of the 
venous system. The blood is dark and fluid and easily 

E.— 16 


withdrawn. The hemoglobin is completely reduced. The 
heat of the body is retained a long time after death. Rigor 
mortis is well marked and lasts a long time. 


Withdraw the blood by tapping the heart. Then fill the 
arteries and cavities in the usual manner. 


The deaths caused by charcoal fumes are due to carbonic 
oxide. Persons sleeping in close rooms in which the 
fumes escape from the stove or pipe are often asphyxiated. 
Death results quickly, as this gas is very poisonous. 

Morbid Anatomy. — The specially characteristic mor- 
bid appearance is the bright cherry-red color of the blood 
and of the internal organs. The post-mortem discoloration 
is of a similar red tint. Also, the face of those poisoned 
with this agent retains a ruddy hue. Death ensues from 
asphyxia ; therefore, a general engorgement of the venous 
system results ; heat of the body is retained for a long 
time ; the blood remains fluid ; rigor mortis is marked. 


Withdraw the blood by tapping the right auricle of the 
heart and inject the arterial system and cavities in the 
usual manner. 


Death caused by coal gas often occurs by accident. 
Persons not in the habit of burning gas for illuminating 
purposes leave the gas cocks open on account of not know- 
ing how to turn them off properly. Also, the gas is turned 
on in a close room for the purpose of committing suicide. 

Morbid Anatomy. — On opening the body the smell of 
gas is often very marked. The blood is of a dark color, 
which readily coagulates, causing congestion of the face 


and neck. The lung tissue is of a bright color; also, there 
is more or less froth in the air passages. 


To remove the congestion in the face and neck the 
blood should be withdrawn, or the ice and salt should be 
applied. Inject the arterial circulation thoroughly. Also, 
fill the cavities with fluid. 






(After Sternberg.) 

We have abundant evidence that an accidental infec- 
tion, through an open wound or abrasion of the skin, is 
the common mode of infection in tetanus, erysipelas, hos- 
pital gangrene, and the "traumatic infectious diseases" 
generally. Other infectious diseases may be transmitted 
in the same way. We have also satisfactory evidence that 
tuberculosis may be transmitted to man by the accidental 
inoculation of an open wound. 

The question whether infection may occur through the 
unbroken skin, has been studied by several bacteriologists, 
and an affirmative result obtained. 

Infection may also occur through the mucous mem- 
brane of the respiratory organs. This has been demon- 
strated by several bacteriologists, and especially by the 
experiments of Buchner, who mixed dried anthrax spores 
with lycopodium powder or pulverized charcoal, and 
caused mice and guinea pigs to respire an atmosphere 
containing this powder in suspension. In a series of sixty- 
six experiments, fifty animals died of anthrax (splenic 
fever), nine of pneumonia, and seven survived. That in- 
fection did not occur through the mucous membrane of 
the alimentary cana], was proved by comparative experi- 
ments in which animals were fed with double the quan- 
tity of spores used in the inhalation experiments. Out of 




thirty-five animals fed in this way, but few contracted 

That infection occurred through the lungs, was also 
demonstrated by the microscopical examinations of sec- 
tions and by culture experiments, which showed that the 
lungs were extensively invaded, while in many cases the 
spleen contained no bacilli. That man may be infected by 
anthrax, by way of the respiratory organs, seems to be 
well established. 

^ m 


No questions in general biology are more interesting or 
more important, from a practical point of view, than those 
which relate to the susceptibility of certain species of bac- 
teria, and the im- 
munity, natural 
or acquired, from 
such pathogenic 
action which is 
possessed by other 
animals. It has 
long been known 
that certain infec- 
tious diseases, 
now demonstrat- 
ed to be of bac- 
terial origin, pre- 
vail only, or prin- 
cipally, among 
animals of a sin- 
gle species. Thus, 
typhoid fever, cholera, and relapsing fever are diseases of 
man, and the lower animals do not suffer from them when 
they are prevailing as an epidemic. On the other hand. 

Fig. 31. 

Bacillus Cadaveris, Bmear preparation from liver of yd 
low fever cadaver, kej.t 48 hours in an antlceptic wrapping 
X 1000. From photomicrograph (Sternberg). 


man has a natural immunity from many of the infectious 
diseases of the lower animals. 

Exceptional susceptibility or immunity may be, to 
some extent, a family characteristic, or one of race. Thus, 
the negro race is decidedly less subject to yellow fever than 
the white race, and this disease is more fatal to the fair- 
skinned races of the north of Europe, than among the 
Latin races living in the tropical region. On the other 
hand, smallpox appears to be exceptionally fatal among 
negroes and dark-skinned races generally. 

In the infectious diseases of man, involving the system 
generally, a single attack commonly confers immunity 
from subsequent attacks. This is true of eruptive fevers, 
typhoid fever, yellow fever, mumps, whooping cough, and, 
to some extent at least, of syphilis. But it seems not to 
be the case in epidemic influenza (la grippe), in croupous 
pneumonia, or in Asiatic cholera, in which diseases second 
attacks not infrequently occur. 

In localized infectious diseases, such as diphtheria, ery- 
sipelas, and gonorrhoea, one attack is not protective. 
Croupous pneumonia should perhaps be grouped with 
diphtheria and erysipelas, as local infections with consti- 
tutional symptoms resulting from the absorption of tonic 
products. But typhoid fever, mumps and whooping cough, 
in which one attack gives immunity, are also localized in- 
fectious diseases. 

We are therefore able to group infectious diseases into 
two classes, in one of which there is general infection fol- 
lowed by immunity; and in the other a local infection 
without subsequent immunity. Indeed, in the eruptive 
fevers and specific, febrile, infectious diseases generally, 
the immunity following an attack is not absolute. 

Second attacks of smallpox, scarlet fever, and yellow 
fever, occur occasionally, although a large majority of those 


who suffer an attack of one of these diseases, hav T e an im- 
munity for life. On the other hand, in the diseases men- 
tioned, in which one attack is not generally recognized as 
protecting from future attacks, it is probable that a certain 
degree of immunity, of limited duration perhaps, is ac- 

In localized infection, as in gonorrhoea or erysipelas, 
the invaded tissues appear, after a time, to acquire a cer- 
tain tolerance to the pathogenic action of the invading 
parasite, and no doubt recovery from these diseases would 
in many cases, after a time, occur without medical assist- 

In diphtheria, cholera and epidemic influenza, second 
attacks do not often occur during the same epidemic, and 
there is reason to believe that a recent attack affords a cer- 
tain degree of immunity. That immunity may result from 
a comparatively mild attack, as well as from a severe one, 
is a matter of common observation in cases of smallpox, 
scarlet fever, yellow fever, etc. Since the discovery of 
Jenner, we have in vaccination a simple method of pro- 
ducing immunity in the first mentioned disease. 






Antony Van Leeuwenhoeck, in the year 1675, gave 
birth to the study of bacteriology, by observations he then 
made with his primitive microscope. Though it is during 
the past twenty years that the research injthis line has 
received its great- 
est impulse, yet it 
was developing for 
at least two cen- 
turies. Its' rela- 
tions to hygiene 
and preventive 
medicine are of 
the most impor- 
tant nature. Fig. 32 — Colonies of Bacteria. 

Indeed, modern hygiene owes much of its value to a 
more intimate acquaintance with the biological activities 
of the micro-organisms. Also, our knowledge in regard to 
infectious diseases has been developed to the present posi- 
tion. Though the contributions of the last few years have 
done more to place bacteriology on the footing of a science, 
yet, during the earlier years of its development, many were 
the observations made, which formed the groundwork for 
a great deal of that which has followed. 

Leeuwenhoeck was born in Holland in 1632. He was 
not considered liberally educated, as he had been appren- 
ticed in his early years to a linen draper. While an 



apprentice he learned the art of lens grinding, which en- 
abled him to perfect a lens by which he could see much 
smaller objects than had hitherto been seen by the micro- 
scopes in use at that time. He was still following in the 
trade of a linen draper in Amsterdam at the time he made 
his discoveries. In 1675 he published the fact that he 
could detect living, motile animalcules of the very small- 
est dimensions — smaller than anything that had hereto- 
fore been seen — by means of his perfected lens. Being 
encouraged by this discovery he continued his work to the 
examination of various other materials for the presence of 
animal life, as he considered it, in its most minute form. 
In sea water, in well water, in his own diarrhceal stools, and 
in the intestinal canal of frogs and birds, he found organisms 
whose morphology differed, and which also differed in the 
peculiarity of movement which some were seen to possess. 

In 16S3 he examined the tartar scraped from between 
the teeth, and discovered a form of micro-organism upon 
which he laid great stress. He made a contribution of this 
discovery, which was presented to the Royal Society of 
London on September 14, 1683. The particular impor- 
tance of this paper is because of the careful description 
given of an objective nature of the bodies seen by him, and 
for the illustrations which accompany it. There is little 
room for doubt that Leeuwenhoeck, with his primitive lens, 
had seen the bodies that we now recognize as bacteria. 
With the greatest astonishment he saw distributed every- 
where through the material which he was examining ani- 
malcules of the most microscopic dimensions, which moved 
themselves about in a remarkably energetic way. This 
was followed shortly after by other equally important ob- 

Speculation is absent throughout all of his work. His 
contributions are of a purely objective nature. 



Plenciz,. a Vienna physician, a believer in the work of 
Leeuwenhoeck, in 1762, made observations confirming the 
discoveries of the latter. He claimed a casual relation be- 
tween the micro-organisms discovered and described by 
Leeunwenhoeck and all infectious diseases. He also claimed 
that infection could be nothing else than a living sub- 
stance, and endeavored to explain the variations in the 
incubation period of the different 
infectious diseases on these grounds. 
He believed that the micro-organ- 
isms were capable of multiplying 
in the living body, and spoke of 
the possibility of its transmission 
through the air. He taught that 
each disease had its special germ, 
on the principle that only one kind 
of grain can grow from a given 

He found innumerable minute 
animalculse in all decomposing 
matter, and was so thoroughly con- 
vinced of their etiological relation 
to the process, that he formulated the law, that decomposi- 
tion can only take place when the decomposable material 
becomes coated with a layer of the organisms, and can 
proceed only when they increase and multiply. 

The arguments of Plenciz were looked upon by some, 
as the imaginations from an unbalanced mind, and by 
others as entirely absurd. 

Ozanam, in 1820, expressed himself on the subject as 
follows: "Many authors have written concerning the an- 
imal nature of the contagion of infectious diseases; many 
have indeed assumed it to be developed from animal sub- 
stances and that it is itself animal and possesses the 

Fig. 33. 

Bacillus Tuberculosus, from a cul- 
ture on glicerin-agar, X 1000. From 
a photomicrograph by Frankel and 


property of life. I shall not waste time in efforts to refute 
these absurd hypotheses." 

Many other medical men expressed similar opinions 
during this time, doubting the possibility of animal life 
existing in these micro-organisms. 

The true relation of the lower organisms to infectious 
diseases was established scientifically, just before the 
middle of the present century, by the coincidence of a 
number of important discoveries. The cause of putrefac- 
tion in beer and the souring of wine, by Pasteur; the 
finding of rod-shaped organisms in the blood of all the an- 
imals that die of splenic fever (anthrax), by Pollender and 
Davaine; and the knowledge upon the parasitic nature of 
certain diseases of plants, arouse attention to the old 
question of animal contagion. Henle was the first to 
logically teach this doctrine of infection. The principal 
point that had occupied the attention of scientific men 
from time to time, up to the middle of this century, was 
the origin of these micro-organisms. One side claimed that 
they descended from creatures that existed previously, of 
the same kind. Needham, in 1749, held firmly to the doc- 
trine of spontaneous generation as a result of vegetation 
changes in the substances in which they were found. He 
experimented with a grain of barley placed in a watch 
crystal of water, carefully covered, allowed it to germinate, 
and claimed that the bacteria that were present were the 
result of changes in the barley grain itself, incidental to 
its germination. 

Spallanzani, in 1769, drew attention to the laxity of 
Needham's methods, and demonstrated that if infusions of 
decomposable vegetable matter were placed in flasks, 
hermetically sealed, then allowed to remain in boiling 
water for some time, no living organisms nor decomposi- 
tion would appear in the infusion so treated. Objection 


was raised to this method, on the grounds that the high 
temperature to which the infusion had been raised had so 
altered them, and the air around them, that the favorable 
conditions no longer existed to spontaneous generation. 
To meet this objection, Spallanzani took one of his flasks 
that had been boiled and tapped it gently against some 
hard object until he produced a very minute crack; organ- 
isms and decomposition appeared, as in infusions that were 
not so treated. Very little advance was made from this 
time until 1836, when Schulze called attention to the sub- 
ject by his investigations. He allowed air, deprived of its 
organisms by passing through a strong acid or alkaline 
solution, to gain access to boiled infusions, and no living 
organisms nor decomposition appeared in the infusions. 

Schwann, in 1837, robbed air of its organisms by passing 
it through highly heated tubes into his infusions. 

Schroder and Von Dusch interposed cotton-wool between 
the infusion and the air, robbing the air of its micro- 
organisms as it passed into the infusions by filtration. 

Hoffman, in 1860, and Pasteur, in 1861, demonstrated 
that all that was necessary was to draw out the neck of 
the flask into a fine tube, bend it down along the side of 
the flask and then bend it up again a few inches from its 
extremity, and leave the mouth open, to prevent the access 
of bacteria to the infusion in the flask, as when boiled 
the drop of water of condensation in the lower angle will 
avert the organisms and none can enter the flask. Doubters 
still existed and some still held out for "spontaneous gen- 
eration," wanting further proof, when, in 1876-77, Prof. 
Tyndall made his investigations upon the floating matter 
in the air, and demonstrated that these organisms, being 
present in decomposing fluids, were always to be explained 
either by the preexistence of similar living forms in the 
infusion, or upon the walls of the vessel containing it, or, by 


the infusion having been exposed to air which had not been 
deprived of its organisms. 


In form, bacteria are unicellular and are seen to exist 
as spherical, rod or spindle-shaped bodies developed from 
preexisting cells of same character, not spontaneous. They 
are now classified into three groups with their subdivisions, 
the outline of which is a sphere, a rod, or a spiral. 
To these three divisions are given the names : 
Cocci, or Micro-cocci — spherical forms. 
Bacilli — oval or rod forms. 
Spirilli — twisted like a corkscrew. 
The duration and vitality of spores of different organ- 
isms varies from weeks to years. In all cases it exceeds 
that of the mature state, which is limited 
to that of hours. Whereas drying or drown- 
ing rapidly disposes of many active mi- 
crobes, they produce much less effect on 
spores. The importance of spore forma- 
tion depends upon the fact that spores are 
far more persistent and more resistant to 
mimical influence, than the microbes from 
which they are derived; this, combined 

Pus containing strep- ^ 7 7 

tocoeei,x8oo(Fiiig g e). ^vith their minuteness, facilitates their 
diffusion, and the dissemination of the diseases to which 
they give rise. 


An antiseptic is a body which, by its presence, prevents 
the growth of bacteria without of necessity killing them. 
A body may be an antiseptic without possessing disinfect- 
ing properties to any very high degree, but a disinfectant 
is always an antiseptic as well. 




The same obscurity hangs over the cause of smallpox 
as over those of many other diseases of the zymotic class, 
such as of measles and scarlatina. While, however, the 
causes of these two latter diseases seem still active, there 
is every probability that of smallpox has subsided, and 
that this disease has now no other source than human 
contagion. The poisonous material of smallpox is given 
out from the mucous and cutaneous surfaces of the patient, 
especially from the lungs and skin, and from the exhala- 
tions, the secretions, the excretions, the matter in the 
vessels and pustules, and the scabs. These all contain the 
noxious germs of the disease, which may attach them- 
selves to bedclothes, body cloths, and especially to woolen, 
cotton and felten articles. Such stuffs retain the specific 
poison for a very long but undetermined period, just as 
the hat, cap and coat worn in the dissecting room retains 
the peculiar odor of the place for a very long period. It 
is not yet determined at what period the poison is gener- 
ated by the patient's person, whether during the primary 
fever or not till after the eruption has appeared; but it is 
probably secreted during the primary fever. Generally 
it may be stated that the poison is most powerful when it 
is most manifest to the sense of smell; that the dried 

E.— 17 (257) 


crusts of the pustules or scabs possess a contagious quality 
and retain it for a very long time, and it is unsafe for a 
susceptible person to be in the same room or in the same 
house pervaded by the disease. The dead body of a 
variolated person is equally infectious, and students who 
have been near it when brought into the dissecting room 
have in consequence fallen ill of the disease. The infect- 
ing distance must therefore be many yards around the 
patient's room. The fact of the contagious nature of 
smallpox has been fully demonstrated by the one general 
practice of inoculation, and the poison by this operation 
has been proved to exist in the serum, in the pus, and in 
the crusts of the smallpox pustule. There is no law more 
singular and unexpected in the whole range of morbid 
poisons than that the introduction of the variolous poison 
by means of the cutaneous tissue should produce an in- 
finitely milder disease than when the same poison is ab- 
sorbed by a mucous tissue. The causes which predispose 
to smallpox, or increase the susceptibility of infection, are: 

(1) A very early age. 

(2) Not having been vaccinated. 

(3) Not having had the disease before. 
Such are called unprotected persons. 

(4) Peculiarity of constitution, e. g., the negro and dark 

(5) Fear of infection. 

(6) Epidemic influences. 

It is very gratifying to know that of recent years the 
prevalence and mortality of smallpox is greatly less than 
it was wont to be. 

The prognosis of the natural smallpox is always most 
grave. The danger may be measured to a certain degree, by: 

(1) The quantity and confluence of the eruption. 

(2) The state of the circulating fluids. 


(3) The presence and nature of the respiratory organs 
and nervous centers. 

(4) Age and habit of the patient. 

(5) Nature of the epidemic constitution which may pre- 

According to some authorities the greatest number die 
on the eighth day, others say the eleventh, and others be- 
tween the eleventh and eighteenth. 


Thousands of physicians concur in confirming the belief 
in the prophylactic and modifying influence of vaccination 
in smallpox. The conclusions now arrived at regarding 
vaccination maybe summed up in the following statements: 

(1) That, vaccination is a safe and efficient protection, 
and confers an immunity upon those who mingle with 
smallpox cases. 

(2) That, there is no important difference between the 
protecting power of varioloid and vaccinia during child- 
hood, under circumstances of ordinary exposure. With 
regard to severe exposure, there are no facts to determine 
one way or the other. 

(3) That, there are no facts to determine the compara- 
tive protective power of varioli and vaccination in adults 
under ordinary exposure, but there is abundant proof of 
the enormous amount of protection afforded by vaccina- 

(4) That, adults severely exposed relying in what is 
ordinarily termed vaccination will probably take smallpox, 
though of a modified nature, in a greater ratio than those 
having previously had smallpox by inoculation. 

(5) That, if vaccination has been thorough and efficient, 
it is extremely probable that the liability to smallpox 
under severe exposure is not greater than after inoculation. 


(6) That, those statements are entirely without founda- 
tion which speak of smallpox after inoculation as a risk 
hardly exceeding a possibility and never to be taken into 
account, while smallpox after vaccination is represented as 
a thing of daily and constant occurrence. 

(7) That, the representation that the protection afforded 
by vaccination gradually wears out till at length it leaves 
the system as liable to attack as though protection had 
never been imparted, is not only unproved but is opposed 
to important facts and in all probability will turn out to 
be unfounded. 

(8) That, there is, however, a great proclivity to small- 
pox, whether natural or after vaccination, between the ages 
of fifteen and twenty-five. 

(9) That, the mortality from smallpox has decreased 
since vaccination was introduced. 


Diphtheria is an acute infectious disease, produced by 
a diphtheritic bacillus. It is characterized by local mani- 
festations in the throat and larynx, by a false membrane, 
sometimes extending into the posterior nares, sometimes 
throughout the larynx, trachea and bronchi. There is no 
doubt of the disease being constitutional; that is, the 
poison is absorbed by the blood and carried to all the tis- 
sues of the body. As the disease has become more preva- 
lent, the great object of the physician has been to stay its 
ravages in some manner. 


Therefore, the bacteriologists have studied the disease 
with a view not only to lessen the gravity and introduce 
a specific treatment, bat to give immunity against the 
disease, by a similar process to that of vaccination as a 


preventive to smallpox. Bacteriologists in America and 
Europe have given this matter thorough study, and, as a 
result, have introduced to the profession a material now 
known as antitoxin, which counteracts the toxic effects 
of the diphtheritic poison. 

Dr. Behring (Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift, 1894, 
No. 36), has ably summed up the blood serum theraputic 
method as follows : 

First. — It is an antitoxic method by which we endeavor 
to combat this infectious disease. The specific antitoxin, 
which is the active agent, has until now been found in 
quantities sufficient to be available for human medication, 
only in the blood of immunized animals. 

Second. — It is a principle of the blood serum therapy 
that large doses are never injurious, but on the contrary 
can be only beneficial. 

Third. — The blood serum therapy is a specific therapy. 
The blood antitoxin is immunizing and curative only for 
the infection. 

Fourth. — Under the influence of a specific toxin there 
is produced a specific antitoxin from the albumen of the 
living cell. Whilst this is going on there is a disturbance 
of the regulating mechanism of the general organism. 
The febrile and other symptoms of the toxic infection are 
an expression of the effort of the living organism to render 
the foreign poison innocuous. In animal experiments we 
can so arrange things that the living organism succeeds. 
In immunizing animals we can render the absorption of 
large quantities of the poison harmless by increasing the 
toxin production. 

Fifth. — If we examine the fluids of the body after 
recovery from an artificial or natural toxic infection, we 
find not only that the toxin is compensated by the anti- 
toxin, but that there is a surplus of the latter. This sur- 


plus is the reason why a larger quantity of the toxin mast 
now be introduced, in order to produce an intoxication. 
And this surplus can be employed to help other individuals 
to overcome the same intoxication. 

Sixth. — Since the antitoxin is a soluble body, it is not 
impossible that it may eventually be produced outside the 
living body, or even compounded synthetically. 


Our knowledge regarding the pathology of tetanus 
until recently has been very limited. The symptoms 
which characterize this affection were referable to an 
abnormal influence of the nerve centers, which control the 
action of the voluntary muscles. But since the progress in 
bacteriology our knowledge has been much increased in 
this respect. Tetanus has been found to be produced by a 
specific bacillus, known as the bacillus tetani. 

Nicolaier, in 1884, produced tetanus in mice and rab- 
bits, by introducing garden earth beneath their skin, and 
showed that the disease might be transmitted to other 
animals by inocculation with pus or cultures in blood 
serum, containing the tetanus bacillus. 

Sternberg, in 1880, produced tetanus in a rabbit by 
injecting beneath its skin a little mud from the street 
gutters in New Orleans. 

Tetanus bacillus appears to be a widely distributed mi- 
croorganism in superficial layers of the soil in temperate 
and especially in tropical regions. 


If used in its fresh state, has been found to produce immu- 
nity from the disease, and is said to be curative by some 
that have experimented with this antitoxin. 




Disinfection, strictly speaking, implies dealing with in- 
fection, but, in its popular and wider sense, it embraces 
purification in all its applications. The burning of vola- 
tile substances, the libations of liquids and the sprinkling 
of powdery compounds on a large scale, are now recog- 
nized as feeble or futile substitutes for physical and chem- 
ical means of destroying infection. 

Stable and unstable, organic and inorganic, substances 
are dealt with either by physical or chemical means, in the 
process of cleansing and purification. We apply physical 
means to movable matters, without regard to their preser- 
vation, by removing by road or water, and disposing of 
them upon the surface, or by burial, or by burning, accord- 
ing to the proximity of dwellings, and other conditions. 
Such objects as are not removable are washed, scraped, 
etc., the resultant refuse being taken away or destroyed in 
some way. There are other methods which with the 
above should be adopted in preference to the more tem- 
porary measures resorted to by the use of chemicals for the 
purpose of treating organic decomposing matters. It is 
this process of chemical treatment of decomposable refuse 
that popularly and fallaciously passes under the name of 
disinfection. This is fostered by the popular habit of 
styling many and varied substances disinfectants. 



Decomposition and putrefaction are the result of micro- 
organic life in the beneficent work of resolving organic 
substances into their inocuous elements. During this 
transmutation malodorous gases are given off, and deodor- 
ants, whether by overpowering or by absorbing, or by 
breaking up the gases, produce little or no effect upon the 
decomposing substances. Odors are the tell-tales of filth, 
and simply washing them is a fallacious remedy. To pre- 
vent the odoriferous stage being reached, preservation 
against decomposition is practiced by the use of antisep- 
tics, but their application is limited to substances and 
places where removal or destruction are undesirable, 
temporarily or permanently, and they require careful and 
discriminate employment to be of value in preventing the 
effects of access of micro-organisms. 

Incidentally it may be mentioned that food is pre- 
served by physical means, as cold, exclusion or filtration 
of air, and by chemical means, as smoking, salting, and the 
use of other chemical substances. Their interest here 
only lies in the fact that preservatives are allied closely to 
antiseptics in their effects on organic substances. 

The only antiseptics that should be used are those 
which not only inhibit microscopic life, but are directly 
fatal to it as germicides. This implies the actual destruc- 
tion of the germs, and the measure of this power requires 
more exact verification than the mere prevention of de- 
composition, which antiseptics may be held to infer, 
although many germicides, in a diluted or weakened state, 
become or act as antiseptics. 

Disinfection, in a more restricted and accurate sense, 
implies the destruction of the infection produced by the 
specific micro-organisms of disease, as distinguished from 
pollution by micro-organic life generally. Although it 
must be admitted that our knowledge as yet scarcely 


enables us to draw any sharp line between pathogenic and 
nonpathogenic organisms, and especially in reference to 
the causation of septic diseases, yet, in the recognized in- 
fectious diseases, whether the specific organisms have been 
found or not, disinfection is applied to the destruction of 
the specific infection. The only means of judging whether 
this destruction is effectually accomplished is by actual 
experiment upon cultivations of known microbes, a method 
that has largely displaced the earliest rough process of 
measurement by the retardation of decomposition. Thus, 
restricted to the destruction of specific infection, the proc- 
ess of disinfection admits of the application of various 
measures by mechanical means, and by physical and chem- 
ical agencies. Some of the physical means are cleansing, 
exposure to air, heat (as burning), steam, dry heat, etc. 
Moist heat (steam) is by far the most efficacious. Dry heat 
is distributed too unequally, so that it does not penetrate 
bulky articles. 

Of the vast number of chemical agents vaunted as disin- 
fectants, very few possess any true germicidal power. A 
certain number are more or less antiseptic ; a large number 
are merely deodorant, and many are more or less inert. 

The efficacy of a germicide depends upon the quantity 
in which it is used and the length of time during which it 
is allowed to act. A true disinfectant may be used in such 
small quantity, or may be diluted so largely by the medium 
to be disinfected, that its action may be reduced to infin- 
itesimal proportions, and in actual practice this is what 
usually occurs. 

Koch's experiments upon anthrax spores, with a large 
number of chemical agents in solution, showed that they 
were killed within one day's exposure only by the follow- 
ing : chlorin bromine (2 per cent.), iodine, mercuric ehlo- 
rid (1 per cent.), potassic permanganate (5 per cent.), 


osmic acid (1 per cent.). Oil of turpentine (pure) required 
five days' exposure ; hydrochloric acid (2 per cent.), ten 
days ; ferric chlorid (5 per cent.), six days ; chlorid of 
lime (5 per cent.), five days ; and formic acid, four days. As 
disinfection under ordinary conditions must be completed 
rather in minutes than in hours, the latter class is out of 
the question. Of the former, osmic acid is not fitted for 
practical use, and the quantity of permanganate of potash 
required would be excessive. There remain, therefore, 
mercuric chlorid and the halogens. Mercuric chlorid has 
been shown to be the most powerful disinfectant in solu- 
tion known at present. 

Koch found that one part per million checked the 
growth of anthrax bacilli, and three parts arrested it, and 
that one part per thousand killed the spores of anthrax in 
ten minutes. Klein's experiments were in the main con- 
firmatory, but required stronger solutions to produce the 
same results. It is these differences of results, due to 
varying conditions, in experiments with disinfectants, that 
render it difficult to estimate their true value. Carbolic 
acid has lost its high reputation in the hands of Koch. He 
found that it required a one per cent, solution of phenol 
more than one day to kill spores: hence, a ten per cent, 
solution one day to destroy the infection of tuberculous 
sputum. The halogens — iodine, bromine and chlorin — 
are used in the form of gases in a similar manner to nit- 
rous and sulphurous acid gases. 

Abbott says, "In the destruction of bacteria by means 
of chemical substances, there occurs most probably a 
definite chemical reaction ; that is to say, the character- 
istics of both the bacteria and the agent employed in their 
destruction are lost in the production of a third body, the 
result of their combination. It is impossible to say with 
absolute certainty, as yet, that this is the case, but the 


evidence that is rapidly accruing from the more recent 
studies upon disinfectants and their mode of action, 
point strongly to the accuracy of this belief. This reaction, 
in which the typical structure of both bodies concerned 
is lost, takes place between the agent employed for disin- 
fection and the protoplasm of the bacteria. For example, 
in the reaction that is seen to take place between the salts 
of mercury and albuminous bodies, there results a third 
compound, which has neither the characteristics of mer- 
cury nor of albumin, but partakes of the peculiarities of 
both; it is a combination of albumin and mercury known 
by the indefinite term albuminate of mercury. Some such 
reaction as this occurs when the soluble salts of mercury 
are brought in contact with bacteria. He says, further, 
that this view has recently been strengthened by the ex- 
periments of Geppert, in which the reaction was caused to 
take place between the spores of the anthrax bacillus and 
a solution of mercuric chlorid, the result being the ap- 
parent destruction of the living properties of the spores by 
the formation of this third compound. Still, it did not of 
necessity imply the complete death of the protoplasm of 
the spores, for if by proper means the combination of mer- 
cury with their protoplasm was broken up, many of the 
spores returned from apparent death to life, with their 
previous disease-producing and cultural peculiarities. 
Geppert employed a solution of ammonium sulphid for the 
purpose of destroying the combination of spore-protoplasm 
and mercury. The mercury was precipitated from the 
protoplasm as an insoluble sulphid, and the protoplasm of 
the spores returned to its original condition. 

" These and other similar experiments have given a new 
impulse to the study of disinfectants, and in the light shed 
by them many of our previously formed ideas concerning 
the action of disinfecting agents must be modified. We 


must use a disinfectant sufficiently strong and enough of 
it to destroy the bacteria in the material that we wish to 

" For example, the disinfection of certain kinds of mate- 
rial containing pathogenic organisms, such as sputa, excrete 
or blood, by means of corrosive sublimate, is questionable. 
The amount of sublimate may be used up and rendered 
inactive as a disinfectant by the presence of the albumi- 
nous bodies without having any effect upon the bacteria 
which may be in the matter. Although, as a matter of 
fact, I brieve that if a solution strong enough and a sufficient 
quantity be used in contact ivith the bacteria for a long enough 
time, it will insure their destruction. " 




Arranged Alphabetically. 

Alum: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 1:222. 

Aluminum Acetate: — According to Dela Croix, this salt 
is an antiseptic in the proportion of 1:6310. — (Kiihne.) 

Aluminum Chlorid: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 
l:7U. — (Miquel) 

Ammonium Carbonate: — When present in the propor- 
tion of 1:125, it restrains the development of typhoid 
bacilli, and in five hours it kills them. The cholera spiril- 
lum is killed, in the same time, by 1:77. — (Kitasato.) 

Ammonium Chlorid: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 
1:$. —(Miquel.) 

Ammonium Fluosilicate: — The bacilli of anthrax and 
typhoid fever fail to grow in nutrient gelatin containing 
1:1000, and a two per cent, solution kills anthrax spores 
in from one to three quarters of an hour. — (Koch.) 

Ammonium Sulphate: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 
\\L— (Miquel.) 

Barium Chlorid: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 1:10. 

Calcium Chlorid: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 1:25. 
— (Miquel.) 



Calcium Hypochlorite : — This is a powerful germicidal 
agent and has great value as a practical disinfectant. 
Good chlorid of lime contains from twenty-five to thirty 
per cent, of available chlorin as hypochlorite. The 
experiments made by the Committee on Disinfectants 
of the American Public Health Association, in 1885, 
showed that a solution, containing 0.25 per cent, of chlo- 
rin as hypochlorite, is an effective germicide, even when 
allowed to act only for one or two minutes. In Bolton's 
experiments, a solution of chlorid of lime of 1:2000 
(available chlorin 0.015) destroyed the typhoid bacillus 
and the cholera spirillum in two hours. For the destruc- 
tion of anthrax spores a one per cent, solution (avail- 
able chlorin 0.015) was required. Nissen found that 
the typhoid bacillus and the cholera spirillum are 
destroyed with certainty, in five minutes, by a solution 
containing 0.12 per cent. 

Chloral Hydrate: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 1:107. 

— (Miquel) 
Cupri Chlorid: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 1:1428. — 


Cupri Sulphate: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 1:111 
— (Miquel.) Kills the cholera spirillum in the propor- 
tion of 1:3000 in ten minutes. A solution of 1:20 kills 
the typhoid bacillus in ten minutes. In Bolton's ex- 
periments made for the Committee on Disinfectants of 
the American Public Health Association, the following 
results were obtained: Bacillus of typhoid fever were 
killed by solution, 1:200; cholera spirillum, 1:500; and 
bacillus pyocyanus, 1 :200. 

Ferri Chlorid: — A five per cent, solution failed, in two 
days, to destroy anthrax spores, but succeeded in de- 
stroying them in five days. — (Koch.) 


Ferrous Sulphate: — In the writer's experiments in 1883, 
a solution of twenty per cent, failed to destroy micro- 
cocci and putrefactive bacteria. In more recent exper- 
iments, a solution of ten per cent, failed to kill pus 
cocci, but was fatal to micrococcus tetragenus, after two 
hours' exposure. The antiseptic power of ferrous sul- 
phate is placed by Miquel at 1 :90. 

Gold Chlorid: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 1:4000. 

Lead Chlorid: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 1:500. 

Lead Nitrate: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 1:11. — 

Manganese Protochlorid: — A solution of 1:1000 de- 
stroys anthrax spores in a few minutes. — (Koch.) 
According to Yersin, a solution of 1:1000 kills the 
tubercle bacillus in one minute. This is a valuable 
agent as an antiseptic and germicide for general pur- 
poses of disinfection, in the proportion of 1 :500 or 

Mercuric Cyanide: — The development of bacillus an- 
thracis in culture solution is prevented by the presence 
of cyanide of mercury in the proportion of 1:250000. 

Mercuric Iodide: — The antiseptic value of this salt is 
placed by Miquel at 1:40000. 

Morphia Hydrochlorate : — Antiseptic in the proportion 
of 1:400.— (Miquel) 

Platinum Bichlorid: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 
1:3333.— (Miquel) 

Potassium Acetate: — A saturate solution of this salt 
failed to kill anthrax spores in ten days. — (Koch.) 

Potassium Arsenite: — Miquel places its antiseptic value 
at 1:8. 


Potassium Bichromate: — Efficient as an antiseptic in 
the proportion of 1:909. — (Miquel) 

Potassium Bromide: — The bacillus of typhoid fever and 
the cholera spirillum failed to grow in culture solu- 
tions containing 9:10.6 per cent, and were killed in 
five hours by one per cent. — (Kitasato.) 

Potassium Chromate: — A five per cent, solution failed 
to kill anthrax spores in five days. — (Koch.) 

Potassium Cyanide: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 
1:909.— (Miquel.) 

Potassium Iodide: — A five per cent, solution does not 
destroy anthrax spores in eighty days. — (Koch.) Pu- 
trefactive bacteria in broken-down beef infusion are not 
destroyed by two hours' exposure in a twenty per cent. 
solution. — (Sternberg.) It is antiseptic in the propor- 
tion of 1:7.— (Miquel) 

Potassium Permanganate: — Antiseptic, according to 
Miquel, in the proportion of 1 :285. 

Quinine Hydrochlorate: — Antiseptic in the proportion 
of 1 :9000. — (Cert.) Quinine dissolved with hydrochloric 
acid in a one per cent, solution destroys anthrax spores 
in ten days. 

Quinine Sulphate: — Prevents development of various 
micrococci and bacilli in the proportion of 1 :800. 

Silver Nitrate:— Miquel places this next to mercuric 
chlorid as an efficient antiseptic, in the proportion of 
1:12500. Behring also places it next to bichlorid as an 
antiseptic and germicide, and claims it is even superior 
to this salt in aluminous fluids. 

Silver Chlorid: — A solution of chlorid of silver in hypo- 
sulphite of soda is, as an antiseptic, much less effective 
than nitrate of silver. 

Sodium Borate: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 1:14. 
— (Miquel.) 


Sodium Carbonate: — A solution of 2.2 per cent, restrains 
the growth of typhoid bacillus, and one of 2.47 per 
cent, that of the cholera spirillum. — (Kitasato.) 

Sodium Chlorid: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 1:6. 

— (Miquel.) 

Sodium Hyposulphite: — Antiseptic in the proportion of 
1:3.— (Miquel) 

Sodium Sulphite: — The result of the writer's experi- 
ments with a saturated solution of this salt, was entirely 

Tin Chlorid: — A one per cent, solution, acting for two 
hours, destroyed the bacteria in putrefying bouillon. 

— (Abbott.) 

Zinc Chlorid: — In the writer's experiments, 1:200 de- 
stroyed micrococcus Pasteuri in two hours. Antiseptic 
in the proportion of 1 :526. — (Miquel.) 

Zinc Sulphate: — A twenty per cent, solution has failed 
to destroy micrococci from the pus of an abcess in two 

E.— 18 




After years of experimenting and investigation, we 
have arrived at the conclusion that the following are the 
best disinfectants known to science: 

The Best Agents for Destroying Spore Containing 
Infectious Material Are: 

Complete destruction by fire. 

Strong steam pressure, 105° C. (221°F.) for half an hour. 

Boiling in saturated salt solution one pound to a 

Chlorid of lime, an eight per cent, solution. 

Bichlorid solution of 1 :500. 

For Destruction of Micro-organisms Not Con- 
taining Spores: 

Boiling in water for half an hour. 

Dry heat, 110°C. (230°F.) for two or three hours. 

Chlorid of lime, a four per cent, solution. 

Chlorinated soda, a ten per cent, solution. 

Bichlorid of mercury, a solution of 1 :2000. 

Carbolic acid, a ten per cent, solution. 

Zinc chlorid, a ten per cent, solution. 

Sulphur dioxide, a fumigation of at least twelve hours 
in the presence of moisture. 



For Exerementitious Matter in Sick Room: 

Chlorid of lime in solution, four per cent. 

Carbolic acid in solution, five per cent. 

Sulphate of copper in solution, five per cent. 

In Privy Vaults: 

Mercuric chlorid in solution, 1:500. 

Carbolic acid in solution, five per cent. 

For Disinfection and Deodorization of Surface 
Matter in Water Closets: 

Chlorid of lime, in powder. 

For Clothing, Bedding, etc.: 

Boiling for at least one hour. 

Immersion in a four per cent, solution of carbolic acid 
for four hours. 

For Outer Garments of Wool or Silk: 

A strong current of steam for fifteen minutes. 

Exposure to a dry heat at a temperature of 110°C. 
(230°F.) for three hours. 

For Mattresses, Blankets, and All Bedding Soiled 
by the Discharge of the Sick: 

Destruction by fire. 

Exposure to super-heated steam, 105° C. (221° F.) for 
half an hour — mattresses to have the covers freely 

Immersion in boiling water for one hour. 

For Furniture, etc.: 

Washing several times with a solution of carbolic acid, 
five per cent. 

For the Person: 

The hands and body may be washed with a solution of 
chlorinated soda diluted with nine parts of water, 1:10. 

Carbolic acid, a ten per cent, solution. 

Mercuric chlorid, 1:1000. 


For the Dead: 

Envelop the body in a sheet thoroughly saturated with 
a four per cent, solution of chlorid of lime. 

Mercuric bichlorid solution, 1 :500. 

Carbolic acid solution, five per cent. 

For Sick Rooms: 

Wash all surfaces with bichlorid of mercury in solu- 
tion, 1:500. 

Carbolic acid in solution, ten per cent. 

Fumigate with sulphur dioxide for twelve hours, burn- 
ing at least three pounds of sulphur to every thousand 
cubic feet of air in the room. 

Wash all surfaces with one of the above solutions and 
afterwards with soap and boiling water; then ventilate 
freely by opening doors and windows. 

A More Desirable Method would be the following: 
Take for an ordinary sized room containing about 1000 cu- 
bic feet of air, two pounds of chlorid of lime. Place in an 
earthen dish. Mix six ounces of muriatic acid with a quart 
of water, and pour the mixture on the lime. Keep the room 
tightly closed for four hours, then ventilate by opening 
doors and windows. Furniture may be washed as in di- 
rection given above. 

For Rags: 

Rags used for wiping infectious sores should be burned. 

For Disinfection of the Hands: 

Remove all visible dirt from the finger nails. Brush 
the hands thoroughly with hot water and soap. Immerse 
the hands for ten minutes in a bichlorid solution, seven 
grains to the pint. Rub thoroughly with a clean towel. 






Definition. — The recovery from suspended animation 
or apparent death. In these conditions of course all signs 
of circulation and respiration have disappeared, but usu- 
ally the failure of one function has preceded the other. 
For the purpose of treatment we may regard as 

(a) Syncope, those cases when the lips and mucous 
membrane are found pale and exsanguine; and as 

(b) Asphyxia, those when they are dark colored. 


Place the patient horizontally on his left side, with the 
pelvis and feet raised. Nelaton has urged complete inver- 
sion of the body, but by its interference with the free 
action of the diaphragm this method may be injurious. 
The windows of the room should be opened ; the face 
fanned and a little cold water may be sprinkled on the 
forehead, smelling salts being held to the nostrils. If nat- 
ural breathing has not returned, begin 


Position of Patient. — Face upwards; a hard roll be- 
neath thorax, with shoulders slightly declining over it. 
Head and neck bent back to the utmost. Hands on top 
of the head. Strip clothing from waist and neck. 

Position of Operator . — Kneel astride of patient's hips; 
place your hands upon his chest so that the ball of each 
thumb and little finger rest upon the inner margin of the 
free border of the costal cartilages, the tip of each thumb 



near or upon the ensiform cartilage, the fingers dipping 
into the corresponding intercostal spaces. Fix your elbows 
firmly, making them one with your hips. 

Action of Operator. — Pressing upwards and inwards 
towards the diaphragm, use your knees as a pivot, and throw 
your weight slowly forwards two or three seconds, until 
your face almost touches that of your patient, ending with a 
sharp push which helps to jerk you back to your erect 
kneeling posture. Rest three seconds, then repeat this 
movement as before, continuing it at the rate of seven to 
ten times a minute, taking the utmost care in the occur- 
rence of a natural gasp, gently to aid and deepen it into a 
longer breath, until respiration becomes natural. The 
method is said to keep the passage through the larynx free 
without the aid of any assistance or any contrivance for the 
purpose, and is recommended for that reason. Keep up 
the temperature of the body by hot blankets or hot bottles. 
Ether or nitrate of amyl may be held to the nostrils. A 
little brandy and hot water, eau de cologne and water, 
wine or other stimulant, as sulphuric ether or sal volatile, 
should be given with care, that none of it enter the trachea, 
If swallowing be impracticable, inject warm fluids into the 


Asphyxia from Breathing Noxious Gases. — The 

body should be brought into fresh air and artificial respi- 
ration at once commenced, whilst an assistant should blow 
into the mouth and nostrils three or four times ; apply hot 
blankets and hot water bottles. 

Asphyxia from Mechanical Obstructions of the Air 
Passages. — The cause of obstruction must be removed, if 
possible. By adopting the inverted position of Howard's 
method, coins or fruit stones may thus dislodge themselves. 
In the absence of forceps, a button hook or the handle of a 


tablespoon may be useful, especially in the removal of a 
lump of hard food. 

Asphyxia from Poisons or Anaesthetics. — In the 

asphyxia of advancing coma from narcotics, the breathing 
may stop from the failure of the medulla and respiratory 
nerves to act. In this case artificial respiration by simply 
compressing the chest at intervals of five seconds may 
suffice, but very often there is the mechanical obstruction 
in the larynx to be considered. If raising the chin and 
throwing the head back does not effect a free passage of 
air, Howard's or some other method of artificial respiration 
should be commenced. 


Asphyxia from Drowning. — In asphyxia from im- 
mersion in the water there are two serious complications, 
namely, first, the presence of water and mud in the air 
passages ; and secondly, the depressing effect of cold. With 
the view of more effectually removing the water from the 
air tubes, Howard gives the following rules : 

Position of Patient. — Face downwards; a hard roll of 
clothing underneath the stomach making that the highest 
part, the mouth the lowest. Forehead resting on forearm 
or wrist. Keeping mouth from ground. 

Position and Action of Operator. — Place left hand 
well spread upon the base of thorax to the left of spine, the 
right hand upon the spine, a little below the left and over 
the lower part of the stomach. Throw upon them with a 
forward motion all the weight and force the age and sex 
of the patient will justify, ending this pressure of two or 
three seconds by a sharp push, which helps you back again 
into the upright position. Eepeat this two or three times, 
according to the duration of the immersion and then resort 
to the method described in the treatment of syncope. 



If from drowning or from other suffocation or narcotic 
poisoning: Send immediately for medical assistance, 
blankets and dry clothing, but proceed to treat the patient 
instantly, securing as much pure air as possible. 

The points to be aimed at are, first and immediately, 
the restoration of breathing ; and secondly, after breathing 
is restored, the promotion of warmth and circulation. 

The efforts to save life must be persevered in until the 
arrival of medical assistance, or until the pulse and breath- 
ing have ceased for at least an hour. 


A stroke of lightning is not necessarily fatal in spite of 
the popular notion to the contrary. Prof. Oliver Lodge 
warns the public against this belief. He says that light- 
ning stops the vital organs, but rarely destroys them. If 
respiration can be artificially maintained sufficiently long, 
there is a fair chance that the heart will resume its sus- 
pended action, and that the victim will recover. Conse- 
quently, a person struck by lightning should never be 
pronounced dead, until Howard's method of resuscitation, 
explained above, has been practiced upon the apparent 
corpse for two or three hours. Dr. d' Arson val. in France, 
has practiced this method with success, and strenuously 
urges its adoption. Experience in this country also justi- 
fies the practice. This is a matter of great importance, 
for, although comparatively few people are killed by light- 
ning in this country, it seems probable enough that the 
number could be still further reduced by practicing artifi- 
cial respiration. 


Rule 1. — To Maintain a Free Entrance of Air Into 
the Windpipe: — Cleanse the mouth and nostrils; open 


the mouth ; draw forward the patient's tongue and keep it 
forward. An elastic band over the tongue and under the 
chin will answer this purpose. Remove all tight clothing 
from about the chest and neck. 

Rule 2. — To Adjust the Patient's Position: — Place 
the patient on his back on a flat surface, incline a little 
from the feet upwards, raise and support the head and 
shoulders on a small firm cushion or folded article of 
dress placed under the shoulders. 

Rule 3. — To Imitate the Movements of Breathing": 
— Grasp the patient's arms just above the elbows and draw 
the arms steadily and gradually upward, until they meet 
above the head, and keep the arms in that position for two 
seconds. (This is for the purpose of drawing air into the 
lungs.) Then turn down the patient's arms, and press them 
gently and firmly for two seconds against the sides of the 
chest. (This is with the object of pressing air out of the 
lungs. Pressure on the breastbone will aid this.) Repeat 
these measures alternately, deliberately and perseveringly, 
fifteen times a minute, until a spontaneous effort to respire 
is perceived, immediately upon which cease to imitate the 
movements of breathing and proceed to induce circulation 
and warmth. Should a warm bath be procurable the body 
may be placed in it up to the neck, continuing to imitate 
the movements of breathing. Raise the body in twenty 
seconds to a sitting posture, and dash cold water against 
the chest and face and pass ammonia under the nose. The 
patient should not be kept in the warm bath longer than 
five or six minutes. 

Rule 4. — To Excite Inspiration: — During the em- 
ployment of the above method, excite the nostrils with 
snuff or smelling salts, or tickle the throat with a feather ; 
rub the chest and face briskly, and dash cold and hot water 
alternately on them. 



Rule 1. — To Induce Circulation and Warmth: — 

Wrap the patient in dry blankets and commence rubbing 
the limbs upwards firmly and energetically. Promote the 
warmth of the body by the application of hot flannels, 
bottles or bladders of hot water, hot bricks, etc., to the pit 
of the stomach, armpits, between the thighs, and at the 
soles of the feet. Warm clothing can generally be had 
from the bystanders. When swallowing has returned, a 
teaspoonf ul of warm water, small quantities of wine, warm 
brandy and water or coffee should be given. Sleep should 
be encouraged. During the reaction large mustard poultices 
applied to the chest will relieve the distressed breathing. 

Rule 2. — If from Intense Cold: — Rub the body with 
some ice or cold water. Restore warmth by slow degrees. 
It is dangerous to apply heat too early. 

Rule 3. — If from Intoxication: — Lay the individual 
on his side on a bed, with his head raised. The patient 
should be induced to vomit. 

Rule 4. — If from Apoplexy or Sunstroke: — Cold 
should be applied to the head which should be kept raised. 
Tight clothing should be removed and stimulants cau- 
tiously used. 


How soon should alcoholic stimulants be giveu ? Cer- 
tainly not till natural respiration has been induced, and, in 
cases of narcotic poisoning, not until consciousness has 
been restored. If on the return of consciousness the patient 
is in pain or faint, the inhalation of a few drops of ether or 
smelling salts is advised. In their absence a few drops of 
brandy may be given. Hot tea and coffee should be the first 
refreshment swallowed, and in general it should not be 
pressed upon the pa'tient as vomiting is more exhausting 
than waiting a few hours for food, 



Post-Mortem Wounds. 

Post-mortem wounds are poisoned wounds resulting 
from the inoculation of a virus derived from the dead 
bodies of men or lower animals. The poison is present in 
its most virulent form in fresh bodies, and diminished in 
intensity as decomposition advances. It is most marked 
when inoculation occurs in handling cases of septic peri- 
tonitis or pleurisy, pyaemia, septicaemia, puerperal fever, 
diffuse cellulitis, erysipelas or spreading gangrene. The 
poison only acts by direct inoculation, usually occurring 
through a scratch or wound made accidentally while oper- 
ating on the body. Any partly healed raw surface, or the 
cracks in chapped hands, or the little fissures at the margin 
of the nails, serve equally well as points of inoculation. 

Prevention. — Before operating upon the dead body 
the hands should be very carefully examined. If the cuti- 
cle be denuded at any point on the hands or fingers, use 
rubber gloves, finger cots, or the Champion Hand Pro- 
tector. The latter is rubbed over the hands, under and 
around the nails very carefully, to prevent the absorption 
of the poison. While operating be very careful not to 
wound with the different instruments used in the opera- 
tion. If such an accident should occur, suck the wound 
thoroughly and wash out with a fluid that contains bi- 
chlorid of mercury, and cover with Champion Hand Pro- 
tector. Gas from the body does not cause blood poisoning 
when inhaled, but it may cause a kind of septic fever. 



If a wound is received and inoculation results, in from 
twelve to twenty-four hours the point of inoculation be- 
comes more or less red and irritated. It may remain in 
this state for another day, when a brawny swelling of a 
dusky red color forms around it, and extends rapidly in all 
directions, but principally along the line of the lymphatics. 
There is intense burning pain and severe constitutional 
disturbances, high temperature and total loss of appetite, 
which may be followed by " spreading gangrene ; " or. the 
lymphatic glands may become swollen and painful and 
abscesses form at the elbow and axilla. SepticaBmia or 
pyaemia may follow. 

If any of the above symptoms result, send for the 
family physician at once and be placed under proper treat- 

To Bandage a Body for Shipment. 

Encasing the body in bandages is not necessary, not even 
in cases for shipment, unless the case is one of dropsy, when 
it should be done as follows: Use a roll of unbleached mus- 
lin bandage or cheese cloth from three to four inches wide, 
commencing at the neck and including every part of the 
body to the tips of the fingers and toes, in the same man- 
ner as the surgeon applies a bandage to a broken limb, 
except it is not necessary to reverse it, to make it conform 
to the shape of the body. After one course of bandage 
has been neatly applied, cover it all over with a coat of 
silicate of soda by means of a two or three inch varnish 
brush. This should be followed by another bandage and 
coat of silicate of soda, finally covering the whole with a 
bandage neatly applied. This encasement will be im- 
pervious to air and become as hard as glass itself in a few 
minutes. The face should be left exposed to view. 


Abdomen. — The largest cavity of the body, in which are situated the in- 
testines, stomach, etc. 

Abductor.— A muscle which moves certain parts by separating them from 
the axis of the body. 

Absorbents. — The vessels and portions of the body which concur in the ex- 
ercise of absorption. 

Acetabulum.— The socket for holding the head of the thigh bone. 

Addison's disease.— Disease of the suprarenal capsules. 

Adductor. — A muscle which draws one part of the body toward another. 

Adipoeere. — A substance formed by a spontaneous change in the dead 
tissues of animals. 

Adipose. — That which relates to fat ; fatty. 

Agminate. — To aggregate or cluster together; said of lymphatic glands 
forming patches in the small intestine (Peyer's patches), as dis- 
tinguished from the solitary glands. 

Albumen (albus, white). — A thick, viscid substance, which forms a con- 
stituent part of both animal fluids and solids, which exists nearly 
pure in the white of egg. 

Albuminuria.— Albumen in the urine ; Bright' s disease. 

Alimentary.— Pertaining to food. 

Alimentary canal. — The great duct or intestine by which aliments or food 
are conveyed through the body, and the useless parts evacuated. 

Alkali. — A substance having the following properties: solubility in water; 
power of neutralizing acids and forming salts with them ; combining 
with fats to form soaps; corrosive action on animal and vegetable 
tissues ; changing the tint of many vegetable coloring matters. 

Alkaline. — Pertaining to, or having the properties of, alkali. 

Alkalis (fixed). — Potash, soda, and lithia. 

Amyloid. — Eesembling starch. 

Ansemic— Bloodless. 

Anaesthesia. — Loss of sensation. 

Anaesthetic. — A substance that destroys the feeling of pain. 

Anasarca. — Effusion of fluid into subcutaneous and other cellular tissues 

Anastomosis. — Communication between two vessels. 



Anatomy. — The art of dissecting, or artificially separating the different parts 
of any organized body, to discover their situation, structure and 

Aneurism. — A tumor connected with an artery containing blood. 

Animaleula.— A small animal. 

Antiseptic. — A substance that prevents or retards putrefaction. 

Antitoxin. — The serum of the blood of a horse, that has been inoculated 
with diphtheria material, used as subcutaneous injection for the cure 
of diphtheria. 

Anthrax.— See Carbuncle. 

Aorta. — The main artery of the body from which all others (except pul- 
monary) originate (p. 56). 

Aponeurosis. — A white, shining membrane, composed of interlacing fibers, 
sometimes continuous with the muscular fibers, and differing from a 
tendon only in having a flat form. 

Aponeurotic. — Pertaining to aponeurosis. 

Apoplexy. — Loss of consciousness, sensation and voluntary motion, due to 
a morbid state of the brain. 

Appendage. — That which is attached to something as a necessary part. 

Appendicitis. — Inflammation of the appendix vermiformis. 

Appendix vermiformis. — A worm-like process, about the size of a goose 
quill, which hangs from the caecum, whose functions are unknown. 

Approximation. — Approaching ; being near. 

Appurtenance. — An adjunct, or appendage. 

Aqueous humor. — A limpid fluid filling the space between the crystalline 
lens and the cornea, and divided into two chambers by the iris. 

Arachnoid. — A membrane like a spider's web covering the brain. 

Areolae. — The interstices between the fibers composing organs. 

Areolar. — Pertaining to areolae ; filled with interstices or areolae. 

Areolar tissue. — A loose mixture of the white fibrous, and yellow elastic 
tissues ; the loose tissue connecting the skin with subjacent parts. 

Arterialization. — The transformation of venous blood and chyle into 
arterial blood by respiration. 

Arteriole (dim. of arteria). — A small artery. 

Artery. — A vessel of the body which contains pure blood. 

Articulate. — To unite by means of a joint. 

Articulation. — The joining or juncture of the bones of a skeleton. 

Arytenoid cartilages.— Two cartilages of the larynx which by approxi- 
mation diminish the aperture of the glottis. 

Ascites. — Dropsy of the peritoneum ; abdominal dropsy. 

Aseptic. — Free from the living germs of disease, fermentation and putre- 

Asphyxia. — Suspended animation caused by the non-conversion of the 
venous into arterial blood in the lungs. 


Assimilation.— The process by which nutriment is changed into, and be- 
comes a part of, a living tissue. 
Asthma. — Difficult breathing. 

Atlas. — The first cervical vertebra, supporting the weight of the head. 
Atrophy.— Defective nutrition. 
Atrophy Of the liver. — Diminution in size. 
Auricles (auris, ear). — Two upper cavities of the heart. 
Auricular. — That which belongs to the ear. 
Auscultation. — The act of listening. 

Axilla. — The cavity beneath the juncture of the arm with the shoulder. 
Axis. — Second vertebra. 
Axis. — A right line which passes through the center of a body. 


Bacilli (pi. of bacillus). — Microscopical, vegetable organisms, having the 
form of very slender, straight filaments, consisting of a single cell ; 
rod-shaped bacteria. 

Bacteria. — The lowest known forms of life ; can be seen only by the 

Basilar. — That which belongs to certain parts which 'seem to serve as 
bases to others, as the sacrum and sphenoid bones. 

Basilic. — See Basilar. 

Biceps. — A muscle with two heads ; a name given to a muscle of the upper 
part of the arm and one of the thigh. 

Bifurcation. — Division of a trunk into two branches. 

Bile. — A fluid secreted by the liver. 

Biliary.— Pertaining to the bile. 

Biliverdin (green).— The coloring matter of the bile. 

Blood. — The fluid which circulates through the arteries and veins, carrying 
nutriment to all parts of the body (pp. 54 and 144). 

Bone. — A firm, hard substance composing the skeleton. 

Brain, anaemia of.— Deficient quantity of blood in the brain. 

Brain, aneurism of.— Disease of the arteries of the brain. 

Brain, carcinoma of.— Cancer of the brain. 

Brain, congestion of. — An increased quantity of blood in the brain. 

Bright's disease. — Disease of the kidneys, in which the tissues may fill 
more or less with water ; albuminuria. 

Bronchi. — The two branches of the windpipe. 

Bronchial tubes.— Subdivisions of bronchi. 

Bronchioles. — The last and most minute subdivisions of the bronchi. 

Bronchitis. — An inflammation of the lining membrane of the bronchial 

Bulla. — A portion of the cuticle detached from the skin by the interpo- 
sition of a transparent, watery fluid. 
E.— 19 


Burrow.— To excavate a hole in. 

Bursa (a purse). — A small sac near a joint containing fluid. 

Cseeum. — The commencement of the large intestine, forming a closed tube 
before the insertion of the small intestine. 

Calcareous. — Containing, or consisting of, lime. 

Calculus (pi. calculi). — Any hard, solid concretion formed in any part of 
the body, especially in the excretory canals. 

Caliber. — The diameter of a body. 

Canaliculus.— A small channel. 

Cancer, or Carcinoma. — A roundish, hard, unequal, scirrhous tumor, 
which usually ulcerates, is very painful, and generally fatal. 

Capillaries. — The smallest of the blood vessels, connecting the arteries 
and veins. 

Carbonic acid. — A deadly gas given off by the lungs and by fire. 

Carbonic oxide. — A gaseous compound of one equivalent of carbon and 
one of oxgen. It is fatal to animal life, extinguishes combustion, 
and burns with a pale blue flame, forming carbonic acid. 

Carbuncle, or Anthrax. — A specific local inflammation of the subcuta- 
neous areolar tissue, rapidly leading to sloughing of the deeper parts, 
followed by destruction of the skin, the whole of the dead tissue 
finally separating in the form of a slough. 

Carcinoma.— See Cancer. 

Carotids (karos, lethargy). — Arteries of the neck. 

Carpus.— The wrist. 

Cartilage. — Gristle; an elastic, animal tissue, similar to bone, but softer. 

Cartilaginous. — Pertaining to, consisting of, or resembling, cartilage. 

Cartouch. — An elliptical oval on ancient Egyptian monuments, and in 
papyri, containing groups of characters giving the names and titles of 
the Pharaohs. 

Catalepsy. — A disease of the nervous system, characterized by attacks of 
powerlessness, commonly with loss of consciousness, accompanied by 
a peculiar form of rigidity of the muscles, in which the extremities 
remain for a time in the position in which they are placed. 

Cataleptic. — Relating to, or affected with, catalepsy. 

Catarrh. — An inflammation, acute or chronic, of the mucous membrane of 
some organ. 

Cauda equina (horse's tail). — The spinal marrow at its termination, about 
the second lumbar vertebra, gives off a number of nerves which, 
when unraveled, resemble a horse's tail. 

Cellular.— Full of cells. 

Cellulitis. — Inflammation of the cellular membrane. 

Cephaline. — The base or root of the tongue. 


Cerebellum (A little brain). — The small, back division of the brain. 
Cerebro-spinal fever. — An inflammation of the covering membranes of 

the brain and spinal cord. 
Cerebro-spinal meningitis. — An alarmingly fatal form of epidemic fever. 
Cerebro-spinal system. — The part of the nervous system having its origin 

in the brain and spinal cord. 
Cerebrum. — The larger division of the brain. 
Cerecloth. — A cloth smeared with melted wax, or with some gummy or 

glutinous matter. 
Cerumen. — The ear wax. 
Cervical. — Relating to the neck. 
Child-bed fever.— See Puerperal Fever. 
Cholera. — A disease characterized by vomiting and purging, as the essential 

symptoms, and also by griping and spasms in the legs and arms. 
Cholera, Asiatic— A malignant form of cholera. 
Cholera infantum.— A fatal disease of childhood. 
Cholera morbus. — The mild and common form of cholera. 
Choroid coat.— Middle coat of the eye. 
Choroid plexus. — Two membranous and vascular duplicatures of the pia 

mater, situated in the lateral ventricles of the brain. 
Chyle. — A nutritive fluid, extracted by intestinal absorption from food 

which has been subjected to the action of the digestive organs. 
Chyliferous.— Chyle-bearing. 
Chyme. — Food as it passes into the small intestine after partial digestion 

in the stomach. 
Circle Of Willis. — The anastomosis which exists between the branches 

of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries at the base of the 

Circulatory system.— The heart and blood vessels. 
Circumduction. — The moving of a limb around an imaginary axis so as to 

describe a conical form, the distal end moving in a circle, while the 

proximal end remains fixed. 
Cirrhosis. — A yellow coloring fluid, sometimes secreted by the tissues, 

owing to a morbid process. 
Cirrhotic. — Affected with, or having the character of, cirrhosis. 
Coagulability.— Capacity of being coagulated. 
Coagulation. — Change of a fluid to a curd-like state, by some kind of 

chemical action ; a clotting of blood. 
Coagulum (pi. coagula). — A soft mass formed in a coagulable liquid. 
Coaptation. — To join or bring together. 

Colitis. — Inflammation of the colon or large intestine ; dysentery. 
Collateral. — That which accompanies, or proceeds by the side of, another. 
Colon. — That part of the large intestine which extends from the caecum to 

the rectum. 


Coma. — A profound state of sleep, from which it is extremely difficult to 

rouse the individual ; stupor. 
Comma bacillus.— A name applied by Koch to a rod-like bacteria with 

rounded ends, usually slightly curved like a comma, found in excreta 

and intestines of cholera patients ; by other bacteriologists named 

spirrilum cholerse Asiaticae. 
Commissure. — A collection of transverse fibers connecting parts on each 

side of the brain and spinal marrow. 
Condyle. — An articular eminence, round in one direction, flat in the 

Congested. — Containing an unnatural accumulation of blood. 
Conjunctiva. — The mucous membrane covering the external surface of 

the eye and inner surface of the lids. 
Contagious. — Communicable by contact, by the breath, etc. 
Contraction. — Act of contracting, or drawing together. 
Convolutions. — Wave-like projections on the surface of the brain ; turns 

made by the intestines. 
Convulsion. — An unnatural violent and involuntary contraction of the 

muscular parts of the human body. 
Cornea. — The transparent portion of the external coat of the eye. 
Cornieulum laryngis. — A small, very movable, cartilaginous tubercle. 

observed on the arytenoid cartilages. 
Corpora striata (pi. of corpus striatum). — Pyriform eminences, which 

form part of the floor of the lateral ventricles of the brain. 
Corpus.— A body. 
Corpus eallosum. — A white, medullary band perceived on separating the 

two hemispheres of the brain. 
Corpuscles. — A little body ; applied to the disks of the blood. 
Corpus flmbriatum. — A narrow, white, tape-like band, situated immedi- 
ately behind the chorid plexus. 
Cranial. — Of, or pertainining to, the cranium, or skull. 
Cranium.— The skull. 
Cremation. — A burning of the body. 
Creseentic-shaped. — Shaped like a crescent. 
Crus.— Leg or horn. 

Crus cerebri. — A peduncle of the brain. 
Crystalline lens. — The lens of the eye, situated immediately behind the 

Culture. — To cultivate ; a term used in science to denote the cultivation of 

various forms of micro-organisms. 
Cutaneous.— Pertaining to the skin. 
Cuticle. — Outer layer of the skin. 
Cutis.— Inner layer of the skin ; derma, or true skin. 
Cyst. — A closed pouch or sac containing fluid or soft matter. 


Decomposition.— The separation of parts ; decay. 

Decussate. — To cross like an X. 

Decussation. — Union in the shape of an X or cross. 

Deglutition. — The art by which substances are passed from the mouth into 
the stomach, through the pharynx and esophagus. 

Dejecta.— The discharge from the alimentary canal ; excrement. 

Dependent. — Lowest. 

Derma. — True skin ; inner layer of the skin. 

Desiccate. — To become dry. 

Desquamation (to scale off) .—Separation of the epidermis, in the form of 
scales of a greater or less size. 

Diabetes. — A disease characterized by great augmentation, and often mani- 
fest alteration in the secretion of urine, with excessive thirst and 
progressive emaciation. 

Diaphragm. — The membranous muscle which separates the thoracic from 
the abdominal cavity. 

Diffusion. — Dissemination, or spreading, as of a fluid through the vessels 
and tissues of the body. 

Digestion. — The process by which the food is prepared for absorption into 
the circulation. 

Diploe. — The areolar structure which separates the two tables of the skull 
from each other. 

Diphtheria. — An epidemic disease in which the air passages, and especially 
the throat, become coated with a false membrane, produced by the 
solidification of an inflammatory exudation. 

Discoloration, post-mortem.— Changes in the surface of the body, caused 
by diffusion of the blood into the tissues, formation of gases, putre- 
factive changes, etc. 

Disinfection. — Any process by which the contagion of any given disease 
may be destroyed or rendered inert. 

Disseminate.— To spread ; diffuse. 

Distal. — Outer end, or end farthest from center of body. 

Diuretic. — Having the power to excite the secretion and discharge of urine. 

Dorsal (dorsum). — The back. 

Dorsum of tongue. — The upper surface of tongue. 

Dropsy. — An unnatural collection of serous fluid in any cavity of the body 
or in the areolar tissues. 

Duct.— A small tube. 

Duodenum.— The upper part of the small intestine (p. 39). 

Dura mater (dura, hard ; mater, mother). — A fibrous, semitransparent mem- 
brane lining the cavity of the cranium and containing the spinal marrow. 

Dysentery. — Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the large intestine. 


Ecehymoma.— A livid, black or yellow spot, produced by blood effused 

into the areolar tissue from a contusion. 
Eechymosis. — See ecchymoma. 
Edematous. — Affected with oedema. 
Effete. — Worn out; exhausted energy. 
Effusion. — Escape of blood or any other fluid from its natural vessel into 

the areolar membrane, or into the cavities of the body. 
Eliminate.— To expel. 

Emaciation. — The condition of being lean ; wasting or loss of flesh. 
Embolism. — The arrest in the arteries or capillaries of a solid body that 

has been carried along in the course of circulation. 
Embolus (pi. emboli). — A wedge or plug. 
Emphysema.— A distention of a part by air or gas. 
Empysemia. — A collection of blood, pus, or other fluid, in some cavity of 

the body, especially that of the pleura. 
Enamel. — The substance covering the crown of the teeth. 
Endemic disease. — A disease peculiar to a people or nation. 
Endocarditis.— Inflammation of the lining membrane of the heart. 
Endocardium. — The membrane lining the interior of the heart. 
Endometritis.— Inflammation of the lining membrane of the uterus. 
EndOSteum.— The membrane lining the interior of bones. 
Enteritis. — Inflammation of the intestines. 
Entero-COlitis.— Inflammation of small intestine and colon. 
Epidemic— A disease affecting a great number of persons at once. 
Epidermis.— Outer layer of the skin. 
Epigastric region.— Above the stomach, or what is commonly known as 

the pit of the stomach. 
Epiglottis.— The valve which prevents the entrance of food and drink into 

the larynx. 
Epistaxis. — Bleeding from the nose. 
Epithelioma.— Cancer of epithelium or skin. 
Epithelium.— The thin layer of epidermis, covering parts deprived of 

derma, as the nipple, lips, etc. 
Erosion.— A destruction of superficial tissue, as by friction, pressure, etc. 
Erysipelas. — A febrile disease, accompanied with a diffused inflammation 

of the skin, which, starting usually from a simple point, spreads 

gradually over its surface. 
Erythema.— Erysipelas. 

Escharotic— An agent that destroys tissue and produces a slough. 
Esophagus.— The gullet. 
Eviscerate. — To disembowel. 
Excoriation.— A slight wound, which removes only the skin. 


Excrement. — Everything which is evacuated from the body, such as the 
fecal matter, urine, etc 

Exudate. — Exudation ; act of exuding ; sweating. 

ExcPementitious. — Pertaining to excrement. 

Excrete.— To throw off. 

Excretion. — Excrement. 

Excretory. — Having the quality of throwing off excrementitious matter. 

Exhumation. — The disinterment of a corpse. 

Exophthalmic. — Protrusion of the eyeball from the socket to such an ex- 
tent that the lids will not close. 

Exsanguine.— Deprived of blood ; bloodless. 

Extension. — The act of extending ; a spreading. 

Extravasation. — Escape of a fluid from the vessel containing it. 

Extravasation of blood.— The escape of blood from the blood vessels into 
the surrounding tissues. 

Extremity. — The end or termination ; the limbs. 

Exudation (to sweat). — The oozing of a material through the pores of a 


Falx. — A membranous reflection, having the shape of a falx or scythe. 

Falx cerebri. — The greatest process of the dura mater. 

Fascia. — A bandage or fillit. 

Fasciae. — The aponeurotic expansion of muscles which bind parts together. 

Fasiculus(pl. fasiculi).—A small bundle. 

Fauces. — The posterior part of the mouth, terminated by the pharynx and 

Febrile. — Pertaining to fever ; indicating fever. 

Feces.— Excrement. 

Fiber. — A slender, thread-like element, as of any tissue. 

Fibrin. — A complex, nitrogenous substance which appears in fresn blood, 
and is found in the chyle. It is elastic and generally of a thread-like 
structure, which is insoluble in water, but soft when exposed to air. 

Fibrous tissue. — The connective tissue of different parts of the body. 

Filament. — A separate fiber of a nerve, or other tissue. 

Fistula. — A permanent, abnormal opening into the soft parts with a con- 
stant discharge. 

Fistulous. — Relating to, or resembling, a fistula. 

Flaccid.— Soft. 

Flexion.— A bending. 

Flexure.— A turn, bend, or fold. 

' 'Floater. ' ' — A body which has remained in the water long enough to become 
bloated and rise to the surface. 

Foetus. — The young of any creature ; the unborn child . 


Follicles. — Small, glandular tubes ; glands. 

Fomites. — A term applied to substances which are supposed to retain con- 
tagious effluvia; as woolen goods, feathers, etc. 

FoPamen. — Any cavity pierced through and through. 

Foramen magnum. — A large oval aperture or opening in the median line 
of the occipital bone. 

Fossa. — A cavity of greater or less depth ; a groove. 

Frsenum. — A bridle; name given to several membranous folds, which 
bridle and retain certain organs. 

Fumigate. — To fill a circumscribed space with gas or vapor, with the in- 
tention of purifying the air. 

Function. — The action, or mode of operation, peculiar to any organ. 

Fusiform.— Spindle-shaped. 


Gall bladder. — A conical-shaped, membranous sac, the reservoir of the bile. 

Ganglion. — A knot-like enlargement in the course of a nerve ; a collection 
of nerve cells. 

Gangrene. — Privation of life or partial death of an organ ; first step of 
mortification of living flesh. 

Gastric. — Pertaining to the stomach. 

Gastric juice. — A digestive fluid secreted by the peptic glands. 

Gastritis. — A disease characterized by pyrexia, seated in the peritoneal or 
mucous coat of the stomach. 

Gelatine (jelly). — A nutritious substance, semi-transparent, insipid and 
inodorous in character. 

Germicide. — A disinfectant having the power to destroy all living disease 
germs, or bacteria. 

Germs. — Microorganisms, especially of injurious kinds. 

Gland. — A soft, globular organ in the human body, which secretes or ex- 
cretes some substance peculiar to itself. 

Glandular. — Having the appearance, form or texture of a gland. 

Glenoid. — The cup-shaped cavity which receives the head of the humerus. 

Glottis. — The opening between the pharynx and larnyx. 


Halogens. — Substances which by combination with a metal form haloid salts. 
Heart. — The chief organ of circulation. 
Hematuria.— Voiding blood by the urine. 
Hematemesis.— Vomiting of blood. 
Hemiplegia. — Paralysis of one side of the body. 
Hemoglobin.— Coloring matter of the blood. 
Hemoptysis.— Spitting of blood ; hemorrhaged the lungs. 
Hemorrhage. — The escape of blood from any part of the circulation ; 


Hepatization. — A solid and friable condition of the lung resembling the 

liver somewhat in its physical characters. 
Hepatitis. — Inflammation of liver or its peritoneal covering. 
Hernia. — See Rupture. 
Hobnail liver. — Cirrhosis of the liver. 

Homogeneous. — Consisting of similar parts, or of like nature. 
Humid. — Moist, as a humid atmosphere. 
Hybernate. — To winter ; to pass the winter in close quarters, as birds or 

Hydrsemia. — A watery condition of the blood. 
Hydro. — A prefix meaning watery. 

Hydrogen. — The lightest gas known ; one of the elements of water. 
Hydro-thorax.— Dropsy in the chest. 
Hypsemia. — A deficiency of blood in a part. 
Hypersemia. — An excess of blood in a part. 
Hyperpyrexia. — Excessive pyrexia, or fever. 
Hypertrophy. — Excessive growth of a part. 

Hypodermieally. — Consisting in the application of remedies under the skin. 
Hypostasis. — Settling of blood into the dependent parts of the body. 
Hypoglossal (under the tongue). — A nerve of the tongue. 
Hypostatic. — Relating to hypostasis. 


Icteric. — Pertaining to, or affected by, jaundice. 

Ileae. — Pertaining to the ileum. 

Ileum.— The third and longest division of the small intestine, extending 
from the jejunum to the csecum. 

Iliac. — Of or belonging to the ilium. 

Ilium. — Upper part of the hip bone. 

Immunity. — Freedom from danger of contagion. 

Imputreseible.— Not subject to putrefaction. 

Incubation.— The period that elapses between the introduction of a mor- 
bific principle into the animal economy and the invasion of the disease. 

Infectious.— Communicable by infection ; specially applied to diseases 
which are capable of being communicated from one to another, or 
which pervade certain places, attacking persons independent of any 
contact with those already sick. 

Infiltrate. — To enter by penetrating the pores of a substance. 

Inflammation. — A redness or swelling of any part or organ of the body, 
attended by heat, pain, and febrile symptoms. 

Infusion.— The act or process of steeping any insoluble substance in water 
in order to extract its virtues ; also, the liquid so obtained. 

Inguinal. — Belonging or relating to the groin. 


Inhibit. — To repress or restrain. 

Inoculation. — An operation by which a disease may be artifically communi- 
cated, by introducing the virus of the particular disease into the 
economy by means of a puncture. 

Inorganic. — Not having the organization of parts characteristic of living 
bodies ; not possessing life. 

Inosculate.— To anastomose, or unite. 

Insertion. — The condition of being inserted. 

Insertion of muscle.— Its more movable extremity. 

Interstices. — Intervals between organs, or parts of organs. 

Interosseous. — That which is situated between the bones. 

Intestine.— Lower part of the alimentary canal, divided into small and 

Intussusception. — A form of intestinal obstruction, in which one portion 
of the bowel passes into another portion. 

Invagination. — Same as intussusception. 

Involuntary muscle.— A muscle not under control of the will. 

Irritability. — A susceptibility to the influence of natural or medical 

Irritant. — That which irritates or causes pain. 

-itis. — A suffix used to indicate inflammation of an organ or tissue. 

Jaundice. — A disease giving a yellowness to all the tissues and secretions 
of the body, caused by impregnation with bile-pigment. 

Jejunum. — Upper portion of the small intestine, twelve finger breadths in 


Kidney, Bright's disease of the.— See albuminuria. 
Kidneys. — Secretory organs of the urine. 

Lachrymal (lachryma, tear). — Pertaining to tears. 

Lacteals. — Minute tubes which absorb the chyle from the small intestine, 

and convey it into the circulation. 
Lacuna (pi. larun.r). — A small cavity in the bone structure. 
Lamina (a plate).— A thin, flat part of a bone. 
Laryngitis.— Inflammation of the larynx. 
Larynx. — Tipper part of the windpipe. 
Latency. — The state of being concealed. 
Lesion. — Derangement ; disorder. 
Leucocytes. — A term applied to corpuscles which seem to resemble each 

other essentially in their chemical and microscopical characters. 


Ligament (ligo, I bind).— A band of tissue, binding the bones together. 

Ligature.— A band ; bandage. 

Linea.— Line. 

Linea aspera (rugged ridge). — A rough projection at the posterior surface 

of the femur, which gives attachment to muscles. 
Liquor amnii. — The liquid which envelops the foetus ; the waters. 
Liquor sanguinis. — A term applied to one of the constituents of the blood. 
Liver. — The largest gland of the body. 
Lubricate. — To oil in order to prevent friction. 
Lumbar. — Pertaining to, or near, the loins. 
Lung fever. — An inflammation of the lungs. 
Lungs. — The chief organs of respiration. 

Lunula (little moon). — The white, crescent-shaped part of the nail. 
Lymph. — A yellowish, alkaline fluid secreted by the lymphatic glands. 
Lymphatic glands. — Small bodies through which the lymphatics pass on 

their way to the thoracic duct. 
Lymphatics. — Small, transparent vessels, existing in various parts of the 



Malformation. — A deviation from the natural standard, in size, form, 

number, or situation of any part or organ of the body. 
Malignant. — A term applied to a disease of a very serious character. 
Malleolus (mallus, a mallet). — The projection formed by the bones of the 

leg at the ankle ; ankle. 
Malodorous.— Offensive. 

Mammalia. — A class of animals comprehending the mammals. 
Marrow. — A soft tissue found in the interior of many bones. 
Mastication. — The act of chewing. 
Matrix.— The womb. 
Meatus. — A passage, or canal. 
Mediastinum. — A membranous space, formed by the approximation of the 

pleura?, dividing the chest into two parts, the one right, the other left. 
Medulla oblongata. — That portion of the brain which is continuous with 

the spinal cord. 
Meibomian glands.— Glands at the inner surface of the eyelids. 
Melanosis. — A morbid deposit of black matter in the organs of the body. 
Melanotic. — Pertaining to, or having the character of, melanosis. 
Membrane. — An expansion of any soft tissue, or part, in the form of a thin 

layer, generally covering or lining some other part. 
Meningitis. — Inflammation of a membrane, especially of the meninges. 
Mentum.— The chin. 
Mesentery. — A membrane in the abdomen, which retains the intestines and 

their appendages in the proper position, allowing more or less motion. 


Mesocolon. — That part of the mesentery to which the colon is attached. 

Micrococci. — Bacteria of a spherical form. 

Micturition. — Urination, or the act of passing the urine. 

Mimical.— Imitative. 

Monoliths. — A pillar consisting of a single stone. 

Morbid. — Diseased ; opposite to healthy. 

Morbid anatomy. — Anatomy of the diseased human body. 

Morphology. — That which relates to the anatomical conformation of parts. 

Mortification.— Gangrene. 

Motile. — Having powers of self motion. 

Motor. — That which imparts motion. 

Motory. — Giving motion. 

Mucous membrane. — The membrane that lines the alimentary canal and 

air passages. 
Mucus. — The viscid fluid secreted by the mucous membrane. 
Mummification. — The mode of preparing a mummy. 

Mummy — A dead body embalmed and dried for the purpose of preservation. 
Muscle. — A bundle of fibers covered by a membrane. 
Muscular. — Belonging to, or relating to, muscles. 
Muscular rheumatism.— Rheumatism affecting the muscles. 


Necropsy. — Post-mortem examination . 

Necrosis. — Death ; mortification ; especially, state of a bone, or portion of a 

bone, deprived of life. 
Nephritis. — Inflammation of the kidneys ; characterized by acute pain, 

burning heat, suppression or diminution of urine, etc. 
Nitrogen.— A tasteless, colorless, odorless gas, forming nearly four-fifths of 

the air. 
Nonstriated.— Smooth ; unstriped. 
Nutrition.— Process of absorbing into the tissues such food as will build up 

and repair the living tissues. 


Obesity. — An abnormal development of fat. 

Occlusion (to shut up).— Sometimes this word signifies, simply, the tran- 
sient approximation of the edges of a natural opening. 

(Edema. — A dropsical effusion into the cellular tissue ; a disease of various 
organs and parts in the body. 

Olfactory. — Pertaining to the smell. 

Omentum (pi. omenta).— A membranous covering of the bowels, attached 
to the stomach, and lying at the anterior surface of the intestines. 

Opaque. — Impervious to the rays of light; dark. 

Optic — Of, or belonging to, the eye. 


Organism. — A structure composed of, or acting by means of, organs. 

Origin of muscle. — The more fixed extremity. 

Os. — Bone. 

Os ealcis. — Bone of heel. 

Osseous. — Bone-like. 

Osteology — That part of anatomy which treats of the nature, arrangment 

and uses of the bones. 
Ovum.— An egg. 
Oxygen. — A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas, forming 23% of the weight of 

the air ; the active element of the air. 
Oxygenation. — The process of combining with oxygen. 


Palate. — Roof of the mouth. 

Pancreas. — A large gland near the stomach, which secretes the pancreatic 

Pancreatic juice. — A clear, viscid fluid which aids in intestinal digestion. 
Papilla (pi. papillse). — A minute, thread-like projection. 
Paracentesis. — The operation of tapping any cavity of the body to draw 

oil fluid or gas. 
Paralysis. — A disease in which the power of motion, or sensation, or both, 

is lost. 
Paraplegia. — Paralysis of the lower part of the body and lower extremities. 
Parasite. — An animal living in or upon another, subsisting at the expense 

of the latter. 
Parget.— Gypsum . 

Parietes. — The walls of a cavity or part of the body. 
Parotid. — One of the salivary glands. 

Patella. — The largest sesamoid bone in the body ; the knee-pan. 
Pathogeny. — The branch of pathology which relates to the generation, 

production and development of diseases. 
Pathology. — The branch of medicine whose object is the knowledge of 

Peduncles (of the brain). — Two white cords on the outside of the corpora 

albicantia, arising from the medullary substance. 
Penniform. — Applied to muscles whose fleshy fibers are inserted at 

the side of a middle tendon , like the feathers of a fan on their com- 
mon stalk. 
Peptic. — An agent that promotes digestion. 
Perforation. — The act of boring or piercing through. 
Pericarditis. — Inflammation of the heart sac, or pericardium. 
Pericardium. — The sac which surrounds the heart. 
Perichondrium. — A membrane of a fibrous nature, which covers cartilages 

that are non-articular. 


PerinephFitic. — Pertaining to perinephritis. 

Perinephritis. — Inflammation of the cellular tissue around the kidney. 

Periosteum (peri, around ; osteon, bone). — The dense, fibrous membrane, 
which surrounds the bones in the living body. 

Peripheral. — Relating to the periphery or circumference ; around the 
outside of an organ. 

Peritoneum. — The serous membrane of the abdomen. 

Peritonitis. — Acute inflammation of the peritoneum, attended by violent 

Per se. — By, or of, itself. 

Perspiration. — The excretion from the skin. 

Pertussis. — Whooping cough. 

Peyer's glands. — Small, agiminated glands situated beneath the villous coat 
of the intestines. 

Pharynx. — The muscular, membranous cavity at the back of the mouth. 

Phlebitis. — Inflammation of the inner membrane of a vein. 

Phlemasia dolens.— Milk leg. 

Phonation. — The physiology of the voice. 

Physiology.— The science which relates to the functions or uses of the 
different parts or organs of the body. 

Pia mater (pia, tender; mater, mother)- — A very delicate membrane cov- 
ering the brain completely, enveloping the cerebellum. 

Pigment. — Coloring matter. 

Pituitary body. — A small, round body, occupying the sella turcica of the 
sphenoid bone. 

Placenta. — A soft, spongy, vascular body, adherent to the uterus, and 
connected with the fcetus by the umbilical cord. 

Plasma.— The nutritious fluid of the blood. 

Pleura.— The membrane that lines the chest and envelopes the lungs. 

Pleuritis, or pleurisy. — An acute or chronic inflammation of the pleura, 
accompanied with fever, pain, difficult respiration and cough. 

Plexus. — A network of blood vessels or of nerves. 

Pneumonia.— See Lung Fever. 

Pneumonitis.— See Lung Fever. 

Pneumo-perieardium. — A collection of air or gas in the pleura ; a com- 
plaint generally sudden in its invasion and fatal in character. 

Pneumo-thorax. — A collection of gas in the pleural cavities. 

Pons Varolii.— An eminence at the upper pari of the medulla oblongata. 

Post-mortem examination.— An examination, after death, of the body 
for the purpose of ascertaining the cause or causes of death. 

Prehension. — The act of laying hold of. 

Process. — A projection. 

Prophylactic. — A preservative or preventive. 

Proteids.— Applied to certain food stuffs, which are primarily tissue formers. 


Protoplasm.— The viscid, nitrogenous material in vegetable cells, by 
which the process of nutrition, secretion, and growth goes forward. 

Proximal. — Toward or nearest ; the end of a bone, limb, or organ nearest 
the point of attachment of insertion ; opposed to distal. 

Proximate.— Nearest ; next to center of body. 

Pterygopalatine. — That which belongs to the pterygoid process and 

Puerperal fever.— Child-bed fever. 

Puerperal peritonitis. — Inflammation of the peritoneum during parturi- 

Pulmonary. — Pertaining to the lungs. 

Purulent.— Consisting of pus. 

Pus. — The secretion from inflamed textures. 

Pustule. — An elevation of the cuticle, with an inflamed base. 

Putrefaction. — A decomposition, experienced by animal substances when 
deprived of life ; becoming putrid. 

Pysemia. — A dangerous disease produced by the mingling of the poisonous 
matters of pus with the blood. 

Pylorus. — The lower or right orifice of the stomach. 

Pyriform.— Pear-shaped. 


Quadratus.— Square. 


Racemose. — Resembling a raceme ; in clusters, like grapes. 

Ramus.— Branch. 

Receptaculum chyli.— Receptacle of the chyle ; a dilation of the thoracic 

Rectum. — The third and last portion of the large intestine. 

Recurrent (recurrens, returning). — To run back. 

Reflex. — A term applied to an action, which consists in the reflection by an 
efferent nerve of an impression conveyed to a nervous center by an 
afferent nerve. 

Regurgitation. — The act by which a canal or reservoir throws back sub- 
stances accumulated in it. 

Respiration.— The act of breathing. 

Rete.— The name given to the interlacing and decussion of blood vessels, 
lymphatics, fibers and nerves, when they form a kind of network. 

Rete mueosum. — The second layer of skin. It is between the cutis vera 
and cuticle, and gives color to the body. 

Reticular.— Resembling a net; applied to many structures in the body. 

Retina. — Innermost coat of the eye, consisting of an expansion of the optic 


Rheumatism. — A painful inflammation, or neuralgia, affecting the muscles, 

joints and other parts of the body. 
Rickets. — The arrest of natural growth and development. 
Rigor mortis.— The stiffening of the muscles after death. 
Rotation.— The act of rotating. 
Rupture. — A preternatural opening of the walls of the abdomen with 

profusion of internal parts; hernia; the state of being broken, as 

rupture of a vessel. 

Sacculated. — Furnished with little sacs. 

Saliva. — The fluid secreted by the salivary glands. 

Sanitary. — Pertaining to health. 

Saprophytes.— Putrefactive bacteria. 

Sarcophagus.— A tomb. 

Scapula. — The shoulder blade. 

Scarlet Fever — A contagious febrile disease, characterized by inflamma- 
tion of the fauces, and a scarlet rash, appearing usually on the second 
day, and ending in desquamation about the sixth or seventh day. 

Scarletina— See Scarlet Fever. 

Sclerotic. — The outer coat of the eye. 

Scybala. — Feces in the form of round, hard lumps. 

Sebaceous glands. — Small, conglomerate glands situated in the subcutane- 
ous areolar tissue, either isolated, or connected with the hair follicles, 
which secrete the sebaceous humor. 

Secretion (secretum, to separate). — The process of preparing and separating 
substances necessary for the activity and health of the body ; the 
substances so prepared and separated. 

Senility. — That condition of the body resulting from old age. 

Septic. — A substance causing putrefaction. 

Septicaemia — Blood poisoning. 

Septum. — A part destined to separate two cavities from each other, or to 
divide a principal cavity into several secondary cavities. 

Serous. — Thin; watery; relating to the most watery portion of animal 
fluids, or to the membranes that secrete them. 

Serous membrane. — A thin tissue, covering the cavities of the body that 
are not open to external air. 

Serum. — The most watery portion of animal fluids, exhaled by serous 

Sesamoid bones. — Small bones situated in the substances of tendons near 
certain joints. 

Sinus. — A cavity in a bone or other part, the interior of which is more 
expanded than the entrance. 


Slough. — The dead material resulting from gangrene, ulceration or low 

forms of inflammation of soft tissues. 
Smallpox. — An exanthematic disease, consisting of a constitutional 

febrile affection, and a cutaneous eruption. 
Softening, post-mortem. — Softening after death of different organs due 

to post-mortem changes. 
Somatic.— That which concerns the body ; death of entire body. 
Spinal column.— Back-bone. 
Splenitis. — Inflammation of the spleen. 
Splenization. — A morbid condition of the lungs in which they sometimes 

resemble the spleen in color and consistency. 
Spores — An organized body of extremely minute size ; a germ. 
Spurious disease. — A disease which is mistaken for another. 
Sputum. — The secretions ejected from the mouth in the act of spitting. 
Steatoma. — An encysted tumor, containing matter like suet ; a wen. 
Steatomatous. — Of the nature of a steatoma. 
Stereoraeeous vomiting.— Vomiting of fecal matter. 

Sterilize. — To render free from living germs, as by heating or other- 
Stethoscope. — An instrument employed to examine the chest sounds, in 

Striated.— Striped. 

Stricture. — A contraction of a tube, duct, canal, or orifice. 
Stimulus. — Anything that excites the animal economy. 
Structure. — The arrangement of the different tissues and organic elements 

of which the body is concerned. 
Subcutaneous. — That which is placed immediately under the skin. 
Subjacent — Lying under or below. 
Sublingual (sub, under; Ungual, tongue). — The salivary gland located 

under the tongue. 
Submaxillary (sub, under; maxilla, jaw). — The salivary gland located 

under the jaw. 
Suffocation. — Obstruction of respiration by means other than pressure on 

the neck (hanging, strangulation), or submersion (drowning). 
Sulcus (pi. sulci). — A furrow or groove; a name given to the grooves on 

the surface of bones or other organs. 
Supinated.— Turned up. 

Suppuration. — Producing purulent matter, or forming pus. 
Suture. — A kind of immovable articulation, in which the bones unite by 

means of serrated edges, which are dovetailed into each other. 
Sympathetic system. — The portion of the nervous system controlling 

the voluntary functions of the various organs. 
Symphysis. — Articulation or union of bones. 
Symphysis pubis.— Articulation of the pubis. 
E.— 20 


Syncope. — A state of suspended animation, due to sudden failure of the 

Synovia. — A fluid resembling the white of egg, secreted by the synovial 
membranes, which lubricates the joints. 

Synovial. — That which relates to the synovia. 

Synovial membranes. — Membranes covering the joints. 

Synthesis. — The operation by which divided parts are reunited. 

Synthetically. — In a synthetical manner ; by synthesis. 

Systemic. — Belonging to the general system. 

Systemic circulation.— General circulation of the blood through the ar- 
teries, veins and capillaries. 


Tampon.— A plug. 

Temporal. — Relating to the temple. 

Tendon. — A cord, or bundle of fibers, by which motion is communicated 
from a muscle to a bone. 

Tetanus.— Lockjaw. 

Thorax. — The cavity containing the lungs. 

Thrombosis. — The coagulation of fibrin in the heart, or blood vessels, dur- 
ing life. 

Thrombus. — A small, hard, round, bluish tumor, formed by an effusion of 
blood in the vicinity of a vein, which has been opened in the operation 
of blood-letting ; a coagulum of blood. 

Tissue. — A general term applied to the textures of which the different 
organs are composed. 

Tonic. — A medicine which has the power of exciting slowly the organic 
actions of the different systems of the animal economy. 

Torsion (tortum, to twist).— Twisting. 

Tortuous.— Twisted. 

Toxaemia.— Poisoning of the blood. 

Trachea.— The windpipe. 

Trance. — A sleep-like state which comes on spontaneously and from which 
the sleeper cannot be roused ; must not be confounded with death. 

Transude. — To pass through the pores of a texture. 

Traumatic. — Anything relating to a wound. 

Triceps. — A muscle with three heads or origins. 

Tricuspid. — That which has three points ; a name applied to the triangular 
valves of the heart. 

Trochanter. — Name of the process at the upper extremity of the femur. 

Tuberosity. — An eminence or process, with an unequal and rough sur- 

Tumor. — Swelling caused by some form of new growth, such as cancer, 
fibroid, boil, etc. 


Typhoid Fever.— A continued fever of long duration, usually attended with 

diarrhoea, characterized by peculiar intestinal lesions and enlargement 

of the spleen. 
Typhus Fever.— A contagious febrile disease, marked by a peculiar, dark 

rash, with considerable cerebral depression, and lasting about three 



Umbilical. — That which belongs or relates to the navel. 

Umbilieal cord. — A cord-like substance which extends from the placenta 

to the umbilicus of the foetus. 
Unctuous.— Fat, oily, greasy. 
Unicellular. — Containing one cell. 


V or Vel.— Or. 

Vaccination. — The operation of inserting the vaccine virus under the 
cuticle, so that it may enter into the absorbents. 

Vaccinia. — Cowpox . 

Valvular. — Containing valves. 

Varioloid. — Smallpox modified by vaccination. 

Vasa vasorum. — Small vessels which supply larger vessels with blood for 
their nutrition. 

Vascular. — Consisting of, or containing, vessels. 

Vasomotor. — That which causes movement in the vessels. 

Vegetation. — A morbid production which rises as an excrescence on an 
organ or part ; a fleshy granulation at the surface of a wound or ulcer. 

Venae Comites. — Companion veins accompanying an artery. 

Venesection.— Blood-letting. 

Ventral. — Belonging to the abdomen. 

Ventricle.— A cavity, especially of the heart ; also, of the brain. 

Vermiform appendix.— See appendix vermiformis. 

Vertigo. — Giddiness, dizziness, or swimming of the head. 

Villi (pi. of villus, a, tuft of hair). — Minute, highly vascular, papillary eleva- 
tions projecting from the mucous membrane of the small intestine 
throughout its whole extent, giving to its surface a velvety appear- 
ance, and serving chiefly for absorption. 

Villous membrane. — Membrane covered with fine, delicate prolongations, 
papillae, or villi. 

Virus. — A poison. 

Viscera. — The contents of the cavities of the body, as of the head, thorax, 
abdomen, etc. 

Viscid. — Sticky, or adhering; having a ropy or glutinous consistency. 


Volatile. — Capable of wasting away ; evaporation. 
Voluntary muscle. —A muscle under control of the will. 


Wormian bones. — Small bones in the sutures of the bones of the cranium. 
Wry-neck. — Twisting of the neck to one side. 

Zygomatic. — That which relates to the cheek-bone. 

Zymotic disease. — Any epidemic, endemic, contagious, or sporadic affec- 
tion which is produced by some morbific principle acting on the 
system like a ferment. 


Abbott, observations of, 266. 

Bacteriology, history of, 251. 
Abdomen, 18, 37, 42. 
Contents of, 43. 
Regions of, 43. 
Epigastric (or epigastrium), 37, 41, 43. 
Hypochondriac (or hypochondrium), 
left, 37, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44. 
Right, 37, 41, 43. 
Hypogastric, 43. 44. 
Inguinal, left, 43, 44. 

Right, 43, 44. 
Lumbar, left, 43, 44. 

Right, 43. 44. 
Umbilical, 43, 44. 
Abdominal cavity, 42, 159. 
To inject the, 159. 
To remove gases from , 160. 
To remove liquids from, 160. 
Absorbents, the, 20. 

Air passages, asphyxia from mechanical ob- 
structions of, 280. 
Alimentary canal, the, 33. 
American Indians, embalming not unknown 

among, 98. 
American Public Health Association, ex- 
periments by Committee on Disinfectants 
of, 270. 
Anaesthetics, asphyxia from poisons or, 281. 
Anatomy, morbid, 169. 

Visceral, 26. 
Ancient and modern embalming, 81. 
Ancient embalming, 83. 
Anthrax spores, Koch's experiments upon, 

Antiseptic, an, 256. 
Antiseptic and germicidal value of various 

salts, 269. 
Antitoxin, diphtheria, 260. 

Tetanus, 262. 
Appendix— Questions for Review, 217. 
Appendix vermiformis, the, 40, 44. 
Arterial injection, 133. 
Artery or arteries, 50. 
Anastomica magna, 63. 
Aorta, 56. 
Abdominal, 43, 56. 
Arch, 56, 57. 
Thoracic, 37, 56, 60. 
Arch, deep palmar, 60. 

Superficial, 60. 
Arterige receptaculi, 58. 
Auricular, posterior, 57. 
Axillary, 59. 
Brachial, 18, 59. 

Branches of, 60. 
Bronchial, 56, 61. 

Carotid, common, 18, 57. 
Left, 56. 
Right, 57. 

External, 57. 

Internal, 58. 
Cerebral, anterior, 58. 

Middle, 58. 

Posterior, 58. 
Choroid, anterior, 58. 
Circle of Willis, 58. 
Circumflex, external, 63. 

Internal, 63. 
Cceliac axis, 38, 61. 
Communicating, anterior, 58. 

Posterior, 58. 
Coronary, 56, 57. 
Dorsalis pedis, 64. 
Epigastric, 62. 

Superficial, 63. 
Esophageal, 56. 

Branches of, 61. 
Facial, 57. 
Femoral, 18, 62, 63. 

Muscular branches of, 63. 
Gastric, 56, 61. 
Gastro-epiploic, right, 38. 
Hepatic, 45, 56, 61. 
Iliac, 56. 

Circumflex. 63. 

Common, 56,62. 

External, 62. 

Internal, 62. 

Superficial circumflex, 63. 
Innominate, 56, 57. 
Intercostals, 56, 59, 61. 

Superior, 59. 
Lingual, 35, 57. 
Lumbar, 56, 62. 
Mammary, internal, 59. 
Maxillary, internal, 57. 
Mediastinal, posterior, 56, 61. 
Mesenteric, inferior, 56, 62. 

Superior, 42, 56, 61. 
Occipital, 57. 
Ophthalmic, 58. 
Palatine, descending, 36. 
Palmar arch, deep, 60. 
Pancreaticse parvse, 42. 
Pancreatica magna, 42. 
Pancreatico-duodenalis. 42. 
Perforating, 63. 
Pericardiac, 56. 

Branches of, 61. 
Pharyngeal, ascending, 35,36, 57. 
Phrenic, 56, 61. 

Inferior, 42. 
Plantar arch, 64. 

External, 64. 

Internal, 64. 
Popliteal, 63. 




Artery or arteries— ConVd. 

Profunda femoris, 63. 

Pterygo-palatine, 36. 

Pudic, deep external, 68. 
Superficial external, 63. 

Pulmonary, 52, 64, 71, 126. 
Right and left, 65. 

Pyloric, 38. 

Radial, 60. 

Renal. 42, 56, 62. 

Sacra media, 56, 62. 

Spermatics, 56, 62. 

Splenic, 38, 42, 56, 61. 

Subclavian, 58. 
Left, 56. 
Right. 57. 

Submental, 35. 

Superficial arch, 60. 

Suprarenal. 42, 56,62. 

Suprascapular, 59. 

Temporal, 57. 

Thyroid axis, 59. 

Thyroid, inferior, 59. 
Superior, 36, 57. 

Tibial, anterior, 64. 
Posterior, 64. 

Tracheal, 48. 

Transversalis colli. 59. 

Tympanic, 58. 

Umbilical, 71. 

Vertebral, 58. 
Artificial respiration. Howard's method 

of, 279. 
Asphyxia, 119. 
Asphyxia from, 

Breathing noxious gases. 280. 

Drowning, 281. 

Lightning stroke. 282. 

Mechanical obstruction of the air pas- 
sages, 280. 

Poisons or anaesthetics. 281. 
Assyrians, embalming among the, 97. 
Atlanteans, methods of the, 97. 
Authors, portraits of, frontispieces. 
Aztecs, methods of the, 98. 


Babylonians, methods of the, 97. 
Bacillus or bacilli, 256. 

Anthrax, 266, 269. 

Cadaveris, 184,248. 

Comma, 180, 183. 

Diphtherias 174. 

Pyocyanus, 270. 

Tetanus, 262. 

Tubercle, 271. 

Tubercular, 178. 

Tuberculosus, 179. 

Typhi abdominalis, 178. 

Typhoid, 175, 269, 270, 272. 273. 
Bacteria, forms of. 266. 
Bacteriology, history of (after Abbotl >. 251. 
Blindage a body for shipment, to. 286. 
Harlow. Asiatic cholera ease reported by, 181. 
Behring, Dr.. observations on antitoxin, 261. 
Biliverdin, discoloration caused by, L52. 
Bladder, 44. 
Blood. 54, 125, 144. 

Arterial. 68. 

Blood, lymph and chyle, 125. 

Cause of the arteries being emnty after 

death, 127. 
Circulation of the, 55, 126. 
Circulation not destroyed by tapping the 

heart, 144. 
Coagulation of, 125. 
Corpuscles, 25, 54. 
Crystals, 54. 

Heart and veins, valves of the. 147. 
Heart, to remove from the, 144. 
Plasma, the, 54. 

Proper time to withdraw the, 148. 
To remove by the veins, 147. 
To remove the, 144. 
Venous, 52. 
Body, 77. 
Anatomical and physiological constants, 


Circulation, 80. 

Digestion, 79. 

General statistics. 79. 

Respiration, 80. 
Chemical constituents of the, 78. 
Human, the, 1. 

To bandage for shipment, 286. 
Weight and constituents, its, 77. 
Bolton, experiments of, 270. 
Bone or bones — 
Analysis of, 3. 
Articulations of, 12. 
Breaking of, 8. 
Carpus, 11. 
Classification of, 6. 
Clavicle, 10. 
Coccyx, 10. 
Composition of, 6. 
Cranial cavity, 9. 
Development of, 7. 
Elbow, 11. 
Extremities, 10. 
Femur, 11. 
Foot, 11. 

Fresh or living. 7. 
Hand, 11. 

Haversian canals, 7. 
Head and trunk, 5. 
Head, of the, 9. 

Cranial cavity, 9. 

Skull and face, 9. 

Skull hones, 9. 
Humerus, 11. 
Injury and repair of, 8. 
Innominata, 10. 
Joints. 8. 
Structures, the, 12. 

Articular lamella, 12. 

Cartilage. 12. 

Fibro-cartilage, 12. 

Synovial membrane, 8, 12. 

Ligaments, 12. 
Knee joint, 11. 
Lacunas, 7. 
Ligaments, 12, 18. 
Lower extremities, of the, 11. 
Metacarpal, 11. 
Number, 5. 
Patella. 11. 

Phalanges, 11. 

Pubic arch. In. 

Repair of. 8. 
Ribs, lo. 
Scapula, lo. 

Sesamoid, 12. 



Bone or bones— ConVd. 

Shoulder, 10. 

Shoulder joint, 10. 

Skeleton, analysis of, 3. 

Skull, 9. 

Skull and face, 9. 

Spinal column, 9. 

Sternum, 10. 

Structure of, 7. 

Tibia, 11. 

Trunk, of the, 9. 

Wormian, 12. 

Wrist, 11. 

Upper extremity, of the, 10. 
Brachial artery and basilic vein, 135. 
Brain, the, 29. 

Cerebellum, 30. 

Cerebro-spinal system, 2<S. 

Cerebrum, 29. 

Cranial nerves, 32. 

Ganglions, 29. 

Medulla oblongata, 31. 

Weight of, 29. 
Bristowe, case of obstinate constipation re- 
ported by, 206. 
Bronchi, the, 47, 48. 
Buchner, experiments of, 247. 

Caecum, 39. 

Capillaries, the, 50, 70. 
Capsules, suprarenal, the, 42, 43, 44. 
Carbonic acid, poisoning by, 241. 

Oxide, poisoning by, 242. 
Carpenter, Dr., on alcoholism, 221. 
Cartilage, or cartilages, 12, 75. 
Cavity injection, 155. 
Ceci, on antiseptics, 272. 
Cerebro-spinal axis, the, 31. 
Cerebro-spinal system, the, 28. 
Champion Hand Protector, 285. 

Hardening Compound, 236. 

Needle process, 167, 186, 218, 225, 237, 240. 
Channels of infection, 247. 
Chelins, case of obstinate constipation, re- 
ported by, 206. 
Cholera spirillum, 269, 270, 272, 273. 
Chyle, 24. 
Chyme, 38. 
Circulation, 80. 

Blood, of the, 55, 56. 

Embalming fluid, of, 128. 

Foetal, the, 71. 

Lesser or pulmonary, 64. 

Organs of, 50. 

Systemic, the, 56. 
Coal gas, poisoning by, 242. 
Cocci or micrococci, 256. 
Colon, the, 40. 
Comma bacillus, 180, 183. 
Contents, Table of, vii. 
Cornea, the, 72. 

Craigie, Dr., on alcoholism, 221. 
Cranium, the, 29. 
Crypts of Lieberkuhn, 38. 
Cuticle, 20, 21. 
Cutis, 20. 

d'Arsonval, Dr., experiments of, 282. 
Davaine, discoveries of, 254. 
Septicaemia, on, 187, 

Death: its modes, signs and changes, 

Cessation of respiration, 120. 

Cessation of the heart's action, 119. 

Cooling of the body, 121. 

Hypostasis, 121. 

Modes of, 119. 

Post-mortem staining, 121. 

Putrefaction, 123. 

Rigor mortis, 122. 

Signs of, 119. 

Syncope, asphyxia and trance, 119. 
De la Croix on antiseptics, 269. 
Derma, 20. 

Diaphragm, the, 18, 51. 
Digestion, the organs of, 33. 
Diphtheria, 260. 

Antitoxin, 260. 
Diploe, 9. 
Directions for restoring the apparently 

dead, 282. 
Discoloration, 150. 

Biliverdin, caused by, 152. 

Brownish or greenish spots, 151. 

Bruised and other spots, 151. 

Congestion of the peripheral veins, 151. 

Hypostasis, 121. 

Post mortem staining, 121. 
Diseases, description and treatment, 169. 

Accidents, railroad and other, 237. 

Air passages and chest, other diseases of, 

Albuminuria— Bright's disease, 211. 

Alcoholism, 220. 

Alimentary canal, other diseases of, 210. 

Apoplexy, 219. 

Appendicitis, 208. 

Asiatic cholera, 180. 

Asphyxia, 239. 

Bladder, diseases of, 213. 

Bright's disease— albuminuria, 211. 

Bronchitis, 205. 

Cancer, 231. 

Cellulitis, cellular or diffuse, 192. 

Cerebro-spinal meningitis, 185. 

Child bed or puerperal fever, 191. 

Cholera, Asiatic, 180. 

Cholera infantum, 186. 

Cholera morbus, or sporadic, 209. 

Chronic pleurisy, 202. 

Colitis, 210. 

Condition and treatment of mother and 
foetus, 233. 

Constipation, obstinate, 206. 

Consumption — tuberculosis, 178. 

Delirium tremens, 223. 

Diabetes— sugar in the urine, 212. 

Diphtheria, 174. 

Dropsy, 225. 

Drowned cases, 235. 
" Floater," treatment of a, 235. 

Dysentery— flux, 207. 

Electricity, lightning and, 237. 

Empyaemia, 202. 

Enteritis, 210. 

Entero-colitis, 210. 

Erysipelas, 192. 
Cellulo-cutaneous, 192. 
Cutaneous, 192. 

Flux— Dysentery, 207. 

Gangrene, 195. 

Gangrene of the lungs, 201. 

Gastritis, 210, 



Diseases, description and treatment— ConVd. 
Gunshot wounds, 238. 
Heart, valvular diseases of, 204. 
Hernia, or rupture, 209. 
Inflammation of the 

Bowels, 210. 

Large intestine, 207. 

Kidney, 212. 

Pericardium, 203. 

Peritoneum, 190. 

Vermiform appendix, 208. 
Jaundice, 228. 
Laryngitis, 205. 

Lightning and electricity. 2-37. 
Lung fever, 198. 
Lungs, gangrene of, 201. 
Meningitis, cerehro-spinal, 185. 
Morphine or opium poisoning. 240. 
Mother and foetus, condition and treat- 
ment of. 233. 
Mutilation, cases of, 237. 
Nephritis — inflammation of kidney, 212. 
Obstinate constipation, 206. 
Opium or morphine poisoning, 240. 
Paralysis, 215. 

Hemiplegia, 217. 

Paraplegia. 216. 
Pericarditis, 203. 
Peritonitis, 190. 
Pluerisy— pleuritis, 202. 

Primary, 202. 

Purulent, 202. 

Suppurative or chronic, 202. 
Pleuritis, 202. 
Pneumonia — lung fever, 198. 

Acute or croupous, 198. 
Pneumo-pericarditis, 108. 
Poisonous gases, death caused by, 241. 

Carbonic acid. 241. 

Carbonic oxide, 242. 

Coal gas, 242. 
Post-mortem cases, 197. 
Puerperal or child bed fever, 191. 
Pyaemia, 189. 
Pyothorax, 202. 
Rheumatism, 229. 
Rupture, or hernia. 209. 
Scarlatina, 173. 
Scarlet fever, 173. 
Septica-mia. 187. 
Ship fever. 177. 
Smallpox, 172. 
Sporadic cholera. 209. 
Sunstroke, 194. 
Suppurative pleurisy, 202. 
Syphilis. 232. 

Tuberculosis— consumption . 178. 
Tumors, 230. 
Typhoid fever, 175. 
Typhus fever. 177. 
Yellow fever, 184. 
Trine, sugar in the, 212. 
Valvular diseases of the heart, 204. 
Diodorus on Egyptian methods, 87, 88, 90. 
Disinfection and its effects (after Sykes) 268. 
Practical directions for (after Stern 

berg) 274. 
Sanitation and. 245. 
Dowler, Dr., on yellow fever, 1S5. 
Drowned person, treatment for restoring 

a. 2X1. 
Drowning, asphyxia from, 281. 
Duct or ducts. 

Arteriosus, 71. 

Cystic. 41. 

Hepatic, 41, 

Pancreatic, 42. 

Rivinus, of, 33. 

Sterno's, 33. 

Thoracic, 43, 44. 

Wharton's, 33. 
Ductus communis choledochus, 39,41. 42. 4-">. 
Duodenum, 39. 

Ear, 74, 
External, 75. 
Internal. 76. 
Middle. 75. 
Eichhorst, Asiatic cholera case reported 

by. 181. 
Embalming, ancient and modern, 82. 
Ancient methods, 83. 
General remarks, 83. 
Early Christians, among. 99. 
Egyptians. 85. 
After sixth century, 94. 
Car tonnage, a, 91. 
Classes of, 93. 
Costs of, 91, 94. 
Mummies, pattern of, *7. 
Mummy wrappings. 91. 
Paraschistes, the, 88, 89. 
Sarcophagi, the, 91. 
Scribe, the, 88. 
Stranger, found dead, 94. 
Women of high rank, 91. 
Jewish, 94. 

Poor embalmed with bitumen, 96. 
Romans and other nations, of the. 97. 
Assyrians, the, 97. 
Babylonians, the, 97. 
Ethiopians, the, 97. 
Greeks, the, !»7. 
Guanches, the, ( .i7. 
Persians, the. ( .»7. 
Scythians, the, 97. 
Western hemisphere, on the, ON. 
Aztecs, the, 98. 

Indians. North American, 98. 
Chi nooks, 99. 
Dakotas, 99. 
Flatheads, 99. 
Florida, 99. 
Virginia, 99. 
Royal Incas, 98. 
Instruments, their use and care, 129. 
Modern methods of. 101. 
Baillic, Dr. Mathew. 104. 
Belgian, 108. 
Boudet, M.,104. 
Brooks, Joshua, 104. 
Brunetti, 108. 
Chaussier, Dr.. L06. 
England, hut little practiced in. ill. 
Ea 1 con v. M., 106. 
Franchini, M.. 104. 
Franclolla, i<>7. 
Gannal, Jean Nicholas, in."). 
German, no. 
Hunter. Dr. William, 102. 
Hunterian. 104. 
Hunter. John, 108. 
Ruysch, Dr. Frederic, 101, 
Sheldon. Dr., 104. 



Embalming, ancient and modern— ConVd. 
Modern methods of— Cont'd. 
Sucquet, M., 105. 
Tscheirnoff, Dr., 109. 
Up to date, 112. 
Introductory remarks, 112. 
Holmes, Dr. Thomas, " father of em- 
balming," 113. 
McCurdy, Prof. Chas. W., quotation 
from, 112. 
Preservation as a reason, 113. 
Sanitation as a reason, 111. 
Thorough embalmment, 114. 
Appearance of a body after thorough 

embalmment, 118. 
Condition, appearance and disease of 

the body, the, 114. 
To thoroughly embalm, 117. 
Embalming fluid, circulation of, 128. 
Endocardium, 51. 
Endosteum, 7. 
Epidermis, 20. 
Epiglottis, 47. 
Esophagus, the, 33, 36, 49. 
Eustachian tubes, 36, 75. 
Eye, 72. 
Chambers of, 72. 
Eyelids, the, 71. 
Iris, the, 73. 

Lachrymal gland, the, 74. 
Membranes, the, 72. 
Retina, the, 73. 
Eye process, the, 163. 

Falx Cerebri, 30, 31. 
Fasciae, 16. 

Deep, 16. 

Superficial, 16. 
Fauces, pillars of the, 33, 35. 
Ferrier, Dr., on asphyxia, 239. 
Fibers of Corti, 76. 
Fibrils (filaments), 15. 
Fibro-areolar tissue, 16, 20. 
Fibro-cartilage, 12. 
" Floater," treatment of a, 235. 
Fluid, embalming, circulation of, 128. 
Foetal circulation, 71. 
Fallopian tubes, the, 44. 
Follicles of Lieberkuhn, 38. 
Foramen magnum, to inject through the, 164. 
Fundus, the, 37. 

Gall bladder, 41, 43. 

Ganglions, 27, 29. 

Geppert, experiments of, 267. 

Germicidal and antiseptic value of various 

salts, 269. 
Gland or glands — 

Brunner's, 38, 40, 

Duodenal, 38. 

Lachrymal, 74. 

Liver, 40. 

Meibomian, 74. 

Salivary, 33, 34. 

Sebaceous, 22. 

Solitary, 38. 

Sublingual, 34. 

Submaxillary, 34. 

Sudoriferous, 22. 

Sweat, 22. 

Thyroid, 47. 

Glossary, 287. 

Glosso-epiglottic ligament, 35. 

Glottis, 47. 

Gryphrius, on ancient embalming, 88. 

Gullet, 36. 


Hair, the, 22. 

Follicles, 22. 
Haversian canals, 7. 
Heart and veins, valves of the, 147. 
Heart, the, 49, 50. 

Auricle, left, 52, 53, 71. 
Right, 52, 71. 

Blood, to remove from the, 144. 

Capacity, its, 52. 

Cavities, its, 51. 

Circulation not destroyed by tapping the. 

Description and location, 50. 

Ventricle, left, 51, 52, 53, 71. 
Right, 52, 53, 71. 

Weight and size, 51. 

Weight of, 77. 
Henle, first to teach doctrine of infection 

from bacteria, 254. 
Herodotus on Egyptian methods, 85, 86,88. 
History of bacteriology (after Abbott), 251. 
Hoffman, demonstrations of, 255. 
Howard's method of artificial respiration, 

Human body, the, 1. 


Ice mixture. 152. 
Formula, 152. 
Substitute, a, 152. 
Illustrations, List of, xix. 
Immunity to certain diseases, recent 
methods of giving, 257. 
Susceptibility and (to infection), 248. 
Index, General, 309. 
Infection, 247. 
Channels of, 247. 

Susceptibility and immunity, 248. 
Injection, arterial, 133. 
Arteries, the raising and injecting of, 134. 
Artery, selection of the, to be injected, 133. 
Blood, to remove the, 144. 

Basilic vein, to open the, 147. 

Circulation not destroyed by tapping 
the heart, 144. 

Femoral vein, if the, 148. 

Heart and veins, valves of the, 147. 

Jugular vein, internal, 148. 

Methods, 144. 

Proper time to withdraw, 148. 

To remove by the veins, 147. 

To remove from the heart, 144. 
Brachial artery and basilic vein, 135. 

Anatomical guide, 135. 

Linear guide, 135. 

Location, 135. 

To raise the, 136. 
Common carotid artery and internal 

jugular vein, 139. 

Anatomical guide, 140. 

Common carotid artery, 139. 

Linear guide, 140. 

To raise the, 140. 
Discoloration, 150. 

Biliverdin, caused by, 152. 

Brownish or greenish spots, 151. 



Injection, arterial— Cont'd. 
Discoloration— Cont'd. 

Bruised and other spots, 151. 

Congestion of the peripheral veins, 151. 

Treatment of, 151. 
Femoral artery and vein, 136. 

Anatomical guide, 139. 

Linear guide, 136. 

Location, 136. 

To raise the, 139. 
Ice mixture, 152. 

Formula, 152. 

Substitute, a, 152. 
Posterior tibial artery, 143. 

Location, 143. 

To raise the, 143. 
Radial artery, 140. 

To locate and raise the, 140. 
Second injection, 149. 
"Skin slip:" its causes and prevention. 

Formula and treatment, 150. 
To prevent slipping of the skin, 150. 
Injection, cavity, 155. 
Abdominal cavity, to inject the, 159. 

Stomach and intestines, to inject the. 
Gases and liquids, to remove, 160. 

Abdominal cavity, to remove gases from 
the, 160. 
To remove liquids from the, 160. 

Thoracic cavity, to remove gases from 
the, 160. 
Pleural cavities, to inject the, 156. 

Lung tissue, to inject the, 159. 
Thoracic cavity, the, 156. 

Pleurae, the. 156. 
Inject through the foramen magnum, to, 164. 
Instruments, embalming, 129. 
Aseptic, 130. 

Necessary for arterial work, 132. 
Number and quality, 181. 
Should be kept clean, 129. 
Should be sharp, 131. 
Should take just pride in his. 130. 
Sterilizing. 131. 

To remove rust from steel, 131. 
Used for cavity injection, 132. 
Intestines, 33,43. 
Large, 33, 39. 

Appendix vermiformis, 40, 44. 

Caecum. 39. 

Colon, 39, 40, 44. 

Rectum, 39,40. 

Sigmoid flexure, 40, 44. 
Small, 33, 38, 44. 

Duodenum, 39. 

Ileum. 39. 

Jejunum, 39. 

Jaws, 33, 36. 
Jejunum, 39. 
Jenner, discovery of, 250. 


Kidney, 44. 

Kitasato on antiseptics, 269. 

Klein, experiments of, 266. 

Koch, researches of, concerning Asiatic 
cholera, 180. 
Experiments upon anthrax spores, 265. 
Kiihne. on antiseptics, 269. 

Labyrinth, the, 76. 
Lacteals, the, 24. 
Lacunae, the, 7. 

Lambert, Dr. Alex., investigations on sun- 
stroke, 194. 
Larynx, the, 47. 
Leeuwenhoeck, Antony Van, discoveries 

of, 251. 
Lens, crystalline, 73. 
Lewis, Dr., investigations on sunstroke, 

Ligaments, the, 12, 13. 

Glosso-epiglottic, 35. 
Lightning stroke, treatment for, 282. 
Liver, the, 33, 40, 43. 
Lockjaw or tetanus, 262. 
Lodge, Dr. Oliver, observations of, 282. 
Lungs, the, 48, 71. 

Structure of the, 48. 
Lung tissue, to inject the, 159. 
Lunula, 23. 
Lymphatic glands, 24. 

Duct, 25. 

System, the, 24. 
Lymphatics, the, 24. 
Lymph, the, 24,25. 


Mastication, 35, 36. 

McCurdy, Prof. Chas. W., quotation from, 

Membrane, mucous. 33, 35, 44. 

Serous, 44. 
Mesenteries, 45. 
Mesos, or mesenteries, 45. 
Micrococcus or micrococci, 252, 256,270. 


Pneumoniae crouposse, 198, 199. 

Tetra genus, 271. 
Mills, Halford L., observations of, 111. 
Miquel on antiseptics, 269. 
Miscellaneous information, 285. 
Miscellany, general, 277. 
Morbid anatomy and treatment of special 

diseases (see also diseases), 169. 

Introductory remarks, 171. 

Accidental causes, death from, 235. 

Acute infectious diseases, 172. 

Air passages and chest, diseases of, 198. 

Alimentary canal, diseases affecting the, 

Blood, diseases affecting the, 187. 

Kidneys, diseases of the. 211. 

Nerves, diseases of the, 215. 

Special diseases, 220. 
Mouth, 33, 35, 46. 
Muscles. 14. 

Arrangement of, 16. 

Attachment of, 17. 
Insertion, 17. 
Origin, 17. 

Biceps. IS. 

Contractility of, 15. 

Development of. 19. 

Diaphragm, the, 18. 

Fascia-. 16. 

Kinds of, 17. 
Involuntary, 17. 
Voluntary. 17. 

Modification of. 16. 

Muscular sense, 19. 



Muscles— ConVd. 
Number, 15. 
Sartorius, 18. 
Sternocleidomastoid, 17. 
Tendons, the, 15. 
Wonders of, 18. 


Nails, the, 23. 

Necrosis. 195. 

Needham's doctrine of spontaneous genera- 
tion, 254. 

Needle processes, the, 163. 
Champion, the, 167. 
Eye process, the, 163. 

Foramen magnum, to inject through the, 

Nerve current, 27. 
Sensation, 27. 

Nerves, the, 27. 

Nervous system, the, 26. 
Tissue, 26. 

New York State Pathological Institute, in- 
vestigation concerning sunstroke, 194. 

Nicolaier's experiments with tetanus, 262. 

Nissen, experiments of, 270. 

Nose, 46, 76. 

Ogston, Dr., observations on alcholism, 221. 

Omentum or omenta, the, 44, 45. 

Organs of special senses, 72. 

Osteology, 5. 

Otoliths, 76. 

Ozanam on bacteriology, 253. 

Palate, hard and soft, 33. 
Pancreas, 33, 41, 43, 44. 
Papilla, or papilla?, 22, 35. 
Pasteur, discoveries of, 254, 255. 
Peacock, case of obstinate constipation re- 
ported by, 206. 
Pelvic cavity, the, 45. 
Pericardium, 51. 
Periosteum, 7. 
Peritoneal sacs, 44. 
Peritoneum, 44. 
Peyer's patches, 38. 
Pharynx, the, 33, 36, 46. 
Plenciz, observations of, 253. 
Pleura?, the, 49, 156. 
Pleural cavities, to inject the, 156. 

May be injected, the, 159. 
Plutarch on Egyptian methods, 92. 
Poisons or anaesthetics, asphyxia from, 281. 
Pollender, discoveries of, 254. 
Pons Variolii, 30, 31. 
Porphyry on Egyptian methods, 92. 
Portal system, the, 69. 
Post-mortem cases, 197. 

Wounds, 285 
Prevention of, 285. 
Poupart's ligament, 43. 
Practical directions for disinfection, 274. 
Preface, v. 

Prescott's " Conquest of Peru," from, 98. 
Preservation as a reason for embalming, 113. 
Prevention of post-mortem wounds, 285. 
Pulmonary circulation, 64. 

System (of veins), 69. 
Pyloric orifice, 37, 38. 
Pylorus, 37, 38. 

Questions for Review— Appendix, 317. 

Receptaculum chyli, 43. 
Rectum, the, 40. 
Respiration, the organs of, 46. 
Restore natural breathing, to, 282. 
Restoring the apparently dead, 282. 

Drowned persons, treatment for, 281. 
Resuscitation, 279. 
Definition, 279. 
Apparently dead, directions for restoring 

the, 282. 
Artificial respiration, Howard's method 

of, 279. 
Asphyxia, treatment for, 280. 
Breathing noxious gases, from, 280. 
Mechanical obstruction of the air pas- 
sages, from, 280. 
Poisons or anaesthetics, from, 281. 
Drowned person, treatment for restoring 
a, 281. 

Asphyxia from drowning, 281. 
Lightning strokes, treatment for, 282. 
Natural breathing has been restored, treat- 
ment after, 282. 

If from apoplexy or sunstroke, 284. 
Intense cold, 294. 
Intoxication, 284. 
To induce circulation and warmth, 284. 
Treatment for restoring, 282. 
Stimulants and food, 284. 
Syncope, treatment for, 279. 
Rete mucosum, 21. 
Retina, the, 72. 

Review, Questions for— Appendix, 317. 
Richardson, Dr. B. W., quotation from, 111. 
Roesch, Dr., on alcoholism, 220. 

Saliva, the, 35. 

Samazurier, obstinate constipation, 206. 

Sanitation and disinfection, 245. 

As a reason for embalming, 114. 
Schroder, experiments of, 255. 
Schulze, investigations of, 255. 
Schwann, experiments of, 255. 
Sebaceous glands, 22. 
Shipment, to bandage a body for, 286. 
Sinus or sinuses, 65. 

Cavernous, 66. 

Circular, 66. 

Coronary, 52. 

Lateral, 66. 

Longitudinal, inferior, 66. 
Superior, 66. 

Occipital, 66. 

Petrosal, inferior, 66. 
Superior, 66. 

Straight, 66. 

Transverse, 66. 
Skeleton, bones of the, 2. 

Analysis of the human, 3. 
Skin, the, 20, 21. 

Hair, 22. 

Nails, 23. 

Rete mucosum, 21. 

Structure of, 20, 



Lses of, 21. 

•■skin slip." 21. 
Smallpox, 257. 

Vaccination, 259. 

Treatment of, 172. 
Solar plexus, 48. 
Spallanzani, experiments of, 254. 
Special senses, organs of, 72. 
Spinal cord, 81. 
Spirillum or spirilli, 256. 

Cholera' Asiatic®, 180. 
Spleen, the, 83, 42, 48, 44. 
Sternberg, antiseptic and germicidal value 

of various sails (after), 269. 

Experiments concerning tetanus, 262. 

Infection, on, 247. 

Practical directions for disinfection, 271. j 
stilla, observations concerning Asiatic 

Cholera eases. 182. 
Stomach and intestines, to inject. 159. 
Stomach, the, 83, 37, 43. 
Streptococci, 193. 
Sudoriferous glands, 22. 

Sunstroke, latest discovery concerning, 194. 
Suprarenal capsules, the, 42. 
Susceptibility and immunity, 248. 
sweat glands, 22. 

Sykes, disinfection and its effects, 263. 
Sympathetic system, the, 28. 
Symphysis pubis, 10. 
Syncope, 119. 

Treatment tor, 279. 
Synovia. 18. 
synovial membrane, 8, 13, 75. 

Teeth, the, 33, 85. 
Tendons, the, 15. 
Tetanus, or Lockjaw, 262. 

Antitoxin, 262. 
Thoracic cavity, 156. 

To remove gases from the, 160. 
Thoracic duct. 25. 
Thymus. 42. 
Thyroid, 42. 
Tissue. 16. 

Fibro-areolar, 16. 

Tongue. 33, 35, 76. 

Touch. 76. 

Trachea, or windpipe, 47. 

Trance. 119. 

Tympanum, the, 75. 

Tyndall, Prof., investigations of, 256. 


Ureter, righl and left, 14. 
Uterus, 18, 14. 
Uvula, 88. 


Vaccination. 259. 

Van Geison, Dr. Ira T.. investigations on 

sunstroke. 194. 
Van Leeuwenhoeck, Antony, discover!) 

Vasa Vasorum, 55. 
Vein or vein.-. 50, 65. 

Auricula r. posterior, 66. 

Azygos, it. 49, 67. 

Left lower (minor), 67. 
Left upper (minimus), 67. 
Right (major), 67. 

Basilic, 18. 

Bronchial, 48, 49,67. 

Cardiac. 69. 

Cephalic, 67. 

Cerebral and cerebellar, 66. 

Piploe and cranium, of the, 66. 

Facial. M. 

Femoral, 18. 

Head, of the, 65. 

Hepatic, 69, 71. 

Iliac, 69. 
Common, 69. 
Internal. 68. 

Innominate. 68. 

Intercostal. 67. 

Jugular, anterior, 66. 
External, 66. 

Posterior, 66. 
Internal, 18, 66. 

Lower extremity, of the, 6S. 

Mammary, internal. 67. 

Maxillary, internal, 66. 

Median, 67. 

Mediastinal. 67. 

Mesenteric, 42. 

Neck, of the, 66. 

Occipital, 66. 

Pericardiac. 67. 

Portal, 88,45, 69. 

Portal system, ('.it. 

Pulmonary, 19, 69, 127. 

Radial. 67. 

Renal, left. 4£. 

Saphenous, external or short, 68. 
Internal or long. 68. 

Sinuses, the, 65. 

Spinal, 67. 

Splenic, 88, 42. 

Subclavian, 67. 

Superficial, 68. 

Supra renal. 42. 

Temporal, 66. 

Tern poro-maxilla ry . M. 

Thorax, of the. 67. 

Thyroid, inferior. 67. 

Upper extremities, of the. 66. 

Vena cava, inferior, 42. 18, 41. 52, 69. 
Superior. 52, 68. 

Venous valves, 65. 

Vertebral, 66. 
Venae comltes, 66. 
Venous valves, 65. 
Vermiform appendix, 10, 1 1. 
Vertebra?, 9. 
Vertebra] column. 19. 
Villus or villi. 24, 88. 
Visceral anatomy. 26. 
Von Dusch, experiments of, S 


Watson on septicaemia, 187. 
Windpipe, 47. 

Ver>in on antiseptics, 271. 


Thirteen Hundred Questions for Review. 

Note :_ These questions are intended for the use of the student in reviewing his studies. 
It is recommended that, after studying a chapter, answers he written to the questions as 
far as possible from memory. In this way, one's understanding of each subject will be 
tested and a better knowledge of the general theme acquired. 


CHAPTER I. — (1) How many bones in the skeleton? (2) How 
many bones in the head? (3) Name them. (4) How many in the 
trunk? (5) Name them. (6) How many in the limbs? (7) Name 
them. (8) How are the bones placed? (9) How classified? (10) 
How many long bones? (11) Short? (12) Flat? (13) Irregular? 
(14) What is the composition of bones at maturity? (15) In youth? 
(16) What is the structure of bones? (17) Describe fresh or living 
bones. (18) What is the outer covering called? (19) The inner? 
(20) What is the center? (21) What are the lacuna? (22) What is 
their use? (23) What are the large tubes called? (24) When does 
a bone structure reach its full development? (25) Why are bones not 
easily fractured in childhood? (26) How are joints divided? (27) 
What is the synovial membrane and its use? (28) How are broken 
bones repaired by nature? (29) Are the bones of the skull and face 
movable? (30) What is the layer between the two plates of the skull 
bones called? (31) How are the outer bones joined? (32) What do 
the skull bones form? (33) What is contained therein? (34) What 
does the trunk contain? (35) Of what does the spinal column consist? 
(36) What is the general form of a vertebra? (37) How does the 
skull articulate with the spine? (38) How many ribs? (39) What 
different kinds? (40) What by their form and arrangement do they 
afford? (41) What do the hip bones form? (42) Give a general 
description of the extremities. (43) What constitutes the shoulder? 
(44) Describe the clavicle, and give its articulations. (45) The 
scapula. (46) What kind of a joint is the shoulder joint? (47) 
Explain it. (48) Describe the bones of the arm. (49) The wrist. 
(50) The hand. (51) What is the longest, largest and strongest bone 
of the skeleton? (52) What is its articulation with the hip bone? (53) 



How is the knee joint strengthened? (54) Describe and give articula- 
tions of the tibia. (55) What is the general plan of the foot? (56) 
What are sesamoid bones? (57) Wormian bones? (58) What are 
the three classes of articulations? (59) What are the varieties of 
motion in joints? (60) What structures enter the formation of joints? 
(61) Describe permanent cartilage and its varieties. (62) Fibro- 
cartilage. (63) Synovial membrane. (64) What are ligaments? 

CHAPTER II.— (1) What are muscles? (2) How are they 
arranged in the limbs? (3) In the trunk? (4) What is their 
color? (5) Of what is muscle composed? (6) What does the micro- 
scope show? (7) How many muscles in the body? (8) What is 
contractility? (9) Give an illustration. (10) What are tendons? 

(11) The fascia?? (12) Describe the different kinds. (13) What is 
the general arrangement of muscles? (14) Give their different modi- 
fications. (15) The kinds of muscles. (16) What are voluntary mus- 
cles? (17) Involuntary? (18) How are muscles attached? (19) What 
is the origin of a muscle? (20) The insertion? (21) Describe the 
sterno-cleido-mastoid. (22) The biceps. (23) The sartorius. (24) 
What is the diaphragm? (25) How many openings has it and what 
are they? (26) Describe some of the wonders of the muscles. (27) What 
is muscular sense? (28) How can the muscles be developed? 

CHAPTER III.— (1) What is the skin? (2) The mucous membrane? 

(3) How many layers in the skin? (4) Name and describe. (5) Of 
what does the true skin consist? (6) The cuticle? (7) What is the 
rete mucosum? (8) What causes " skin slip?" (9) What are the uses 
of the skin? (10) Describe the sweat glands. (11) What is the 
hair? (12) The shaft? (13) Papilla? (14) What are the nails? (15) 
What is the matrix? (16) What are the lymphatics? (17) Their use? 
(18) Describe the lacteals. (19) What are the villi? (20) Lymphatic 
glands? (21) Thoracic duct? (22) Lymphatic duct? (23) Lymph? 

VISCERAL ANATOMY — (1) Of what does visceral anatomy treat? 
(2) What are the organs of these cavities called? 

CHAPTER IV. — (1) What docs thcnervous system include? (2) It 
is the medium of what? (3) Of what kinds of matter is it composed? 

(4) What different structures? (5) Describe each. (6) What are the 
nerves? (7) Ganglions? (8) What are the different kinds of nerve 
fibers? (9) Describe and explain the nerve current. (10) Name the 
nerve sensations. (11) What constitutes the sympathetic system? 

(12) Describe it. (13) What constitutes the cerebro-spinal sys- 
tem? (14) What is the brain? (15) Its weight in man? (16) In 
woman? (17) Give its membranes. (18) Into how manv portions is 
it divided? (19) Describe the cerebrum. (20) How divided? (21) 
How many lobes? (22) Of what is the cerebrum the center? (23) What 
happens when the cerebrum becomes seriously injured? (24) How is 


the cerebellum located? (25) It is the center for control of what? (26) 
Describe the medulla oblongata. (27) Its functions. (28) What will 
result from its destruction? (29) What nerves center therein? (30) De- 
scribe the spinal cord. (31) How many pairs of nerves does it give off? 
(32) Describe them. (33) Name the cranial nerves? 

CHAPTER V. — (1) Of what do the organs of digestion consist? (2) 
What takes place within them? (3) Why is digestion necessary? 
(4) Describe the alimentary canal. (5) Name its subdivisions. (6) 
The accessory organs. (7) Describe the mouth. (8) What takes 
place therein? (9) Name its contents. (10) Locate and describe the 
salivary glands. (11) What stimulates their action? (12) What fluid 
do they secrete? (13) What is its use? (14) Describe the tongue. 
(15) What gives it its roughness? (16) What is the use of the teeth? 
(17) Describe them. (18) Give number and division. (19) Describe 
the jaws. (20) What is the pharynx? (21) How located? (22) 
Name its openings. (23) What and where is the esophagus? (24) 
Describe the stomach. (25) What is its capacity? (26) What is its 
location? (27) Of what is its wall composed? (28) What takes place 
when food enters the stomach? (29) Describe the action of the stom- 
ach during digestion. (30) What becomes of the digested portion of 
food? (31) How long a time is required for stomach digestion? (32) 
What are the two ends called? (33) The openings? (34) What 
guards the lower opening? (35) What is the small intestine? (36) 
What is the food called when it enters the intestine? (37) What takes 
place therein? (38) What cover the interior membrane? (39) What 
are their use? (40) What coats has the small intestine? (41) What 
are contained in the mucous coat? (42) Name the subdivisions of the 
small intestine. (43) Why is the duodenum so called? (44) Describe 
it. (45) The jejunum. (46) The ileum. (47) The large intestine. 
(48) What is its chief office? (49) Name its subdivisions. (50) What 
is the cascum? (51) What guards the entrance of the small intestine? 
(52) What is the appendix vermiformis? (53) What is its use? (54) 
Into what parts is the colon divided? (55) Locate and describe each. 
(56) What is the sigmoid flexure? (57) What is the rectum? (58) 
Wherein does it differ from the other portions? (59) What is the 
liver? (60) Give its weight and size. (61) What is its principal use? 
(62) Into how many lobes is it divided? (63) Describe the gall blad- 
der. (64) What is its secretion? (65) What is the use of the bile? 
(66) What is the pancreas? (67) What its secretion? (68) How does 
the latter act? (69) Describe the location of the pancreas. (70) 
What is the use of the pancreatic duct? (71) What are the ductless 
glands? (72) Describe each. (73) What is the largest cavity of the 
body? (74) Locate it. (75) Give its contents. (76) How is it bounded? 
(77) How is the abdomen artificially divided? (78) Name the regions. 


(79) Name the contents of each in order. (80) Describe the perito- 
neum? (81) Peritoneal sacs. (82) Omenta. (83) Mesenteries. (84) 
What are the contents of the pelvic cavity? 

CHAPTER VI. — (1) Of what do the organs of respiration consist? 

(2) What is the respiratory tract? (3) Describe the nasal passages. 
(4) Why should you breathe through the nose? (5) What is the phar- 
ynx? (6) The larynx? (7) What are the cartilages of which it is 
composed? (8) What are the vocal cords? (9) The glottis? (10) 
The epiglottis? (11) The trachea? (12) What keeps it in shape 
during the act of breathing? (13) What are its divisions called? (14) 
What are the bronchial tubes? (15) The bronchioles? (10) Describe 
each. (17) What are the lungs? (18) What do they weigh? (19) 
What is the color of the lungs at birth? (20) What changes take 
place during life? (21) What is the structure of the lungs? (22) 
How are the lungs nourished and how supplied with blood for oxygen- 
ation? (23) Describe the pleura*. 

CHAPTER VII. — (1) How is the wearing away of the organs and 
tissues of the body constantlv being repaired? (2) How is this done? 

(3) What is circulation? (4) What are the organs of circulation? (5) 
How are the blood vessels divided? ((>) Describe the heart. (7) Give 
its location. (8) What is the pericardium? (9) The endocardium? 
(10) What is the heart's weight and size? (11) Name its cavities. 
(12) Is there any communication between the two halves? (13) Which 
is the venous side? (14) Into which cavity is the blood received? 
(15) What is its course thereafter? (16) What takes place in the 
lungs? (17) Where does the blood go from the left ventricle? (18) 
What is the heart's capacity? (19) How frequently does the pulse 
beat? (20) What is the weight of the blood in a body? (21) Describe 
the right auricle. (22) Right ventricle. (23) Left auricle. (24) Left 
ventricle. (25) What are the semi-lunar valves? (26) The mitral 
valve? (27) What is the blood? (28) What is its office? (29) Of 
what is it composed? (30) What is the plasma? (31) What is its use? 
(32) What do the red corpuscles contain? (33) What are their uses? 
(34) Give the course of the blood after leaving the heart. (35) What 
is its color while in the arteries? (36) What is its color on being 
returned to the heart? (37) What does arterial blood contain? (38) 
[mpure blood? (3D) What does the impure blood lose in |>assin<_r 
through the lungs? (40) What docs it take up? (41) What are the 
arteries? (12) Describe and give coats. (43) What accompany them? 

(44) How are the OUtei coats nourished? (45) What is collateral circu- 
lation? (46) TIow many kinds of circulation are there? (47) What 
arc they? ( 18) What is the main trunk of the systemic circulation? 
(49) Locate and describe. (50) How is it divided? (511 What 
arteries are given off from the arch? (52) The thoracic aorta? (53) 


The abdominal aorta? (54) What are the subdivisions of the coeliac 
axis? (55) Give location and use of the coronary arteries. (56) 
What are the location and subdivisions of the innominate? (57) De- 
scribe origin and course of the common carotid arteries. (58) What 
is the course and branches of the external carotid? (59) What do the 
branches supply? (60) Describe course of the internal carotid. (61) 
Name its branches. (62) What is the circle of Willis? (63) Describe 
origin and course of the subclavian. (64) Vertebral. (65) Internal 
mammary. (66) Of what is the axillary the continuation? (67) 
What do its branches supply? (68) Where does the brachial begin? 
(69) Into what does it divide? (70) Describe the radial. (71) Ulnar. 
(72) What is the superficial arch? (73) Deep palmar arch? (74) 
What is the course of the thoracic aorta? (75) Name its branches. 
(76) Give course and termination of the abdominal aorta. (77) Name 
its branches. (78) Give course and termination of the common iliacs. 
(79) Describe the internal iliac. (80) External iliac. (81) Describe 
branches of latter. (82) Give location and course of femoral. (83) 
Name its branches. (84) Locate and give divisions of the popliteal. 
(85) Describe the anterior tibial. (86) Dorsalis pedis. (87) Poste- 
rior tibial. (88) Internal and external plantar. (89) What kind of 
blood do the pulmonary arteries carry? (90) Describe them. (91) 
Describe the branches. (92) What are veins? (93) Name the coats. 
(94) What do veins carry? (95) What are the vena? comites? (96) 
How do veins anastomose? (97) What do the venous valves do? 
(98) What are sinuses? (99) Into what systems are veins divided? 
(100) What veins have no valves? (101) What are the principal veins 
of the head and neck? (102) Name and describe veins of neck drain- 
ing above. (103) Describe the veins of the upper extremities. (104) 
What are the principal veins of the thorax? (105) Describe them. 
(106) Describe the subclavian. (107) Innominate. (108) Superior 
vena cava. (109) Name and describe superficial veins of the lower 
extremities. (HO) Describe the common iliac. (HI) Inferior vena 
cava. (H2) What is the portal system? (113) Describe its veins. 
(114) What is the use of the pulmonary system? (H5) Describe 
the capillaries. (116) Where do they exist? (117) What is their 
use? (H8) What is the foetal circulation? (H9) Give course of 
the blood. (120) How does oxygenation of the blood take place in 
the foetus? (121) What is the difference in the heart before and after 
birth? (122) In the lungs? 

CHAPTER VIIL — (1) Describe and locate the eye. (2) What are 
its membranes? (3) Describe each. (4) What is the vitreous humor? 
(5) Describe and locate the crystalline lens. (6) The aqueous humor. 
(7) Describe the retina and its different parts. (8) Describe the 
iris. (9) How does light enter the eye? (10) How is the quantity of 
E.— 21 


light regulated? (11) What is the use of the pupil? (12) What de- 
termines the color of the eye? (13) Describe the eyelids. (14) Eye- 
lashes. (15) What is the use of the substance secreted by the 
Meibomian glands? (16) Describe the lachrymal glands. (17) 
What is the use of tears? (18) How is the surplus disposed of? (19) 
Of what is the ear the organ? (20) Of what parts does it consist? 
(21) Describe the external ear. (22) What is the auditory canal? 
(23) The drum? (24) How is it kept soft and elastic? (25) Describe 
the middle ear. (26) The bones of the ear. (27) How are they at- 
tached? (28) What separates the middle and internal ear? (29) 
Describe the eustachian tube. (30) The internal ear. (31) The laby- 
rinth. (32) Name contents of latter. (33) Describe the nose. (34) 
Of what is the tongue the organ? (35) What other " special sense?" 
CHAPTER IX. (1 ) Name weight of the principal parts of a body. 
(2) What is the chief constituent? (3) What percentage does it 
form? (4) Name the other constituents in order. (5) Name their 
gaseous constituents. (6) Give percentage of the ultimate elements. 

(7) What is the percentage of gaseous and what of solid elements? 

(8) In what condition does the oxygen and hydrogen exist? (9) What 
is the daily loss in grains? (10) What are the daily gains? (11) How 
much food is required daily? (12) What is the rate of movement of blood 
in the great arteries? (13) Capillaries? (14) What time is required to 
make the entire circuit? (15) What is the vital capacity of the chest? 
(16) What quantity of air passes through the lungs daily? (17) What 
amount of oxygen is consumed in twenty-four hours? (18) Amount 
of carbonic gas produced? 


CHAPTER X. — (1) What people first embalmed its dead so far as 
history gives us knowledge? (2) What reasons probably led to this 
disposition? (3) What part did religion play? (4) To what fraternity 
did their embalmers probably belong? (5) What was first done with 
the body after death? (0) How was the style of preparation decided? 
(7) What different methods for removing the brain are mentioned? (8) 
What was the duty of the scribe? (9) The paraschistes? (10) What 
instrument did the latter use? (11) What followed the completion of 
his work? (12) Describe the knife used. (13) Was the pursuit of the 
paraschistes a religious formality? (14) What viscera were removed? 
(15) What not? (IT)) What was done with the entrails? (17) How 
was the cavity cleansed? (18) What was afterwards done with the 
entrails? (19) With what was the body anointed? (20) How was 
the body swathed? (21) How was the body of a Tharoah or other 
sacred person treated? (22) What was the cost of the most magnifi- 
cent styles of embalming? (23) Describe the cartonnage and other 


cases. (24) How were they ornamented? (25) What kinds of sarco- 
phagi were used? (26) How were the intestines finally disposed of? 
(27) Into what two classes was Egyptian Embalming divided? (28) 
Describe each. (29) Describe the intermediate grade. (30) What 
was the cost? (31) What was done with the body of a stranger? 
(32) When did embalming cease in Egypt? (33) Describe the Jewish 
methods. (34) How were the poor embalmed? (35) How did the 
Romans embalm? (36) Babylonians? (37) Ethiopians? (38) What 
other nations practiced the art? (39) How about the Guanches? (40) 
Ancient Peruvians? (41) Aztecs? (42) Early North American 
Indians? (43) Why was embalming discontinued by early Christians? 

CHAPTER XL — (1) What progress has been made in embalming 
during the present century? (2) Who was Dr. Frederic Ruysch? 
(3) Explain his method. (4) What about its success? (5) Who was 
Dr. Wm. Hunter? (6) Give his method. (7) What happened at the 
end of four years? (8) Tell about John Hunter. (9) Where are the 
most perfect specimens of modern embalming to be found? (10) Who 
followed in the practice of the Hunterian methods? (11) Give the 
modifications of each. (12) Explain M. Boudet's process. (13) M. 
Franchini's. (14) Who was Jean Nicholas Gannal? (15) Give his 
various methods. (16) What about his secret formula? (17) Of what 
did his prohibited solution consist? (18) What was M. Sucquet's suc- 
cessful method? (19) Name the preparations used by MM. Sucquet, 
Gannal and Dupre in their contest. (20) Explain M. Falcony's de- 
siccatory process. (21) What was Dr. Chaussier's method? (22) Give 
Franciolla's formula. (23) Describe his practice. (24) What was 
Brunetti's method? (25) The method in vogue in Belgium? (26) 
How did Dr. Tscheirnoff treat the abdominal and thoracic cavities and 
viscera? (27) How the skull and brain? (28) What preparations 
were used? (29) What was the Florentine process? (30) The Ger- 
man method? (31) Is embalming much practiced in England to-day? 

CHAPTER XII. — (1) How do the methods of to-day compare 
with those of three hundred years ago? (2) Quote the substance of 
Dr. McCurdy's opinion. (3) Who is called the "father of embalm- 
ing " in this country? (4) What are the chief reasons for embalming? 
(5) Why is preservation of the body for a time desired? (6) Why 
should sanitation be the chief reason for embalming? (7) What should 
health boards do? (8) How may contagion be spread if thorough 
embalming is not practiced? (9) What should be considered before 
commencing the operation of embalming? (10) How soon after death 
should the operation be commenced? (H) What are the different 
steps in brief? (12) What should be done to thoroughly embalm? 
(13) Should blood be withdrawn? (14) How treat the cavities? 
(15) Should both arterial and cavity injection be practiced at the same 


time? (10) What is the appearance of the body after thorough em- 
balmment? (17) What do the changes which take place indicate? 
(18) In what class of cases is more than one injection necessary? 

CHAPTER XIIL— (1) What are the two chief modes of death? 
(2) What is usually described as the third? (3) Is it always easy to 
determine when life is extinct? (4) What conditions resemble those 
of death? (5) What is the most reliable sign of death? (0) How is 
this proof secured? (7) What is the test of a tight ligature on a 
finger or toe? (8) What are the tests to determine if respiration has 
ceased? (9) Explain condition of the body if death is really present. 

(10) How about the cooling of the body? (11) What is hypostasis? 
(12) Post-mortem staining? (13) Rigor mortis? (14) Does rigor 
mortis always take place after death? (15) How long does it last in 
different cases? (1(3) What causes putrefaction? (17) What are the 
first indications? (18) What happens in the course of time? (19) 
What accompanies the process of putrefaction? (20) How long does 
it take for a body to decompose? (21) What conditions of tempera- 
ture modify the time? (22) What tissues are the last to putrefy? 

CHAPTER XIV.— (1) What are the nutrient fluids of the body? 
(2) Which is the most important to the embalmer? (3) What pre- 
vents its entire removal? (4) What is the color of blood when pure? 
(5) When impure? (6) What are its constituents? (7) Describe 
the red corpuscles. (8) White corpuscles. (9) What happens to 
the blood after death? (10) How soon after death does it coagulate? 

(11) Where is the blood found chiefly after death? (12) Why? (13) 
Where are coagula found? (14) What is the condition in the capilla- 
ries and small veins? (15) Where does the blood gravitate? (10) 
What prevents or retards coagulation? (17) Why should blood be 
quickly removed? (18) What is the proportion of the blood to the 
weight of the entire body? (19) What is its weight? (20) What 
is necessary to a good understanding of the circulation of blood? 
(21) What vessels carry blood away from the heart? (22) What to 
the heart? (23) What arteries carry venous blood? (24) What 
veins carry arterial blood? (25) What is this last circulation called? 
(26) Describe course of the blood in the systemic circulation. (27) 
Why are the arteries found empty? (28) What portions first lose 
irritability? (29) How long does this rigidity continue? (30) Is the 
caliber of the arteries affected by their contraction? (31) Does this 
contraction affect the flow of fluid? (32) Is the circulation of fluid 
exactly the same as that of the blood? (33) Does it ordinarily pass 
into the heart? (34) Why not? (35) Will it if a needle process is 
used? (30) Describe the course of the fluid if the right brachial 
artery is injected. (37) What part of the system does it reach last? 

CHAPTER XV. — (1) What has the development of embalming 


brought into existence? (2) What about the latitude in selection of 
instruments? (3) How may one's ability as an embalmer be judged? 
(4) Why should instruments be kept clean? (5) What often results 
from handling filthy instruments? (6) What class of disorders espe- 
cially results? (7) Why should aseptic instruments be used? (8) De- 
fine aseptic. (9) What kind of instruments are aseptic? (10) Are 
they more costly? (H) I n what does the progressive physician espe- 
cially pride himself? (12) Should the embalmer likewise? (13) 
Should his instruments be on a plane with his other paraphernalia? 
(14) What is sterilizing instruments? (15) Give the formula. (16) 
Give process for removing rust from steel instruments. (17) Why 
should instruments be kept sharp? (18) What about the number and 
quality of instruments to be possessed? (19) What instruments are 
necessary for arterial work? (20) For cavity injection? 

CHAPTER XVI. — (1) What arteries should be selected for injection 
in a male subject? (2) Why should the femorals be avoided in a female 
subject? (3) Why is it generally best to avoid the common carotids? 
(4) Why is the left brachial preferred to the right? (5) How proceed 
if it becomes necessary to raise the femoral in the female? (6) What 
artery should be used in either sex when the body is dressed? (7) 
What should the embalmer be acquainted with to raise an artery? 
(8) What are found in the same sheath with the artery? (9) Describe 
the appearance and condition of the artery. (10) Vein. (11) Nerve. 
(12) What arteries are usually selected? (13) How should the 
incision be made? (14) How the dissection? (15) How should the 
wall of the artery be incised? (16) In which direction should the 
arterial tube be inserted? (17) What is the next step? (18) What 
is the distal end of an artery? (19) Proximal end? (20) What 
should be done if fluid appears at the distal end? (21) What if it does 
not? (22) How much time should be taken? (23) What may 
happen from rapid or careless work? (24) Give the location of the 
brachial artery and basilic vein. (25) How may the brachial 
artery vary from its regular course? (26) How may it divide? 
(27) What is the linear guide? (28) Anatomical guide? (29) 
On what muscle does it border? (30) What other muscle forms a 
part of the groove in which it lies? (31) What is its covering? (32) 
How should the arm be held? (33) Where should the incision be 
made? (34) Give relative situation of artery, vein and nerve. (35) 
What is done if blood is to be removed? (36) Give the full opera- 
tion. (37) How much fluid should be injected? (38) Where is the 
femoral artery situated? (39) Between what points does it extend? 
(40) Give linear guide. (41) Anatomical guide. (42) On what 
muscle does it border? (43) Through what does the artery pass in 
the upper part of its course? (44) How is Scarpa's triangle bounded? 


(45) Where should the incision be made to raise the artery or vein? 

(46) How make the dissection? (47) What should be done if blood 
is to be withdrawn? (48) What is the next step? (49) What should 
be done if another injection may be necessary? (50) What if not? 
(51) Has the common carotid any advantage over other arteries? (52) 
Where is it situated? (53) Between what points does it extend? 
(54) What is likely to result in raising" it? (55) How may this be 
somewhat modified? (56) When should it be used? (57) What is 
the linear guide? (58) Anatomical guide? (59) Along what muscle 
is it located? (60) Where should the incision be commenced to raise 
the artery and internal jugular vein, and how long continued? (61) 
What results from inserting a drainage tube into the vein? (62 ) Give the 
process for raising, incising and injecting the artery. (63) What is the 
advantage in selecting the radial artery? (64) What point is usually 
selected for raising it? (65) How is it situated at this point? (66) 
What length incision should be made? (67) Can it be raised higher 
up? (68) How is it there situated? (69) Describe the process. 
(70) What should be done with the wrist? (71) What should be 
done after sufficient fluid has been injected? (72) Where is the 
tibial artery located? (73) It extends between what points? (74) 
Where should the incision be made to raise it? (75) Describe the 
further process. (76) How should the body be placed after the 
injection is completed? (77) Why? (78) Why should the blood be 
removed? (79) What are the different methods for removing it? 
(80) What is required to remove blood from the heart? (81) What 
should be the length, kind and condition of the needle? (82) Where 
should the needle be introduced? (83) In what direction pointed? 
(84) To what depth inserted? (85) What part of the heart will be 
entered? (86) What is the next step? (87) What should be the 
position of the body during the process? (88) Why? (89) What 
should be done to remove the blood from the lower extremities? (90) 
How is the vacuum in the heart filled? (91) Does tapping the heart 
destroy the circulation? (92) Why not? (93) What may result 
from the heart occupying an abnormal position or being diseased? 

(94) Do the valves of the heart and veins act after death as before? 

(95) What do they prevent? (96) Does fluid enter the left cavities 
of the heart? (97) Under what circumstances does it enter the 
right side? (98) How is the substance of the heart supplied? (90) 
What is required to remove blood by the veins? (100) Why is it 
best to select the vein accompanying the artery chosen for injection? 
(101) Explain the process if the basilic vein is chosen. (102) Femoral 
vein. (103) Internal jugular vein. (104) What caliber vein tube 
should be used in each case? (105) What should be done if the blood 
is coagulated or does not flow freely? (100) When is the proper time 


to remove the blood? (107) When is a second injection necessary? 
(108) What happens in the coarse of a day or two? (109) What is 
"skin slip?" (110) What causes it? (Ill) In what kind of 
diseases does it usually occur? (112) How is it disproved that 
some kinds of fluids produce "skin slip?" (113) How can "skin 
slip" be prevented? (114) What is the formula and treatment? (115) 
When clo discolorations take place? (H6) What cause them? 
(117) What may cause congestion of the head, neck and face? (118) 
What may result at the same time in the abdominal and thoracic 
cavities? (119) What treatment should be resorted to? (120) If not 
successful, what treatment should then be resorted to? (121) How 
remove "flushing of the face?" (122) Greenish or brownish spots? 
(123) Bruised and other spots? (124) When does discoloration by 
biliverdin take place? (125) How caused? (126) Can it be 
removed? (127) Should bleachers and fluids be used on the face? 
(128) What is the formula for the ice mixture? (129) How should it 
be applied and for how long? (130) What substitute can be used? 

CHAPTER XVII. — (1) Can cavity injection alone be relied upon? 
(2) Why not? (3) Should it be used as an auxiliary to arterial in- 
jection? (4) Bound the chest. (5) Into how many cavities is it 
divided? (6) And by what organs? (7) What are the contents? 

(8) What are the pleurae? (9) Describe them. (10) At what point 
should the trocar be introduced to inject the pleural cavities? (11) 
How proceed? (12) How can both cavities be injected from the 
same point? (13) How much fluid may be injected? (14) What 
kind of a trocar should be used? (15) At what other point may the 
injection be made? (16) How may the lung tissue be injected? 

(17) What should be done in all cases of consumption and lung fever? 

(18) At what point should the needle be inserted to inject the abdom- 
inal cavity? (19) How much fluid should be used? (20) How 
inject the stomach and intestines? (21) How proceed to remove 
gases from the thoracic cavity? (22) From the abdominal cavity? 
(23) How proceed to remove liquids from the abdominal cavity? 

CHAPTER XVIII.— (1) Who first introduced the needle process 
into this country, and when? (2) What is the method? (3) By 
what name is it known? (4) Explain the operation. (5) What 
should be the position of the body? (6) How begin the injection? 
(7) What is the objection to this method? (8) What may result? 

(9) Is this result serious? (10) How may it be prevented? (11) 
How proceed to inject through the foramen magnum? (12) Has 
this operation any advantages over other needle processes? (13) 
What needle process is attended with the least danger? (14) What 
is the Champion Needle Process? (15) Describe the operation. 
(16) What should be the position of the body? (17) How does 


the fluid enter the vascular system by this process? (18) Where 
does the fluid reach first, and how is it distributed? (19) Should 
this method take the place of arterial embalming? (20) When is its 
use recommended? (21) How can the skull be quickly drilled? 


INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.— (1) Are the morbid changes which 
take place in the body after death generally known by the embalmer? 
(2) How about his knowledge of the condition of the visceral organs 
and tissues? (3) What is very essential? (4) Define Morbid Anat- 
omy. (5) What is shown by Part Third? 

CHAPTER XIX. — (1) What class of diseases are treated in this 
chapter? (2) What is smallpox, and how produced? (3) What is 
the morbid anatomy? (4) Should such cases be injected? (5) Why? 
(6) How may an epidemic be caused in after years? (7) How should 
the body be prepared? (8) Should this method be observed in all 
cases of contagious diseases? (9) What is scarlatina? (10) What 
should be the treatment? (11) How is diphtheria caused? (12) 
Where is it most prevalent? (13) What are the morbid character- 
istics? (14) What the treatment? (15) What is the origin of typhus 
fever? (16) What is the morbid condition when death occurs early 
in the disease? (17) What if later? (18) What complications may 
there be? (19) What part of the body do the typhoid bacilli espe- 
cially attack? (20) What are other morbid conditions? (21) What 
should be the treatment? (22) What when death occurs later? 
(23) Should the treatment be very thorough? (24) Why? (25) 
What is typhus fever? (26) Why called ship fever? (27) What 
bacilli are peculiar to this disease? (28) What are the morbid ap- 
pearances? (29) What is the treatment? (30) What is tuberculo- 
sis? (31) To what due? (32) What are the morbid changes? (33) 
What may be the condition of the lungs? (34) What complications 
may attend the disease? (35) What should be the treatment? (36) 
What bacteria produces Asiatic cholera? (37) Who first made the 
discovery, and when? (38) How may the disease be communicated? 
(39) What are the morbid appearances? (40) What about muscular 
contraction? (41) Describe the case reported by Barlow. (42) What 
is the color of the peritoneal coat? (43) Where are the comma bacilli 
found? (44) Describe the treatment. (45) Why is yellow fever so 
called? (46) In what localities is it most prevalent? (47) What 
will arrest it? (48) What are the morbid ap pea rances? (49) De- 
scribe the case reported by Dr. Dowler. (50) What treatment should 
be followed? (51) To what is cerebro-spinal meningitis due? (52) 
What is the morbid anatomy? (53) The treatment? (54) To what 
age is cholera infantum peculiar? (55) Give the post-mortem anatomy. 


(56) The treatment. (57) What process of injection is recom- 

CHAPTER XX. — (1) What class of diseases is treated in this chap- 
ter? (2) Septicaemia usually follows what? (3) What is the mor- 
bid anatomy of this disease? (4) How does Davaine describe this 
disease? (5) What does Watson say of the disease? (6) What 
happens when septicaemia originates from an external wound? (7) 
What does microscopy show? (8) What is the treatment? (9) To 
what is pyaemia due? (10) From what does it result? (11) What 
is the external appearance of the body? (12) What is the condition 
if the disease has been protracted? (13) Describe other morbid con- 
ditions. (14) What should be the treatment? (15) What is peri- 
tonitis? (16) What is the post-mortem condition? (17) What 
diseases may be mistaken for peritonitis? (18) What is the treatment? 
(19) From what does puerpural or childbed fever usually result, and 
when? (20) What are always present? (21) What is the morbid 
anatomy? (22) Give the treatment in full. (23) Into what classes 
is erysipelas usually divided? (24) Describe the morbid conditions. 
(25) How is erysipelas spread? (26) In what may it result? (27) 
How should the body be treated? (28) What important discovery 
has recently been made concerning sunstroke? (29) What did the 
investigations show? (30) With what fluids of the body were 
experiments made? (31) What were the tests? (32) Give the 
anatomical characters. (33) The treatment. (34) What is gangrene? 
(35) What aged people does it attack? (36) Give the morbid 
anatomy. (37) How does decomposition proceed in a limb? (38) 
What should be the treatment? (39) How may ordinary post- 
mortem cases be sucessfully treated? (40) How if the body is to be 
shipped? (41) What should be done with cancerous tumors? 

CHAPTER XXI. — (1) What class of diseases is considered in this 
chapter? (2) What kind of a disease is pneumonia? (3) What ages 
are susceptible? (4) What bacteria is peculiar to it? (5) What is 
the morbid condition if death occurs early in the disease? (6) What 
is shown on section? (7) What is the condition during the stage of 
red hepatization? (8) What is shown on section? (9) What is the 
condition in the stage of gray hepatization? (10) What is shown on 
section? (11) Name other morbid characteristics. (12) Describe the 
full treatment. (13) What have some inexperienced embalmers 
advised to stop purging from the lungs and stomach? (14) Is such 
advice good? (15) What is gangrene of the lungs? (16) What is 
the treatment? (17) What is primary pleurisy? (18) What is 
the morbid anatomy? (19) What is purulent pleurisy? (20) What 
is it sometimes called? (21) What are the morbid characteristics? 
(22) Give the treatment. (23) What is pericarditis? (24) What 


is the morbid anatomy? (25) The threatment? (26) What is 
pneumo-pericarditis? (27) Give the treatment. (28) What is the 
morbid anatomy of valvular diseases of the heart? (29) How are the 
aortic and mitral valves affected? (30) When does enlargement of 
the heart occur? (31) What may result from disease of the aortic 
valves? (32) What other conditions follow? (33) Give treatment. 
(34) How should laryngitis, bronchitis, etc., be treated? 

CHAPTER XXII. — (1) What class of diseases is treated in this 
chapter? (2) What causes obstinate constipation? (3) Describe the 
morbid characteristics. (4) What may be found in the sigmoid flex- 
ure? (5) Of what is this fecal matter sometimes composed? (6) De- 
scribe the treatment. (7) What is dysentery? (8) Give the morbid 
characteristics. (9) The treatment. (10) What is appendicitis? (11) 
Where located? (12) Give morbid anatomy. (13) The treatment. 
(14) What morbid changes in hernia or rupture? (15) What is spo- 
radic cholera? (16) What are the morbid appearances? (17) The 
treatment? (18) Give morbid changes in gastritis, enteritis and similar 
diseases? (19) Cancer may involve what? (20) Give the treatment. 

CHAPTER XXIII. — (1) What are the diseases described in this 
chapter? (2) What are the different forms of Bright's disease? 
(3) What do we have as a result? (4) What are later changes? 

(5) What weight may the kidney attain? (6) What are other 
characteristics? (7) Give the treatment. (8) How should the body 
be handled if the skin is inclined to slip? (9) Describe nephitis. and 
give treatment. (10) What is diabetes? (11) Is it a disease of the 
kidneys? (12) What do these organs do? (13) Give anatomical 
characters? (14) Give the treatment. (15) Of what morbid conditions 
may the bladder be the seat? (16) Give the treatment. 

CHAPTER XXIV. (1) What diseases are described herein? (2) 
What is paralysis? (3) To what are the different forms of paralysis of 
common occurrence due? (4) What is a prominent feature of paraly- 
sis originating in one side of the brain? (5) What is this form called? 

(6) How is this paralysis of one side of the body caused? (7) What 
lesions give rise to hemiplegia first? (8) Second? (9) Third? (10) 
Fourth? (11) Fifth? (12) What is paraplegia? (13) To what 
form is the name paralytic stroke applied? (14) Which parts of the 
body are usually affected? (15) What are the special lesions causing 
hemiplegia? (16) From what may anaesthesia result? (17) Give the 
treatment in full. (18) At what age is there most liability to apoplexy? 
(19) Which sex is more subject to it? (20) What are the morbid 
characteristics? (21) What should be the treatment? 

CHAPTER XXV.— (1) What diseases are herein treated? (2) 
What is alcoholism? (3) What has resulted from the inquiries and 
pathological observations of Drs. Roesch and Ogston? (4) Give a 


summary of the results of their investigations. (5) What two orders of 
changes result from intemperance in use of alcoholic fluids? (6) What 
results when spirituous liquors are introduced into the stomach? (7) 
What follows? (8) Describe delirium tremens. (9) Give the treat- 
ment. (10) Of what is dropsy the result? (11) Name different 
varieties. (12) Give the morbid characteristics. (13) How about a 
case of general dropsy? (14) In treating, how should the body be 
placed? (15) What is the most common kind of dropsy? (16) How 
relieve the body of water? (17) What should be done when the in- 
testines and stomach are in a floating condition? (18) What should be 
the treatment when water is located in the limbs? (19) How proceed 
to remove it from the hands and arms? (20) From the lower limbs? 
(21) What about drawing blood? (22) When is a second injection 
necessary? (23) Is it necessary to open the body to remove water? 
(24) How proceed to remove water from the pleural cavities? (25) 
How from the face? (26) What is jaundice? (27) When does it 
occur? (28) What causes the peculiar color? (29) Give the treat- 
ment. (30) Does acute rheumatism often result in death? (31) To 
what are the immediately fatal cases usually due? (32) What inci- 
dental diseases are usually responsible for death? (33) What form of 
inflammations are complications of rheumatism? (34) Give the treat- 
ment. (35) What is meant by a tumor? (36) What size do cystic 
tumors of the ovary attain? (37) What about their walls? (38) The 
condition, color and quantity of the contents? (39) What are en- 
cysted tumors? (40) In treating, where introduce the trocar? (41) 
How proceed? (42) What should be done when the tumor is on 
the surface? (43) Is it necessary to remove tumors from the abdomen? 
(44) What are the different kinds of cancers? (45) What may be the 
condition of the surface of an external cancer? (46) When located 
on the face? (47) How should internal cancers be treated? (48) 
How treat external cancers when the skin is broken? (49) How pro- 
ceed if sloughing has resulted in destroying the features? (50) How 
treat the arteries and cavities? (51) What is syphilis? (52) What 
is the morbid anatomy? (53) How may the disease be spread? (54) 
What care should be taken in treating such cases? (55) Give the 
treatment. (56) On what does the condition of the child and sur- 
rounding tissues depend in the case of the death of the mother and 
foetus? (57) What are the morbid changes if death occurs early in 
pregnancy? (58) If at the full period? (59) Give treatment. 

CHAPTER XXVI. — (1) What class of deaths is considered in this 
chapter? (2) On what does the difficulties of a drowned case depend? 
(3) How treat if the body has been in the water twenty-four hours or 
less? (4) What is a "floater?" (5) How treat? (6) How much 
fluid can be injected? (7) How proceed if there is plenty of time for 


additional treatment? (8) What preparation should be used? (9) By 
what time will the body be in a satisfactory condition? (10) Can the 
peculiar discoloration existing in a floater be removed? (11) In deaths 
from lightning and electricity what does a post-mortem examination 
show? (12) What are some of the effects of electricity in passing 
through the body? (13) When does decomposition begin? (14) 
Describe the treatment. (15) What often results from railroad and 
other similar accidents? (16) How vary the treatment from the ordi- 
nary? (17) What should be used over the body and all mutilated 
parts? (18) What should be done with gashes and cuts? (19) 
Bruises and discolorations? (20) How treat a body when coapta- 
tion of the parts is impossible? (21) How proceed with gunshot 
wounds in the head? (22) What should be done when the fluid 
issues clear from the wound? (23) In what condition should the 
bodv be allowed to remain? (24) How should the wounds be pre- 
pared? (25) What is asphyxia? (26) What cause it? (27) What 
are the anatomical characters? (28) Describe the treatment. (29) 
Why is poisoning from opium and morphine frequent? (30) What 
are the post-mortem changes in such cases? (31) Outline the treat- 
ment. (32) Why does the inhaling of carbonic acid prove fatal 
sooner or later? (33) Where does it accumulate? (34) In what 
condition is it rapidly fatal? (35) What is the morbid condition? 
(36) The treatment ? (37) To what is death by charcoal fumes due? 
(38) Under what circumstances are such deaths liable to occur? (39) 
Give the morbid characteristics. (40) The treatment. (41) How does 
death by coal gas often occur? (42) What is noticeable on opening 
the body? (43) Other morbid characters? (44) Give treatment. 


CHAPTER XXVII. -(1) What is the common mode of infection in 
tatanus. erysipelas, hospital gangrene, etc.? (2) How may tubercu- 
losis be transmitted? (3) May infection occur through the unbroken 
skin? (4) Through the mucous membrane of the respiratory organs? 
(5) How did Buchner demonstrate this? (6) What was the result of 
his experiments? (7) How was it proven that infection did not occur 
through the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal? (8) How 
else was it demonstrated that infection occurred through the lungs? 
(9) What is said about the susceptibility of single species of bacteria 
and the immunity from such pathogenic action possessed by other ani- 
mals? (10) What has been demonstrated as to single infections dis- 
eases prevailing only or principally among a certain species of animals? 
(11) What diseases are exampled as confined to man and what to the 
Lower animals? (12) May susceptibility and immunity be a family or 
race characteristic? (13) Give illustrations. (11) What does a 


sincrle attack of an infectious disease in man usually confer? 
(15) Of what diseases is this true? (16) Name the diseases in which 
second attacks not infrequently occur. (17) How about such diseases 
as diphtheria, erysipelas and gonorrhea? (18) In what class should 
croupous pneumonia be placed? (19) In what localized infectious 
diseases does one attack give immunity? (20) Into what two classes 
may infectious diseases be divided? (21) How about eruptive fevers 
and specific, febrile, infectious diseases generally? (22) Do second 
attacks of smallpox and scarlet and yellow fever ever occur? (23) 
What ultimately occurs in such diseases as gonorrhea and ery- 
sipelas? (24) Do second attacks of diphtheria, cholera and epidemic 
influenza ever occur in the same epidemic? (25) What immunity does 
a mild attack of smallpox, scarlet fever, yellow fever, etc., give? 

CHAPTER XXVIIL— (1) Who gave birth to the study of bacteri- 
ology? (2) In what year? (3) What progress has been made in 
this line during the past twenty years? (4) For how long a time was it 
developing? (5) To what does modern hygiene owe much of its 
value? (6) Give a sketch of Leeuwenhoeck. (7) How did he make 
his discoveries? (8) What important fact did he publish in 1675? 
(9) What did his continued research discover in various other mate- 
rials? (10) In what substances did he discover these organisms? 

(11) What of his discovery in tartar scraped from between the teeth? 

(12) To whom and when did he contribute this discovery? (13) 
What is the particular importance of this paper? (14) What did he 
see everywhere distributed through the material he was examining? 
(15) Was his work speculative or objective? (16) Did Plenciz con- 
firm Leeuwenhoeck's discoveries? (17) What relationship did he 
find between the micro-organisms discovered by Leeuwenhoeck and 
infectious diseases? (18) What did he claim infection to be? (19) 
How did he explain the variations in the incubation period of differ- 
ent infectious diseases? (20) What did he believe as to the multipli- 
cation of these micro-organisms in the human body? (21) What of 
their transmission through the air? (22) What did he teach as to a 
special germ for each disease? (23) What law did he formulate as 
to decomposition? (24) How were his arguments considered? (25) 
How did Ozanam express himself in 1820? (26) What w T ere the 
opinions of many other medical men during this time? (27) When 
was the true relation of the lower organisms to infectious diseases 
scientifically established? (28) How? (29) What discoveries es- 
pecially aroused attention to the question of animal contagion? (30) 
Who first logically taught the doctrine of infection? (31) What 
principal point occupied the attention of scientists up to this time? 
(32) What did one side claim? (33) What doctrine did Needham 
hold in 1749? (34) What was his experiment with a grain of barley? 


(35) What did Spallanzani demonstrate in 1769? (36) What objec- 
tions were raised to this method? (37) How did Spallanzani meet 
these? (38) Was much advance made up to 183()? (39) Who 
then called renewed attention to the subject by his investigations? 
(40) What were his experiments? (41) How did Schwann in the 
following' year rob air of its organisms? (42) What were the meth- 
ods of Schroder and Von Dusch? (43) What did Hoffman in I860 
and Pasteur in 1801 demonstrate? (44) Was the theory of spontane- 
ous generation still held? (45) Whose investigations finally dis- 
proved this theory? (46) What did Prof. Tyndall demonstrate? 
(47) What are the forms of bacteria? (48) How are they developed? 
(49) How grouped? (50) What are the divisional names? (51) 
What is the duration and vitality of spores? (52) How does the 
sporific state compare with the mature state? (53) What is the effect 
of drying or drowning on active microbes? (54) On spores? (55) 
Upon what fact does the importance of spore formation depend? (56) 
What facilitates their diffusion and the dissemination of diseases? 
(57) What is an antiseptic? (58) Its disinfective properties? 

CHAPTER XXIX. — (1) What may be said about the obscurity 
hanging over the cause of smallpox? (2) What is now the only source 
of the disease? (3) How is its poisonous material given out? (4) 
What does this material contain, and to what may they attach them- 
selves? (5) For how long a time do these stuffs retain the poison? 

(6) At what period is the poison generated by the patient's person? 

(7) When is this poison most powerful? (8) What of the dried crusts 
of the pustules? (9) What of the dead body of a variolated person? 
(10) What is the infectious distance around a patient's room? (11) 
How has the fact of the contagious nature of smallpox been fully 
demonstrated? (12) What is the singular law of the introduction of 
variolus poison by means of the cutaneous tissue? (13) What is the 
first cause which predisposes to smallpox, or increases the suscepti- 
bility of infection? (14) Second? (15) Third? (16) What arc Mid. 
persons called? (17) What is the fourth cause? (18) Fifth? (19) 
Sixth? (20) How about the prevalence and mortality of smallpox in 
recent years? (21) How may the danger be measured? (22) On 
what day does the greatest number die? (23) Wha1 is the influence 
of vaccination? (24) What is the first conclusion arrived at regarding 
vaccination? (25) The second? (26) Third? (27) Fourth? (28) 
Fifth? (29) Sixth? (30) Seventh? (31) Eighth? (32) Ninth? 
(33) What is diphtheria? (34) Bow produced? (35) Describe the 

disease. (36) With what view have bacteriologists studied the 
disease? (37) Have they discovered a preventative? (38) What is 

it? (39) What is the first deduction of \)r. Behring in summing up 
the blood serum theraputic method? (40) The second? (41) Third? 


(42) Fourth? (43) Fifth? (44) Sixth? (45) To what are the 
symptoms characterizing tetanus referable? (40) How has knowl- 
edge of the disease been increased? (47) What has been found 
to produce tetanus? (48) What experiments did Nicolaier make? 
(49) Sternberg? (50) Where is the tetanus bacillus found? (51) 
Does the use of tetanus antitoxin give immunity? (52) Is it also 

CHAPTER XXX. — (1) What does disinfection embrace in its pop- 
ular sense? (2) What substances are dealt with in the process of 
cleansing and purifying? (3) What physical means are applied to 
movable matters? (4) What is done with objects which are not re- 
movable? (5) Are these methods preferable to the use of chemicals? 
(6) Of what are decomposition and putrefaction the result? (7) 
What is given off during the transmutation? (8) What do deodor- 
ants do? (9) How is preservation against decomposition practiced? 
(10) What kind of antiseptics should be used? (11) What does this 
imply? (12) What does infection in its more restricted and accurate 
sense imply? (13) To what is disinfection applied in recognized in- 
fectious diseases? (14) What is the only means of judging whether 
destruction has been effectually accomplished? (15) Thus restricted, 
of what does the process of disinfection admit? (16) What are some 
of the physical means of disinfection? (17) Which are the most effi- 
cacious? (18) What may be said of chemical agents as disinfectants? 
(19) On what does the efficacy of a germicide depend? (20) Give 
the result of Koch's experiments upon anthrax spores. (21) Why are 
certain of these agents ruled out? (22) What ones remain? (23) 
Which is the most powerful disinfectant? (24) What did Koch find? 
(25) What was the result of his experiments with carbolic acid? (26) 
How are the halogens used? (27) Give Abbott's deductions? 

CHAPTER XXXI. — (1) What is the antiseptic and germicidal value 
of aluminum acetate? (2) Ammonium chlorid? (3) Calcium hypo- 
chlorite? (4) Cupri sulphate? (5) Ferrous sulphate? (6) Lead 
nitrate? (7) Manganese protochlorid? (8) Potassium arsenite? (9) 
Potassium bromide? (10) Potassium iodide? (11) Quinine sul- 
phate? (12) Sodium borate? (13) Sodium carbonate? (14) So- 
dium hyposulphite? (15) Tin Chlorid? (16) Zinc Chlorid? 

CHAPTER XXXII. — (1) What are the best agents for destroying 
spore containing infectious material? (2) For the destruction of mi- 
cro-organisms not containing spores? (3) For excrementitious matter 
in sick room? (4) In privy vaults? (5) For disinfection and deo- 
dorization of surface matter in water closets? (6) For clothing, bed- 
ding, etc.? (7) For outer garments of wool or silk? (8) For 
mattresses, blankets, and all bedding soiled by discharge of sick? (9) 
For furniture, etc.? (10) For the person? (11 ) For the dead? (12) 


For sick rooms? (13) What is a more desirable method? (14) What 
method for rags? (15) For disinfecting hands? 


CHAPTER XXXIIL— (1) Define resuscitation. (2) Into what 
two classes divided? (3) Give treatment for syncope. (4) What is 
to be done if natural breathing has not returned? (5) Give position 
of patient. (6) Position of operator. (7) Describe action of operator. 
(8) What does this method do? (9) How keep up temperature of body? 
(10) What stimulants should be used? (11) What should be treat- 
ment for asphyxia from breathing noxious gases? (12) For asphyxia 
from mechanical obstructions of air passages? (13) For asphyxia from 
poisons and anaesthetics? (14) What serious complications result from 
asphyxia from immersion in water? (15) In restoring a drowned person 
what should be position of patient? ( L6) Position and action of operator? 
(17) What are the first steps for restoring the apparently dead from 
drowning, etc.? (18) What points should be aimed at? (19) How 
long should these methods be persevered in? (20) Is a stroke ol 
lightning necessarily fatal? (21) What are the chances of the heart 
resuming its suspended action? (22) Does experience in this country 
justify the practice? (23) In treatment for restoring natural breath- 
ing what rule for maintaining free entrance of air into windpipe? 
(24) For adjusting patient's position? (25) For imitating movements 
of breathing? (26) For exciting inspiration? (27) In treatment aftei 
natural breathing has been restored what is the rule for inducing cir- 
culation and warmth? (28) If from intense cold? (29) If from in- 
toxication? (30) If from apoplexy or sunstroke? (31) How soon 
may alcoholic stimulants be given? 

CHAPTER XXXIV. — (1) What are post-mortem wounds? (2) 
When is the poison present in its most virulent form? (3) It is most 
marked when inoculation occurs from handling what kind of cases? 
(4) How does the poison act? (5) What serve as points of inocula- 
tion? (()) What should be done with the hands before beginning to 
operate on a dead body? (7) If the cuticle be denuded what should 
be done? (8) How is the Champion Hand Protector used? (9) How 
should the instruments be used? (1<>) If an accident should occur. 
what should be done? (11) If inoculation results from a wound what 
are the resulting conditions? (12) What should be done if these 
symptoms result? (13) When is the encasing of a body in bandages 
necessary? (14) Describe the method of bandaging in detail. 

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